What Is Testicular Cancer
Cancer starts when cells begin to grow out of control. Cells in nearly any part of the body can become cancer and spread to other parts of the body. To learn more about how cancers start and spread, see What Is Cancer?
Cancer that starts in the testicles is called testicular cancer. To understand this cancer, it helps to know about the normal structure and function of the testicles.
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Hidden Link Between Prostate Cancer And Testicular Cancer Dr David Samadi
World-renowned robotic prostate surgeon, Dr. David Samadi, encourages men to get annual prostate cancer screenings and stay proactive about their health. Major health risks for all men include both prostate cancer and testicular cancer. Both cancers have high cure rates and can be effectively treated if they are caught early. This highlights the importance of screening for these male cancers and early detection.
Screening may be even more significant now as the American Society of Clinical Oncology, is confirming a link between prostate cancer and testicular cancer. According to a new study at the University of Maryland School of Medicine, men who have had testicular cancer may have an increased risk for prostate cancer. While there have been previous studies that have shown an increased risk of prostate cancer in men who have previously had testicular cancer, this is the first one to observe the risk of getting intermediate or high-risk prostate cancer.
Men who previously had testicular cancer were 5.8 percent more likely to get intermediate or high-risk prostate cancer, compared to 1.1 percent of men who did not have testicular cancer. Overall, men with a history of testicular cancer had a 4.7 times higher risk for prostate cancer and a 5.2 times higher risk for intermediate or high-risk prostate cancer.
Prostate Cancer Testicular Metastasis: Are They Underestimated Case Report And Analysis Of The Literature
Introduction: We aim to present a rare case of a patient who developed a late testicular metastasis of PCa after radical prostatectomy.
Case description: A 78 years old man presenting for left testicular swelling slowly increasing of size over the last 2 months. He underwent a retropubic radical prostatectomy and extended bilateral lymphadenectomy in 2007 for prostatic adenocarcinoma. At the time of the presentation the last PSA was 0.91 ng/mL. The patient underwent a standard left orchifunicolectomy in April 2019 without intra- or perioperative complications. The pathological analysis showed a testicular metastasis of acinar adenocarcinoma.
In conclusion, testicular metastasis from PCa are uncommon conditions. PSA evaluation and physical examination of all sites of metastasis and accurate evaluation of all signs/symptoms during the clinical visit remains crucial to the diagnosis of recurrence.
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Common Signs And Symptoms Of Testicular And Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer and testicular cancer can be cured, but as with most cancers, the earlier the treatment, the better the chances for success. Thats why its important to see a doctor if you have any symptoms that might point to cancer.
Testicular and prostate cancer have different symptoms, and luckily, your doctor will often find that the cause of the symptoms is something less frightening than cancer.
But you should never ignore troubling symptoms and just hope they go away. You could lose valuable treatment time. And if your doctor discovers a more benign cause of your symptoms, then you dont have to waste any more energy worrying.
Possible signs of testicular cancer
Testicular cancer symptoms can include the following:
- A lump or swelling in one of the testicles
- Fluid buildup in the scrotum
- A heavy feeling in the scrotum
- Pain, numbness, or other discomfort in a testicle or in the scrotum
- Enlarged or tender breasts
- Blood in urine or semen
- Painful ejaculation
- Difficulty in getting an erection
These symptoms are most likely caused by something other than cancer, but you should see a doctor to be sure, and to get treatment to relieve the problem.
Once prostate cancer has advanced, patients may experience
- Pain or stiffness in the hips, thighs, pelvis, ribs, or lower back.
- Weight loss and nausea or vomiting
If you have any symptoms that concern you, the staff at Affiliated Urologists are happy to talk with you.
