Five Key Studies In Prostate Cancer And Renal Cell Carcinoma
The more than 630 abstracts presented addressed essential research in genitourinary malignancies, including data on some of the newest, most cutting-edge treatments available.Richard J. Boxer, MD, FACS
The 10th Genitourinary Cancers Symposium, sponsored by ASCO, the American Society for Radiation Oncology, and the Society of Urologic Oncology, was held January 29February 1, 2014, in San Francisco. The more than 630 abstracts presented addressed essential research in genitourinary malignancies, including data on some of the newest, most cutting-edge treatments available.
Several papers stand out in my mind as important, possibly groundbreaking, and may alter the approach to treating genitourinary malignancies. The five following abstracts were among the most noteworthy.
Enzalutamide for Prostate Cancer
Abstract LBA1. Beer TM, Armstrong AJ, Sternberg CN, et al: Enzalutamide in men with chemotherapy-naive metastatic prostate cancer: Results of phase III PREVAIL study.
The authors performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III study in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. The patients were either asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic. They received enzalutamide , an androgen-receptor blocker or placebo, and had never received any other chemotherapy.
Radium-223 in Prostate Cancer
They concluded, Ra-223 is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for castration-resistant prostate cancer with symptomatic bone metastases.
Survival Rates For Kidney Cancer
Survival rates can give you an idea of what percentage of people with the same type and stage of cancer are still alive a certain amount of time after they were diagnosed. They cant tell you how long you will live, but they may help give you a better understanding of how likely it is that your treatment will be successful.
Keep in mind that survival rates are estimates and are often based on previous outcomes of large numbers of people who had a specific cancer, but they cant predict what will happen in any particular persons case. These statistics can be confusing and may lead you to have more questions. Your doctor is familiar with your situation, so ask how these numbers may apply to you.
Combined Pembrolizumab And Axitinib Helps People With Advanced Kidney Cancer Live Longer
Results from the phase III KEYNOTE-426 global clinical trial found that pembrolizumab plus axitinib may be more effective than sunitinib as a first treatment for kidney cancer that has spread to distant sites, called metastatic. The type of kidney cancer studied in this clinical trial was clear cell renal cell carcinoma , which is the most common type of kidney cancer. Pembrolizumab is a type of immunotherapy called an immune checkpoint inhibitor that targets a protein called PD-L1. Axitinib and sunitinib are a type of targeted therapy for kidney cancer called tyrosine kinase inhibitors that block a protein called VEGF.
Combining immunotherapy with targeted therapy is a new approach to treatment for this type of cancer. When given alone, targeted therapy and immunotherapy tend to work in about a third of people with kidney cancer. In an earlier phase of this clinical trial, researchers saw that a combination of targeted therapy and immunotherapy caused tumors to stop growing or shrink in 70% of patients. The goal of this phase III clinical trial was to see if the combination treatment helped people live longer and was safe to use.
This study included 861 people with metastatic clear cell RCC who had not received any previous systemic treatment, with 432 receiving pembrolizumab plus axitinib and 429 receiving sunitinib alone. The average age of the people was 62 years, and 70% of them were men.
co-lead study author Thomas Powles, MDBarts Cancer Institute
Read Also: What Is A Fusion Biopsy Of The Prostate
How Is Prostate Cancer Treated
The major treatments for localized prostate cancer are surgery and radiotherapy. The survival rate for men with localized prostate cancer that is treated promptly is about the same as that for men who have never had the disease. The surgery, which is called radical prostatectomy, involves complete removal of the prostate and adjacent structures. Regional lymph nodes are often removed at the time of the procedure. In some cases, radiotherapy can be used. This involves focusing a beam of radiation on the tumor or implanting radioactive seeds directly into the prostate.
Immediate treatment may not always be recommended because some prostate cancers grow very slowly and take a long time to spread. Therefore, some doctors may recommend “watchful waiting,” especially for men who are very old or who have a life expectancy of less than 10 years.
In cases where the cancer has spread beyond the prostate, hormonal therapy or chemotherapy may be done. You should discuss the pros and cons of these treatments with your doctor.
Keeping Health Insurance And Copies Of Your Medical Records
Even after treatment, its very important to keep health insurance. Tests and doctor visits cost a lot, and even though no one wants to think of their cancer coming back, this could happen.
At some point after your cancer treatment, you might find yourself seeing a new doctor who doesnt know about your medical history. Its important to keep copies of your medical records to give your new doctor the details of your diagnosis and treatment.
Recommended Reading: Prostate Cancer And Kidney Disease
Prostate Kidney & Bladder Cancer
Wisconsin Institute of Urology offers a full range of state-of-the-art diagnostic and treatment options for genitourinary cancers. These include cancers of the prostate, kidneys, bladder, testicles, penis and adrenal glands. Treatment for tumors of these organs includes open, laparoscopic, and robotic surgery, radiation, cryotherapy , and medication, including in-office shots, oral medication, and chemotherapy. The providers at Wisconsin Institute of Urology work closely with other local, regional, and national specialists to deliver comprehensive care.
