What Questions Should I Ask My Doctor
You may want to ask your healthcare provider:
- What type of prostatitis do I have?
- What is the best treatment for this type of prostatitis?
- What are the treatment risks and side effects?
- How can I avoid getting prostatitis again?
- What type of follow-up care do I need after treatment?
- Should I look out for signs of complications?
A note from Cleveland Clinic
Prostatitis is a common problem that affects many men. Unfortunately, theres a lot of confusion about the disease. People use the word prostatitis to describe four different conditions. There isnt a one-size-fits-all treatment for prostatitis, which is why an accurate diagnosis is so important.
Chronic Prostatitis/chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome
Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome produces similar symptoms to the bacterial form of the condition, but its causes are unknown. It was previously called chronic nonbacterial prostatitis.
CP/CPPS is the more common type of chronic prostatitis. According to a 2016 study, CP/CPPS cases make up at least 90 percent of chronic prostatitis cases.
The symptoms of both the bacterial form of chronic prostatitis and CP/CPPS are very similar. They usually start out mild and build in intensity over time.
Seek medical attention if you have any of these symptoms. Your doctor can rule out serious conditions or help you get started on an appropriate therapy, if necessary.
Both types of chronic prostatitis have multiple possible causes.
Prostate Infection In Dogs : Causes Symptoms & Treatment
Author WDF Staff
Male dogs, like male humans, are prone to prostate problems. Prostatitis in dogs is not a common problem, but it can become a serious disease if left untreated. Prostatitis may also be a sign of another prostatic disease. If you’re concerned about your dog’s health, here are a few facts about prostatitis in dogs.
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Can Prostatitis In Dogs Be Prevented
Because prostatitis is uncommon in neutered dogs, neutering your male dog is the best way to prevent it. Prostatitis can be prevented if detected early, so take your dog to the vet if you notice anything is wrong. A routine rectal exam by your veterinarian may also detect prostate changes. Bring your dog to the vet for recommended physical exams, which should include a rectal examination.
How Will Your Doctor Diagnose A Prostate Infection
A prostate infection diagnosis is based on your medical history, a physical exam, and medical tests. Your doctor can also rule out other serious conditions such as prostate cancer during the exam. During a physical exam, your doctor will conduct a digital rectal exam to test your prostate and will look for:
- enlarged or tender lymph nodes in the groin
- swollen or tender scrotum
Your doctor may also ask about your symptoms, recent UTIs, and medications or supplements youre taking. Other medical tests that can help your diagnosis and treatment plan include:
- urinalysis or semen analysis, to look for infections
- a prostate biopsy or a blood test for prostate-specific antigen
- urodynamic tests, to see how your bladder and urethra store urine
- cystoscopy, to look inside the urethra and bladder for blockage
Your doctor may also order an ultrasound to get a closer look. The cause will help determine the correct course of treatment.
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Facts You Should Know About Prostate Infections
- Prostate infections comprise only small percentage of all men with prostatitis. This small percentage is comprised of acute and chronic prostatic infections.
- E. coli and other Gram-negative bacteria cause most acute and chronic prostatic infections.
- Prostatic infection symptoms include groin pain, dysuria, pain with ejaculation, reduced urine output and may include fever, malaise, and periodic recurrence of symptoms even after treatment.
- Seek medical care if symptoms develop, emergency care if fever or inability to urinate occurs.
- Diagnosis of prostate infections or prostatitis is made by identifying the agent infecting the prostate.
- Treatment of prostate infections or prostatitis is usually antibiotics chronic infectious prostatitis may require long-term antibiotic treatment, and severe infections may require hospitalization with IV antibiotics.
- Home care is limited to pain reduction. Men with a prostate infection or prostatitis need medical care.
- Follow-up is important to confirm adequate treatment results or to plan additional treatment if the infection reoccurs.
