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Environmental Causes Of Prostate Cancer

Definitions Of Disease Categories

What Causes Prostate Cancer? – The Nebraska Medical Center

ICD codes used in the disease categories were the following : myocardial infarction , other coronary heart disease , cerebrovascular accident , arterial disease , heart failure , pneumonia , chronic lower respiratory disease , external causes , complications of diagnostic or surgical procedures , complications of therapeutic drug or vaccine usage , suicide , traffic accident , falls , other heart disease , gastrointestinal disease , dementia , diabetes , complications of heart disease , urinary system disease , symptoms , pulmonary circulation , nervous system disease , hypertensive disease , other bacterial disease , psychic disease , anemia , tumors other than prostate cancer , and prostate cancer .

Risk And Other Prostate Conditions

A common misconception is that the presence of non-cancerous conditions of the prostate will increase the risk of prostate cancer.

While these conditions can cause symptoms similar to those of prostate cancer and should be evaluated by a physician, there is no evidence to suggest that having either of the following conditions will increase a mans risk for developing prostate cancer.

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia is a non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate. Because the urethra runs directly through the prostate, enlargement of the prostate in BPH squeezes the urethra, making it difficult and often painful for men to urinate. Learn more about BPH.

Prostatitis, an infection in the prostate, is the most common cause of urinary tract infections in men. Most treatment strategies are designed to relieve the symptoms of prostatitis, which include fever, chills, burning during urination, or difficulty urinating. There have been links between inflammation of the prostate and prostate cancer in several studies. This may be a result of being screened for cancer just by having prostate-related symptoms, and currently, this is an area of controversy. Learn more about prostatitis.

Why Destigmatizing Prostate Cancer Is Important

Bringing down barriers can encourage more people to do preventive screening, get treatment, and even build awareness about prostate cancer, particularly within marginalized communities at a higher risk of developing the disease.

Recognizing the stigma surrounding prostate cancer is the first step. Finding ways to overcome it is next in line. Keeping an open line of communication is necessary for fighting back against the unfair stigma.

Of course, this isnt to say you need to speak openly about your diagnosis with every person in your life.

But the more you talk about your experience whether with trusted family and friends or others whove been diagnosed with prostate cancer the less chance the stigma will persist.

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Common Symptoms Associated With Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer might not cause any symptoms, especially when its in the early stages. Some signs and symptoms are similar to other diseases and ailments, so you must speak with a doctor to determine your diagnosis.

Prostate cancer symptoms in advanced stages include:

  • Blood in the semen or urine

  • Pain in the back, chest, hips, or other parts of the body where it spread to the bones

  • Difficulty urinating, including the urge to urinate more frequently or a weak or slow urinary stream

  • Numbness or weakness in the feet or legs

  • Loss of bowel or bladder control if the cancer is pressing against the spinal cord

If you notice any of the symptoms above, you should immediately make an appointment with a medical provider. Most of these symptoms can be the result of another ailment. For instance, non-cancerous growth of the prostate, known as benign prostatic hyperplasia , can cause trouble urinating. You might have a less serious condition thats causing your symptoms however, you should see a specialist so they can perform tests and screen for prostate cancer.

International Rates And Migration

Am I at Risk?

Prostate cancer exhibits an extraordinary amount of variation in its occurrence worldwide. For example, the incidence rate for African Americans is approximately 60-fold higher than the rate among men in Shanghai, China.6 Although part of this disparity is due to differences in diagnostic ascertainment and the prevalence of screening, mortality rates, which are less subject to such influences, also vary profoundly. For example, the mortality rate for African Americans from 1988 to 1992 was approximately 12 times higher than the mortality rate in Hong Kong. These differences notwithstanding, mortality is increasing faster in the westernizing parts of Asia than anywhere else in the world. Observation of Asian migrants, moreover, provides the most compelling argument for environmental influences linked to Western lifestyle as causal factors in prostate cancer. Japanese Americans have an incidence rate 43 times higher than their counterparts in Japan, and there are data indicating that migrants develop the high-risk pattern within one generation.6,7 Shimizu and colleagues reported that prostate cancer incidence rates in Los Angeles among migrants from Japan were similar regardless of whether men immigrated early or later in life.7 We interpret this to mean that environmental forces can accelerate the progression of latent tumors even late in life.