Prostate Cancer And Impotence
Impotence the inability to achieve or maintain an erection is a major side effect of most treatments for advanced prostate cancer. Among men who have both their testicles removed by a surgery known as orchiectomy, about 90% will experience impotence. Drugs to reduce testosterone levels, called androgen deprivation therapy or ADT, also causes impotence in most men. If this therapy is discontinued, many but not all men can regain erections over time, with no assistance. Treatments to improve erections include medicines taken orally or injected into the penis, vacuum erection devices,and penile implants. Discuss these options with your doctor including their likelihood of success and patient satisfaction before you have treatment that may result in impotence.
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Can Prostatitis Cause Dull Pain In The Testicles
Testicle is one of the genital organs, it is an important organ of the bodyit can be with many abnormal symptoms like swelling and pain in daily life. And for prostatitis, it is a common disease among males, the patients will experience many discomfort. Do the patients experience the dull pain in testicle?
Can prostatitis cause pain in testicles?How to eliminate the dull pain in the testicle caused by prostatitis?
Metastasis Of Prostate Adenocarcinoma To The Testis
Prostate carcinoma is the most frequently diagnosed carcinoma in the male population. The most typical places of the metastases are pelvic lymphatic glands, bones and lungs, and very rarely it metastasizes into a testis. The prognostic importance of testicular metastasis of prostate cancer is not yet well-known, due to a very few published cases. According to the known facts, it is certain that a metastasis of the prostate carcinoma into a testis is a sign of an advanced disease.
This work presents a 48-year-old patient, to whom an adenocarcinoma of the prostate has been proven by the pathohistological finding of transrectal biopsy, performed due to the elevated level of prostate-specific antigen . Nine years after the initial diagnosis, due to a gradual rise of PSA and tumorous enlargement of the left testis, left inguinal orchectomy and right orchectomy were performed. Metastatic dissemination of prostate adenocarcinoma into a testis was determined by a pathohistological analysis of the left testis.
The metastasis of the prostate carcinoma into a testis, as a rare localization of the metastatic dissemination, after additionally performed orchectomy along with further oncological therapy, can provide a continuation of a good life quality as well as a control of the disease in a longer time period.
Medical archives . 2016 Jul 27
Zoran Campara, Dejan Simic, Predrag Aleksic, Aleksandar Spasic, Snjezana Milicevic
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Metastatic Effects On Other Organs
The presence of prostate cancer in other organs and tissues can interfere with the organs ability to carry out its normal functions. Cancerous cells can have an abnormally high metabolic rate. As such, when present in other tissues, they may dominate the supply of nutrients to that organ, essentially starving the host organ. This, coupled with structural changes the growing tumor makes, can alter the function of the host organ.If you or someone you know has questions about prostate cancer and its effects on the body, voice your concerns with your primary care doctor or urologist. Understanding how prostate cancer works and knowing effects of prostate cancer on body can be a great way to play an active role in its treatment.
Clinical Pathologic And Immunohistochemical Features
Department of Genitourinary Medical Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas
Department of Genitourinary Medical Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas
Despite the proximity, prostate carcinoma seldom metastasizes to the penis or testis.
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A Primer On Prostate Cancer
Even though prostate cancer is one of the most diagnosed cancers in America, on average men have only a three percent risk of actually dying from the disease. Prostate cancer occurs in the prostate gland, the gland that produces the fluid that makes up semen. Tumors are often slow-growing and highly treatable. However, patients sometimes experience no symptoms until the cancer has spread. Thus, early detection by your doctor is important. Treatments for prostate cancer include: chemotherapy, surgery and radiation.
Its important for you to get your prostate checked. The American Urological Association recommends you discuss the benefits and limitations of these tests with your doctor:
A digital rectal exam once a year after age 40, or earlier if you are having symptoms. Although some men consider this test embarrassing, it is a quick, simple procedure that could save your life.A PSA blood test once a year for men over 50 or earlier for men in high risk groups, such as African-Americans or those with a family history of prostate problems.
If you have a positive DRE or PSA, your doctor may order a biopsy to determine if cancer is involved.