- Some prostate infections cannot be prevented, but reducing the risk of groin trauma or injury, avoiding sexually transmitted diseases, and staying well hydrated are ways to reduce the chance of getting infectious prostatitis.
- The prognosis of acute infectious prostatitis is usually good, but chronic infectious prostatitis is only fair because it is difficult to cure.
When To See A Healthcare Provider
You should see your healthcare provider when you have symptoms of prostatitis. Sometimes these symptoms can signal other more serious conditions, including prostate cancer. Getting treatment for prostatitis can help prevent complications, including sexual dysfunction and infertility.
You should immediately seek medical help if you are completely unable to urinate, have problems or pain while urinating, have a fever and/or chills, see blood in your urine, or have a lot of pain and discomfort in your urinary tract or lower abdomen.
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What If My Prostatitis Is Not Caused By Infection
Because we do not understand what causes prostatitis without infection, it can be hard to treat. Your doctor might try an antibiotic to treat a hidden infection. Other treatments are aimed at making you feel better. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines, such as ibuprofen or naproxen, and hot soaking baths may help you feel better. Some men get better by taking medicines that help the way the bladder or prostate gland work. These medicines include oxybutynin, doxazosin, prazosin, tamsulosin and terazosin.
Causes Of Chronic Prostatitis Or Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome
The true cause of chronic prostatitis is not known. Medical experts suspect any of the following causes that may vary depending on the individual:
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What Is The Treatment For Acute Prostatitis
- Antibiotics. A four-week course is needed. Antibiotics are generally started before the confirmatory urine test results are back. The first antibiotic may be changed after the result of the urine test is back. The urine test finds exactly which germ is causing the infection and the best antibiotic to treat it. Four weeks of antibiotics are thought to be necessary to reduce the chance that you develop persistent prostatitis. If you are very unwell, you may need to go into hospital to have the antibiotics given through a vein..
- Paracetamol or ibuprofen ease pain and high temperature . They are best taken regularly rather than now and then. Stronger painkillers are sometimes needed.
- Laxatives can keep your stools soft, if needed. They may help to ease pain if you have hard stools in your back passage , pressing on your infected prostate.
Who Is More Likely To Develop Prostatitis
The factors that affect a mans chances of developing prostatitis differ depending on the type.
Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Men with nerve damage in the lower urinary tract due to surgery or trauma may be more likely to develop chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Psychological stress may also increase a mans chances of developing the condition.
Acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Men with lower UTIs may be more likely to develop bacterial prostatitis. UTIs that recur or are difficult to treat may lead to chronic bacterial prostatitis.
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How Is A Prostate Infection Diagnosed
One simple diagnostic method for detecting prostatitis is a urine test.For this test, pathologists check for pathogens in urine collected before and after the prostate massaged.
A Doctor or urologist may also use the urodynamic test. Urodynamic tests are used to measure post-void residual urine. This is useful for measuring the ability to urinate and bladder emptying capabilities.
Urinary retention can cause prostatitis if the urine is infected with bacteria. Therefore, the inability to completely empty your bladder may lead to prostate infection.
Other tests analyze the chemical content of the urine sample or count the number of white blood cells in peripheral blood. Ultrasound and CT scans provide a visual image and a detailed structure of the prostate. A blood PSA test is another means of diagnosing prostatitis.
Chronic prostatitis may cause mild to moderate elevation of prostate-specific antigen . Thus, the elevation of PSA may be an indication of prostatitis in the absence of prostate cancer.
What Are The Treatment Options For Prostatitis
Some patients need high doses of antibiotics or do not respond at all . In non-bacterial chronic prostatitis, the most common type, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, alpha-blockers, and alternative remedies help relieve symptoms. The studies testing alternative treatments have reported promising results for these patients.
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How Is Prostate Infection Treated
Treatment depends on the type of prostatitis. Prostatitis is a treatable condition. Even if the problem cannot be cured, patients may usually get relief from their symptoms by following the recommended treatment.