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What Age Should You Check For Prostate Cancer

Different organizations or healthcare organizations have varying answers, but, on average, screening should begin at age 50. If a man has increased risk factors such as strong family history, is Afro-American, or consumes a lot of red meat, he should be screened in his mid-40s. There is evidence that if the PSA is very low in the mid-40s, it does not have to be checked again for a number of years. If, however, the PSA is elevated, it should result in more careful screening in the subsequent years.

Do Environmental Factors Modify The Genetic Risk Of Prostate Cancer

Corresponding Author:

Note: Supplementary data for this article are available at Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention Online .

Corresponding Author:

  • Accepted Manuscript October 23 2014
  • Stacy Loeb, Sarah B. Peskoe, Corinne E. Joshu, Wen-Yi Huang, Richard B. Hayes, H. Ballentine Carter, William B. Isaacs, Elizabeth A. Platz Do Environmental Factors Modify the Genetic Risk of Prostate Cancer?. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1 January 2015 24 : 213220.

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    What Are The Risk Factors For Prostate Cancer

    The exact causes of prostate cancer are unknown, but a combination of genetic and environmental factors are believed to contribute to the development of the disease. Age, race and family history are the most important risk factors for prostate cancer.Studies indicate that men with a family history of the disease are two or three times more likely to get prostate cancer. The likelihood that a man will inherit the disease increases if:

    1. Two generations of his family have had prostate cancer,2. Two or more immediate relatives have had prostate cancer , and3. One or more relatives are diagnosed before the age of 55. We know that at least 10% of prostate cancers are inherited directly from parents, while most prostate cancers appear to be acquired because of the way we live and what we are exposed to in the environment. These non-genetic factors may include diet, smoking, industrial pollution, excessive alcohol consumption, association with certain viruses , stress, and so forth.4. Family members having breast cancers and/or ovarian cancers place men at increased risk of developing prostate cancers.

    What Are The Causes Of Prostate Cancer

    Prostate Cancer Risk Factors

    The causes of prostate cancer are not fully known, but factors such as family history, race, age, diet, and lifestyle may contribute to an increased risk of developing the disease.

    However, early detection is possible with regular PSA and digital rectal exams.

    Prostate cancer is more common after the age of 50, so older age is a risk factor for prostate cancer.

    You will also be at a higher risk of developing prostate cancer if a blood relative has been diagnosed with prostate cancer.

    Obesity also increases the risk of developing prostate cancer as this type of cancer is more likely to be aggressive in obese people and more likely to return after initial treatment.

    Environmental causes of prostate cancer include exposure to combustion by-products and agricultural chemicals. Some studies suggest that firefighters and farmers are more likely to develop prostate cancer because they are exposed to these environmental catalysts.

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    What Is Prostate Cancer

    The prostate is a small gland located underneath the bladder in men and is part of the reproductive system. Some men develop prostate cancer, usually later in life. If cancer develops on your prostate gland, it will likely grow slowly. In rare cases, the cancer cells may be more aggressive, grow quickly, and spread to other areas of your body. The earlier your doctor finds and treats the tumor, the higher the chances are of finding curative treatment.

    According to the Urology Care Foundation, prostate cancer is the second most common cause of all cancer-related deaths among American men. About 1 in 7 men will be diagnosed with the disease in their lifetime. Approximately 1 in 39 men will die from it. Most of these deaths occur among older men.

    What Are The Four Stages Of Prostate Cancer

    Stage 1: Prostate cancer stage 1 is the least advanced form of this cancer. The cancer is small and has not spread past the prostate gland. Stage 1 of prostate cancer has a 5-year survival rate of nearly 100%.