Are Kidney Stones And Prostate Cancer Related
No. Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin cancer among men in the United States. The exact cause of prostate cancer is unknown but there are risk factors that elevate your chances of developing prostate cancer. These include:
Age You are more likely to develop prostate cancer if you are over the age of 50.
Family history Prostate cancer seems to run in families. Having a father or brother with prostate cancer more than doubles your risk of developing it.
Race / ethnicity Prostate cancer is more common in African-American men and Caribbean men of African ancestry than in men of other races.
Kidney stones are not an identified risk factor of developing prostate cancer. Recurrent kidney stones can cause other complications, like increasing your risk of developing chronic kidney disease.
Kidney stones, prostatitis, and prostate cancer can all cause difficult or painful urination, pain in your abdomen or pelvic area, and a frequent urge to urinate. If you are experiencing any of these symptoms, it is important talk with your doctor. Your doctor can determine the cause of your symptoms and provide you with an individualized plan to begin treatment as soon as possible.
Read Also: Std That Affects Kidneys
Also Check: Best Prostate Cancer Treatment Centers
Bladder And Kidney Stones
Kidney and bladder stones are one of the most common causes of blood clots in urine. The stones are mostly painless, meaning you wont know until they grow bigger and cause blockage or are being passed in your urinary system. Minerals in concentrated urine form crystals on the walls of your kidneys or bladder. In time, these deposits made of minerals and salt turn into stones. They can affect any part of the urinary tract, from kidneys to bladder. The stones occur mostly when the urine is concentrated.
The good news is that there is no way to mistake the symptoms. Kidney stones cause excruciating pain, one that is hard to stomach and bear. Bladder and kidney stones can cause both gross and microscopic bleeding.
However As With Other Types Of Cancer
The american cancer society provides detailed information on prostate cancer and its treatment. Breast cancer is the second most common cancer found in women after skin cancer but that doesn’t mean men aren’t at risk as well. However, as with other types of cancer,. When malignant cancer cells form and grow within a person’s breast tissue, breast cancer occurs. Adenocarcinoma cancers being usually in one of the following organs: The pancreas is a bodily organ that few people think about. There are a number of different treatments doctors recommend. Although the percentage of cases in men is much lower than in women, male breast cancer accounts for a por. If you have been diagnosed with adenocarcinoma cancer, you have a cancer that developed in one of the glands that lines the inside of your organs. Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer diagnosed in men. In fact, most people don’t even know what it does. Although it is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in american women, breast cancer can impact people of all genders. Being armed with information is vital to begin the fight.
If you have been diagnosed with adenocarcinoma cancer, you have a cancer that developed in one of the glands that lines the inside of your organs. The earlier the detection of prostate cancer, the better the patient’s chance of survival is. The pancreas is located behind the stomach, so having pancreatic cancer doesn’t involve a palpable mass that you can feel.
Also Check: Zytiga Medication For Prostate Cancer
Despite This Pancreatic Cancer Is Among The Deadliest Types Of Cancer Which Is Why It’s Extremely Important To Know And Recogni
In fact, most people don’t even know what it does. When malignant cancer cells form and grow within a person’s breast tissue, breast cancer occurs. Although it is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in american women, breast cancer can impact people of all genders. It may grow slowly and it’s typically treatable. The pancreas is a bodily organ that few people think about. Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer diagnosed in men. The pancreas is located behind the stomach, so having pancreatic cancer doesn’t involve a palpable mass that you can feel. If breast cancer is diagnosed at an early enough stage, it’s treatable. Being armed with information is vital to begin the fight. Find the information you need today. Here are 10 more facts about prostate cancer. Breast cancer is the second most common cancer found in women after skin cancer but that doesn’t mean men aren’t at risk as well. But hearing the words can still be scary.
Symptoms Of Advanced Prostate Cancer
The symptoms of advanced prostate cancer depend on where the cancer has spread to. Find out about the possible symptoms and when to see your doctor.
Advanced prostate cancer means that a cancer that began in the prostate gland has spread to another part of the body. If your cancer has spread you might:
- have bone pain
- have weight loss for no known reason
Also Check: Where Is The Prostate Cancer
What Are Symptoms Of Prostatitis
How you feel will help your doctor diagnose the type of prostatitis you have. Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome is an inflammation of the prostate and the nerves to this area. Pain from CP/CPPS can last for weeks to months. This is NOT an infection. Symptoms are:
- Trouble passing urine
- Pain in and around the bladder, testicles, penis and/or anus
- Pain with ejaculation
Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis is from bacteria and is less common. It is known to come and go over a long period of time at least three months. Symptoms can be:
- A burning feeling while passing urine
- The need to pass urine often
- Pain in and around the bladder, testicles, penis and/or anus
- Pain with ejaculation
Acute Bacterial Prostatitis is also from bacteria and is less common. Symptoms for this problem can begin suddenly and can be very painful. Men should get medical care right away. Symptoms include:
- Very painful burning while passing urine
- Trouble draining the bladder
Nonbacterial Prostatitis may be from stress, nerve irritation, injuries or past urinary tract infections. This form of prostatitis has no signs of bacteria in the urine or semen.