Treatments include the following:
- Anti-inflammatory medicines such as ibuprofen or paracetmol
- Antibiotic medications may be initially started for 7-14 days however, they may be taken longer for severe conditions.
- Alpha-blocking agents may improve the urinary stream and often reduce the other voiding symptoms in patients with chronic prostatitis. Alpha-blocking agents include Flomax or Uroxatral for patients with voiding symptoms and those who do not empty their bladders well.
- Other treatments for severe noninfectious prostatitis include the drugsProscar , terazosin, and doxazosin. These drugs relax the muscles of the prostate and bladder to improve urine flow and reduce symptoms.
What Are The Complications Of Prostatitis
Men with acute bacterial prostatitis may develop . This widespread inflammation can be life-threatening. It requires immediate medical treatment.
Antibiotics can cause an upset stomach. Men with chronic bacterial prostatitis may need lots of antibiotics to treat recurring infections. Some people develop antibiotic resistance, making treatment ineffective.
Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis can lower sperm count, affecting fertility.
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Key Points About Prostatitis
- Prostatitis is inflammation of the prostate gland caused by infection. It can be one of several types.
- Prostatitis is not contagious and is not an STD.
- Any man can get prostatitis at any age. Symptoms of prostatitis may include urinating more often, burning or stinging during urination, pain during urination, and fever and chills. Your healthcare provider usually diagnoses prostatitis by your symptoms and by checking your urine and semen for signs of infection.
- Antibiotics are used to treat prostatitis. In rare cases, you may need surgery.
Diagnosing Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis
Your doctor will also perform a digital rectal exam to examine the prostate. During this test, they will insert a lubricated and gloved finger into your rectum to look for signs of infection, such as a soft or enlarged prostate.
Your doctor may also use the following tests and techniques:
Antibiotics are the main course of treatment for this condition. Theyre usually taken for 4 to 12 weeks. For many people, treatment will last for 6 weeks.
First-line treatment is typically a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, such as ciprofloxacin , ofloxacin, or levofloxacin.
However, fluoroquinolones can increase your risk for a ruptured Achilles tendon, which is why they are no longer considered a preferred treatment.
Other commonly prescribed antibiotics include:
- sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim , another first-line treatment
- tetracycline antibiotics, such as doxycycline or azithromycin
Tetracyclines are commonly used in cases where a doctor identifies or suspects chlamydia or mycoplasma genitalium. Like chlamydia, mycoplasma genitalium is an STI.
The antibiotic that youre prescribed will ultimately depend on which bacterium is causing your prostatitis.
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Types Of Prostatitis In Dogs
Canine prostatitis can be acute or chronic. Acute prostatitis appears suddenly, with your dog experiencing discomfort, pain, and fever. Dehydration, septicemia, and shock may occur in more severe cases of acute prostatitis in your dog. If your dog develops chronic prostatitis, that means the disease progresses slowly over time, making it difficult to detect symptoms. Recurrent urinary tract infections are the most common symptom of chronic prostatitis. The onset of symptoms and the rapidity with which they develop differ between acute and chronic prostatitis cases.
What Are The Common Symptoms Of Prostate Infection
There are four types of prostate infections. Each has its own symptoms:
Acute bacterial prostatitis: This kind of prostatitis is caused by an acute bacterial infection of the prostate. It is diagnosed by an increased presence of bacteria and white blood cells in the urine, semen, and prostatic secretion. Symptoms include:
- Pain in the area of the perineum, pelvis, and genitals
- Pain/burning with urination and ejaculation
- Symptoms of urinary tract obstruction such as frequent urination , urgency , hesitancy , weak stream, and incomplete voiding
- Lower back and/or lower abdominal pain
- Spontaneous urethral discharge, which is a fluid that is not urine or sperm but the product of an infected or irritated urethra
Severe bacterial prostatitis: Severe bacterial prostatitis is caused by recurring bacterial infection of the prostate the infection does not respond immediately to antibiotics and needs further treatment. Symptoms may be the same as acute bacterial prostatitis.