Connection Between Ejaculation And Prostate Cancer
The amount of ejaculations included those from sexual intercourse, masturbation and nocturnal emissions . The one study found that men who ejaculated 21 or more time a month had a 33% decreased chance of developing prostate cancer compared to those who ejaculated 4-7 times a month. The second study showed that men who averaged 4-7 ejaculations a week showed a 36% decreased chance of developing prostate cancer, before the age of 70, as compared to men who ejaculated less than 2-3 times a week.
Its not known how this increased rate of ejaculation leads to a decreased risk of prostate cancer. The theory behind it is that ejaculation expels potentially harmful or irritating substances from the prostate, thereby decreasing the chances of the occurrence of a malignancy.
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Who Is At Risk For Testicular Cancer
Although this is a relatively rare cancer, young men should be aware of the risk factors. Some common risks include:
- A family history of testicular cancer
- A previous diagnosis
- History of undescended testicles which occur at birth affecting about 3-4% of male babies.
- Certain genetic disorders such as Down Syndrome
- Men with HIV
What Is Advanced Prostate Cancer
When prostate cancer spreads beyond the prostate or returns after treatment, it is often called advanced prostate cancer.
Prostate cancer is often grouped into four stages.
- Stages I & II: The tumor has not spread beyond the prostate. This is often called early stage or localized prostate cancer.
- Stage III: Cancer has spread outside the prostate, but only to nearby tissues. This is often called locally advanced prostate cancer.
- Stage IV: Cancer has spread outside the prostate to other parts such as the lymph nodes, bones, liver or lungs. This stage is often called advanced prostate cancer.
When an early stage prostate cancer is found, it may be treated or placed on surveillance . If prostate cancer spreads beyond the prostate or returns after treatment, it is often called advanced prostate cancer. Stage IV prostate cancer is not curable, but there are many ways to control it. Treatment can stop advanced prostate cancer from growing and causing symptoms.
There are several types of advanced prostate cancer, including:
If your Prostate Specific Antigen level has risen after the first treatment but you have no other signs of cancer, you have “biochemical recurrence.”
Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer
Non-Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer
Metastatic Prostate Cancer
- Lymph nodes outside the pelvis
- Other organs
Metastatic Hormone-Sensitive Prostate Cancer
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Risk Of Other Health Problems
Evidence suggests that having hormone therapy might increase the chance of developing heart disease, stroke and type-2 diabetes. There is also some research that suggests having hormone therapy can increase your risk of getting blood clots and anaemia. But more research is needed to help us understand the links between these conditions.
Research shows that hormone therapy can cause:
- an increase in weight, particularly around the waist
- an increase in cholesterol levels
- changes in insulin.
Talk to your hospital doctor and GP about how often you should have general health checks. You may be weighed and have your blood pressure checked regularly. You may also have blood tests to check for diabetes and to measure your cholesterol levels. Your GP may suggest you have these checks about every six months. Or you can ask for them yourself at your GP surgery.
If you already have heart problems or diabetes, talk to your doctor before you start hormone therapy. They will work with you to manage these conditions.
While the risk of getting these conditions may be worrying, its important to remember that hormone therapy helps men to live longer by controlling the cancer.
What can help?
A healthy lifestyle can help reduce your risk of heart disease, stroke and type-2 diabetes. This includes:
- eating a healthy diet
Whats The Difference Between Prostate And Testicular Cancer
Prostate and testicular cancers occur in different parts of the body, and they commonly affect men at different stages of their life. These two basic differences between prostate and testicular cancer are significant for all men to understand, so they can take appropriate precautions to detect tumors early.
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Prostatic Adenocarcinoma Presenting With Metastases To The Testis And Epididymis: A Case Report
This article is mentioned in:
In July 2012, a 69-year-old male was admitted to TheFirst Hospital of Shijiazhuang with a 2-yearhistory of lower urinary tract symptoms, including increasedfrequency of urination, noturia and a weak urinary stream, withoutdysuria or hematuria. In a routine examination 1 month prior toadmittance, it was found that the patient’s serum prostate-specificantigen level was > 100 ng/ml . The patient’s medical history included 24 years of diabetestreated with insulin and a 20-year history of hypertension thatwas treated with benazepril and metoprolol. The patient hadundergone a prostate transurethral resection five years previouslydue to prostate bleeding. The current prostate pathology showedprostatic hyperplasia. The patient also had a history of smoking 10cigarettes per day for 40 years.