    Stage 2: The tumor is still confined to the prostate and has not spread to the lymph nodes or other parts of the body. Thus, the doctor may or may not be able to feel the tumor during the prostate exam. The survival rate of stage 2 prostate cancer is still nearly 100%.

    Stage 3: Cancer cells may or may not have spread outside the prostate to other tissues and therefore the survival rate of stage 3 prostate cancer is still 100% provided that cancer has not spread to distant parts of the body.

    Stage 4: Prostate cancer stage 4 is the most advanced and by now the cancer cells have typically spread to the distant parts of the body. If it has reached other organs, the 5-year survival rate drops to about 30%.

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    How Is Prostate Cancer Treated

    Your treatment will depend on what kind of cancer cells you have, how far they have spread, your age and general health, and your preferences. At HealthPartners and Park Nicollet, we approach cancer treatment by understanding the impact it has both physically and mentally. So, you and your doctor may decide to manage your cancer with active surveillance or to treat it with surgery or radiation.

    If youre over age 80 or have other serious health problems, like heart disease, you may choose not to have treatments to cure your cancer. Instead, you can just have treatments to manage your symptoms. This is called watchful waiting.

    If youve already been diagnosed with prostate cancer, choosing treatment for prostate cancer can be confusing. Both urologists and oncologists have the specialty training and expertise to treat prostate cancer. They can work with you develop a treatment plan thats right for you.

    Questions about your prostate cancer treatment options?

    Environmental Factors And Prostate Cancer

    VIVA JOY HEALTH: Guys! Check your prostate

    A 2021 article out of the University of Illinois identifies five environmental domains associated with metastatic prostate cancer at the time of first diagnosis. When air, water, land, urban build-up and sociodemographic factors such as poverty and ethnicity are poor in quality, environmental exposure to these elements influences the development of prostate cancer. Water, land and sociodemographic conditions had the greatest association. In particular, the authors note that Black men are hit even harder than White men and other ethnic populations.

    What can be done to remedy such large-scale problems? In the last 20 years, there has been a noticeable uptick in mens health awareness, with individual men paying more attention to nutrition, exercise, stress reduction, and cancer screenings from midlife onward. But this consciousness is not distributed evenly. Men with better economic status and more education, regardless of ethnicity, are more likely to take personal responsibility for leading healthier lives.

    This is less true for urban, underprivileged groups. It is these men who suffer more exposure to environmental toxins, and therefore have more chance of being diagnosed with potentially lethal diseases, including prostate cancer.

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    What Is The Prostate

    The prostate is a small gland in men that helps make semen. Located just below the bladder in front of the rectum, it wraps around the tube that carries urine and semen out of the body. It tends to grow larger as you get older. If your prostate gets too large, it can cause a number of health issues.

    Evaluation Of Environmental Risk Factors For Prostate Cancer In A Population Of Iranian Patients



    Supported by : Shahid Beheshti university of Medical Sciences


  • Akbari ME, Hosseini SJ, Rezaee A, et al . Incidence of genitourinary cancers in the Islamic Republic of Iran: a survey in 2005. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 9, 549-52.
  • Mohagheghi MA, Mosavi-Jarrahi A, Malekzadeh R, et al . Cancer incidence in Tehran metropolis: the first report from the Tehran Population-Based Cancer Registry, 1998-2001. Arch Iran Med, 12, 15-23.
  • Askari F1, Parizi MK, Jessri M, et al . Dietary patterns in relation to prostate cancer in Iranian men: a case-control study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 2159-63.
  • Bae JM, Li ZM, Shin MH, Kim DH, et al . Cigarette smoking and prostate cancer risk: negative results of the Seoul Male Cancer Cohort Study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 4667-9.
  • Boffetta P, Nyberg F . Contribution of environmental factors to cancer risk. Br Med Bull, 68, 71-94.
  • Calderon-Garciduenas L, Mora-Tiscareno A, Francolira M, et al . Exposure to urban air pollution and bone health in clinically healthy six-year-old children. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol, 64, 23-34.
  • Crawford ED . Epidemiology of prostate cancer. Urology, 62, 3-12.
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    How To Avoid Prostate Cancer