Testicular Cancer: What You Need To Know
This is the most common malignancy in men between 15 to 35 years old, although the occurrence is still very low. Only about 0.2% of American men will develop testicular cancer during their lifetime. Fortunately, it is also one of the most curable cancers due to early diagnosis and effective treatments.
Early detection is important, so we recommend a monthly self-examination. This is best performed in a warm shower. Please let us know of any suspicious areas.
What Causes Sharp Pain In Right Kidney Capsule
Kidney infection or pyelonephritis which is common in all age groups, may also lead to this pain. The infection in the right kidney may cause inflammation of the kidney and can lead to stretching of the capsule. Severe injury can result in bleeding within the right kidney, which may cause sharp pain.
What Are The Key Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer That Can Lead To Kidneys Failure
Prostate cancer spread to kidneys leading to severe and adverse effects, which results in loss of kidney function. When this condition reaches an advanced stage, the body begins to accumulate dangerous levels of fluid, wastes and electrolytes that are hazardous. Kidney stones and prostate cancer are a clear indication of kidneys failure.
Prostate cancer and kidney failure are characterized by the following symptoms:
Also Check: Does A Swollen Prostate Cause Ed
Prostatebladder And Kidney Cancers
If you have cancer that affects the bladder, kidneys, prostate gland or other urological functions, we can help. At Virginia Mason Franciscan Health Cancer Care, youll receive care from cancer specialists, who have the experience and expertise in treating people with prostate and urological cancers.
For more information and to make an appointment, call .
Kidney Disease After Radiation Exposure
Radiation exposure on earth is usually at a very low dose. Diagnostic x-rays are essential for modern medical care and pose little or no radiation risk. High dose radiation is much less common than diagnostic x-ray, but it is also very useful, because it can cure cancer. But those high doses pose a risk of injury to the surrounding normal tissues, with both early and late side effects. Depending on dose and site of irradiation, these normal tissue side effects can include injury to the blood-forming bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract, lungs, brain, heart, and kidneys. To these is added the delayed risk of radiation-induced cancer, but that is five years or more after exposure.
The typical doses for some common radiation exposures.
The range of doses in question is shown on the adjoining figure. Note that background radiation is more than that of a diagnostic chest x-ray. The added cancer risk becomes significant at single doses of 30 mSv, i.e. ten times those of yearly background exposure. Early gastrointestinal effects such as nausea or vomiting may occur after single exposures of 1000 mSv or more , and hematopoietic marrow suppression will occur after single doses of 3000 mSv or more.
Dr Eric P Cohen
Recommended Reading: What Are The Symptoms Of Early Stage Prostate Cancer
What Is The Prostate
The prostate is a gland that is located just below a mans bladder. The tube that carries urine from the bladder and out of the body travels through the prostate. The main purpose of the prostate gland is reproductive. It is responsible for adding nutrients to sperm to help with fertilization of an egg.
By Genevra Pittman, Reuters Health
4 Min Read
NEW YORK Men who are treated for prostate cancer with hormone-targeted therapy have a higher risk of developing kidney problems, a new study suggests.
The treatment, known as androgen deprivation therapy, lowers the risk of death among men with advanced, aggressive prostate cancer.
However, researchers said its increasingly being used to treat possible recurrences among men with less advanced disease for whom the benefits are less clear, and the risks more worrisome.
Our study does raise the concern that perhaps we should be more careful in prescribing androgen deprivation therapy in patients who do not have the clear indication for it, said Laurent Azoulay, who worked on the research at McGill University in Montreal.
Its all about the balance, finding the right population for which the benefits clearly outweigh the risks, he told Reuters Health.
Hormone-targeted treatment has been linked to a higher risk of diabetes and heart disease.
Does Surgery On The Prostate Gland Interfere With Sexual Function
Surgery for an enlarged prostate does not usually interfere with a mans sexual functioning. However, about 10 to 15 percent of men may have trouble getting erections after surgery. Men may have a problem called retrograde ejaculation, which causes semen to go backward into the bladder instead of through the urethra to the outside. This means no longer being able to father children but causes no other harm.
Also Check: Does Red Wine Cause Kidney Stones
Recommended Reading: What Are The Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer Men’s Health
What Are Prostate Cancer Treatment Side Effects
Some prostate cancer treatments can affect the bladder, erectile nerves and sphincter muscle, which controls urination. Potential problems include:
- Incontinence: Some men experience urinary incontinence. You may leak urine when you cough or laugh, or you may feel an urgent need to use the bathroom even when your bladder isnt full. This problem can improve over the first six to 12 months without treatment.
- Erectile dysfunction : Surgery, radiation and other treatments can damage the erectile nerves and affect your ability to get or maintain an erection. Some men regain erectile function within a year or two . In the meantime, medications like sildenafil or tadalafil can help by increasing blood flow to the penis.
- Infertility: Treatments can affect your ability to produce or ejaculate sperm, resulting in male infertility. If you think you might want children in the future, you can preserve sperm in a sperm bank before you start treatments. After treatments, you may undergo sperm extraction. This procedure involves removing sperm directly from testicular tissue and implanting it into a womans uterus.
You May Like: Does Enlarged Prostate Affect Ejaculation