The patient was treated with ongoing conventionalflutamide endocrine therapy and radiotherapy for 6 weeks, and currentlyremains in a stable condition after follow-up for 24 months.
The Scrotum And Prostate Cancer
The scrotum is an external structure of skin and muscles that contains the testicles. The scrotum is an extension of the abdomen and is located in between the anal sphincter and the penis. The sperm that are produced in the testicles are sensitive to changes in temperature, so the muscles of the scrotum according contract to raise or the scrotal sac in the interest of maintaining a normal temperature. In prostate cancer hormone therapy, the testicles are removed during a procedure called the orchiectomy, also called medical castration, where a small incision is made in the scrotum. The testicles are eased out through this incision.
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Male Fertility And Infertility
Fertility refers to having the ability to conceive, or being able to have a child. For males, fertility means they are able to father a child through normal sexual activity. A persons fertility depends on their reproductive organs working as they should and other factors, such as when and how often they are having sex, certain hormones, and if their partner has any problems with fertility.
When a person cannot have a child, this is called infertility, or being infertile. For males, infertility means they are not able to father a child through normal sexual activity. Doctors usually consider a person infertile when they have not been able to conceive a child after 12 or more months of regular sexual activity.
Problems with fertility can also be called reproductive problemsoralterations. They happen when certain hormone levels are abnormally low or high or if reproduction organs are removed or arent working properly. Some people never find out why they are having fertility problems. Many experts believe stress and anxiety can cause changes that play a part in infertility.
People with certain types of cancer or who are getting treatment for cancer may have fertility problems. Children and teenagers who have cancer are often of special concern. You can read more about specific adult and childhood cancers in Cancer A to Z and can learn more about how fertility might be affected in How Cancer and Cancer Treatment Can Affect Fertility.
The Difference Between Prostate Cancer And Testicular Cancer
Men, young and old, listen up! The major health risks for ALL men include both prostate cancer and testicular cancer. The good news is that both cancers have high cure rates and can be successfully treated, as long as the cancer is detected early and has not spread to other parts of the body.
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Symptomatic Bilateral Testicular Metastases From Prostate Cancer: A Case Report
M. Bardapure, A. At-Mitwalli, M.S. Azhar, N.Bryan, T. Qayyum*
HuddersfieldRoyal Infirmary, Acre Street, Huddersfield, UK
*Correspondingauthor: TahirQayyum, Huddersfield Royal Infirmary, AcreStreet, Huddersfield, HD3 3EA, UK. Email:
Received Date: 19 August, 2018 Accepted Date: 28 August,2018 13 September, 2018
Citation: Bardapure M, At-Mitwalli A, Azhar MS, Bryan N, Qayyum T Symptomatic Bilateral Testicular Metastases from Prostate Cancer: A Case Report. J Urol Ren Dis 2018: 1113. DOI: 10.29011/2575-7903.001113
Symptomatic clinical recurrence of prostate cancer manifesting as a bilateral testicular mass is a very rare condition. We report a case of 62-year-old with castrate resistant prostate cancer who underwent a bilateral orchidectomy for testicular masses four years after hormonal manipulation for prostate cancer with subsequent pathology demonstrating metastatic prostate cancer.
2. Keywords: Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer Testicular Metastasis
Testicular metastases are a rare findingwith most common primary cause being prostate, lung and gastrointestinal withapproximately 200 cases having been reported .Testicular involvement from prostate cancer tends to be discoveredincidentally at bilateral orchidectomy for advanced disease or at autopsy . We report a case ofsymptomatic, bilateral testicular metastasis from carcinoma of prostate glanddetected after four years following initial diagnosis and androgen deprivationtherapy.