Severe nonbacterial prostatitis: It is also called chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Patients may exhibit the same symptoms like those of severe bacterial prostatitis, but no bacteria presence is detected in urine, semen, or prostate secretion. Chronic nonbacterial prostatitis is the most common type of prostatitis, but very little is understood about it.
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What Tests Diagnose Prostatitis What Are Prostate
Prostatitis is usually diagnosed by analyzing a urine sample and undergoing an examination of your prostate gland by your health care practitioner. This examination involves a digital rectal examination to palpate the prostate gland and feel for abnormalities of the gland. Occasionally, the physician may also collect and test a sample of the prostatic fluid.
Sometimes a prostate massage is performed to compare samples of the prostatic fluid both before and after this intervention has been performed. To perform this procedure, the doctor will stroke/massage the prostate gland during the digital rectal examination. Because there is the concern that this procedure can release bacteria into the bloodstream, this test is contraindicated in cases of acute bacterial prostatitis.
Additional tests that may be obtained include a complete blood count , an electrolyte panel, blood cultures, a swab of urethral discharge if present, and sometimes a prostate-specific antigen level. The PSA test, which is used as a screening test for prostate cancer, may also be elevated with prostatitis.
If recurring episodes of urinary tract infections and prostatitis occur, see your doctor for a more detailed evaluation of your genitourinary system for anatomic abnormalities, which may make you more prone to infections.
Prostate Infection: Causes And Symptoms
Inflammation of the prostate is known as prostatitis, and it is one of the most common urologic diseases in adult males.
It is estimated that 50% of men experience symptoms of prostatitis at some point during their lifetime.
You may have prostatitis if your prostate becomes inflamed, swollen and tender although its different from prostate cancer and an enlarged prostate.
It can present many symptoms that harm your well-being.
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Symptoms Of Acute Bacterial Prostatitis
Prostatitis can be caused by a bacterial infection, often Klebsiella or Escherichia bacteria from the colon. Bacterial infections should be treated promptly to avoid serious complications.
In addition to the common urinary symptoms, signs of bacterial prostatitis include:
Your healthcare provider may find your prostate is swollen and tender upon exam.
Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome
CPPS is the most common type of prostatitis around 19 out of every 20 men with prostatitis have it. You might also hear it called chronic non-bacterial prostatitis, chronic abacterial prostatitis or prostate pain syndrome. Chronic means long-lasting.
Men with CPPS usually have symptoms for three months or longer. Even after treatment, you may still have prostatitis for a long time. It might come and go, causing occasional episodes of severe pain, sometimes known as flare-ups.
What causes it?
Nobody knows for certain what causes CPPS. Unlike other types of prostatitis it isnt usually caused by a bacterial infection. There could be a number of causes, which makes it difficult to diagnose and treat.
There are also a number of things that might trigger it, including:
- urine getting into the prostate
- previous infections in or around the prostate
- an infection that doesnt show up in tests
- problems with nerves, so that they send pain signals to the brain even when theres nothing physically wrong
- stress, anxiety or depression
- problems with the pelvic floor muscles .
Some research shows a link between stress, anxiety and depression and CPPS. But this doesnt mean that CPPS is all in your head. If youre feeling stressed or depressed, this may cause physical symptoms that trigger CPPS, or make symptoms worse.
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What Causes Prostatitis In Dogs
All male dogs are at risk of developing prostatitis no breed is immune to being more susceptible than others. Dogs aged 7 to 11 years, on the other hand, are at a higher risk. Here are some of the most common causes of this condition:
- Bacteria migrate from the urinary tract to the prostate
- Bacteria spreading from other parts of the body to the prostate
- Bacteria spreading from a wound site to the prostate
- Functional testicles are present
- Prostate enlargement
- Medical history of male or female hormone administration
- Immune system flaws