    Prostate cancer may be prevented by following these tips:

    • A balanced diet: Choose a healthy diet full of fresh fruits, green leafy vegetables, and whole grains. They contain vitamins and nutrients that are vital for prostate health.
    • Regular exercise can help you maintain weight and enhances your mood as well. Try to exercise most days of the week.
    • Obesity can make you prone to developing prostate cancer. Therefore, keep a check on your weight and add more exercise and reduce the number of calories that you eat in a day. If you are unable to do something about your weight, ask your doctor to help you in creating a healthy weight loss plan or you can also take health supplements to increase your fat-burning rate.
    • Consult a doctor to know about your increased risk of prostate cancer. Certain medications or treatments may reduce the risk.

    Screening For The Early Detection Of Prostate Cancer

    Monitoring Tumor Microenvironment Immunotherapeutic Impact in Heterogeneous Cancer: Prostate Cancer,

    Prostate cancer could be found early if you undergo a screening. Screening is a way to test for signs of cancer before symptoms even develop. If the results show any abnormalities, you might need a biopsy to determine if you have cancer. Some medical organizations find these tests controversial, especially if they are performed on healthy individuals who havent shown symptoms of the disease. No one knows if the benefits outweigh any possible risks. You should discuss this with your doctor so they can review your medical history, risk factors, and other information to determine if you should undergo screenings.

    The two main screening tests include:

    • Prostate-specific antigen blood test PSA is a protein made in the prostate gland for semen. It can also be found in the blood. As your PSA level rises, the chance that you have prostate cancer also increases. There isnt a specific level that indicates whether theres cancer. Some doctors will decide additional testing is necessary if theres a PSA of 2.5 or 3, while others will recommend it if the level is 4 or higher.

    • Digital rectal exam A doctor will lubricate a glove and insert one finger into the rectum to feel for hard areas or bumps on the prostate that could indicate cancer. A rectal exam is not as effective as a PSA test but might detect prostate cancer if someone has a normal PSA level.

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    What Is The Outlook

    Although some cases of prostate cancer are aggressive, most are not. Most men diagnosed with this disease can expect a good outlook and many years of life ahead of them. The earlier your cancer is diagnosed, the better your outlook. Diagnosing and treating prostate cancer early can improve your chance of finding curative treatment. Even men who are diagnosed in later stages can benefit greatly from treatment. These benefits include reducing or eliminating symptoms, slowing further growth of the cancer, and prolonging life by many years.

    When Malignant Cancer Cells Form And Grow Within A Persons Breast Tissue Breast Cancer Occurs

    In fact, most people dont even know what it does. The earlier the detection of prostate cancer, the better the patients chance of survival is. The pancreas is located behind the stomach, so having pancreatic cancer doesnt involve a palpable mass that you can feel. Being armed with information is vital to begin the fight. If breast cancer is diagnosed at an early enough stage, its treatable. Here are 10 more facts about prostate cancer. Despite this, pancreatic cancer is among the deadliest types of cancer, which is why its extremely important to know and recogni. Although the percentage of cases in men is much lower than in women, male breast cancer accounts for a por. Find the information you need today. Whether you or someone y. It may grow slowly and its typically treatable. Treatment for bladder cancer depends on your overall health, progression of the c. Prostate cancer is a common type of cancer in men, according to the mayo clinic.

    Although the percentage of cases in men is much lower than in women, male breast cancer accounts for a por. Being armed with information is vital to begin the fight. Breast cancer is the second most common cancer found in women after skin cancer but that doesnt mean men arent at risk as well.

    But hearing the words can still be scary. The pancreas is an organ that releases enzymes involved with digestion, and hormones to regular blood sugar levels. Whether you or someone y.

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