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T3a Prostate Cancer Survival Rates

What Are Prostate Cancer Survival Rates By Stage

Celebrating 25 years of survivorship Roger Climpson OAM’s prostate cancer experience

Staging evaluation is essential for the planning of treatment for prostate cancer.

  • A basic staging evaluation includes the patient examination, blood tests, and the prostate biopsy including ultrasound images of the prostate.
  • Further testing and calculations may be performed to best estimate a patient’s prognosis and help the doctor and patient decide upon treatment options.

Prognosis refers to the likelihood that cancer can be cured by treatment, and what the patient’s life expectancy is likely to be as a consequence of having had a prostate cancer diagnosis.

If cancer is cured, your life expectancy is what it would have been had you never been diagnosed with prostate cancer. If cancer cannot be cured due to it recurring in distant locations as metastases, or recurs either locally or in an area no longer able to be treated in a curative manner, then estimates can be made of what is likely to be your survival-based again on group statistics for people who have been in the same situation.

Nomograms are charts or computer-based tools that use complex math from the analysis of many patients’ treatment results.

The prognosis for prostate cancer varies widely and depends on many factors, including the age and health of the patient, the stage of the tumor when it was diagnosed, the aggressiveness of the tumor, and cancer’s responsiveness to treatment, among other factors.

The 5 and 10-year survival rate of prostate cancer chart

Stage and 5-Year Survival

Questions To Ask Your Doctor Or Nurse

You may find it helpful to keep a note of any questions you have to take to your next appointment.

  • What is my Gleason score?
  • How far has my cancer spread?
  • What treatments are suitable for me?
  • What do they involve?
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of each treatment, including their possible side effects?
  • How effective is my treatment likely to be?
  • Can I see the results of treatments youve carried out?
  • Can I get copies of all my test results and letters about my treatment?
  • Is the aim to keep my prostate cancer under control, or to get rid of it completely?
  • Are all of the treatments available at my local hospital? If not, how could I have them?
  • Can I join any clinical trials?
  • How quickly do I need to make a decision?
  • After treatment, how often will I have check-ups and what will this involve?
  • If I have any questions or get any new symptoms, who should I contact?

Learn More About Prostate Cancer Care At Rcca

If youve been diagnosed with prostate cancer or are concerned about potential symptoms, contact RCCA today. Our team of cancer care specialists will assess the stage of your cancer using the latest diagnostic methods and work with you to design a fully individualized care plan that includes advanced treatment options, the potential for clinical trials, and support that addresses physical and emotional well-being. To speak with a representative right away, please call .

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The Number Staging System

There are a few different systems used for staging prostate cancer. A simplified number staging system is described below.

  • Stage 1 The tumour is contained in the prostate. The tumour is too small to be felt when a doctor does a rectal examination or to be seen on a scan.
  • Stage 2 The tumour is still contained in the prostate, but your doctor can feel it when they do a rectal examination.
  • Stage 3 The tumour has started to break through the outer capsule of the prostate and may be in the nearby tubes that produce semen .
  • Stage 4 The tumour has spread outside the prostate. It may have spread to areas such as the bladder or back passage . Or it may have spread further, for example to the bones.

Using the numbered staging system described above:

See also

The grade of a cancer gives an idea of how quickly the cancer might grow or spread. A doctor decides the grade of the cancer by how the cancer cells look under the microscope.

Doctors look at the grade of the cancer to help them plan your treatment.

Gleason is the most commonly used grading system for prostate cancer.

General Prostate Cancer Survival Rate

Clinical Outcomes of Postoperative Radiotherapy Following Radical ...

According to the American Cancer Society:

  • The relative 5-year survival rate is nearly 100%
  • The relative 10-year survival rate is 98%
  • The 15-year relative survival rate is 91%

Note: Relative survival rate means the percentage of patients who live amount of years after their initial diagnosis.

Keep in mind, however, that because the compiled list figures are of cancers diagnosed up to 15 years ago, you may have an even greater chance of survival than these indicate due to advances in prostate cancer treatment technology

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What Will Happen After My Treatment

You will have regular check-ups during and after your treatment to check how well it is working. You may hear them called follow-up appointments. Youll have regular PSA blood tests ask the people treating you how often youll have these. If your PSA level goes down, this usually suggests your treatment is working.

Tell your doctor or nurse about any side effects youre getting. There are usually ways to manage side effects.

Make sure you have the details of someone to contact if you have any questions or concerns between check-ups. This might be your specialist nurse or key worker. You can also speak to our Specialist Nurses.

Read more about follow-up after prostate cancer treatments.

Stage 2 Prostate Cancer

In stage 2, cancer can be detected during a digital rectal exam . Its still confined to the prostate, but the cells may be more abnormal and may grow faster.

  • Stage IIA The tumor may involve more than one half of one lobe or even both lobes of the prostate but it is still organ-confined . There is no regional lymph node metastasis and no distant metastasis. . The PSA level is 10-20 ng/ml. The Grade Group is 1.
  • Stage IIB The tumor may involve both lobes of the prostate or less than that . There is no regional lymph node metastasis and no distant metastasis. . The PSA level is below 20 ng/ml. The Grade Group is 2.
  • Stage IIC The tumor may involve both lobes of the prostate or less than that . There is no regional lymph node metastasis and no distant metastasis. . The PSA level is below 20 ng/ml. The Grade Group is 3-4.

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How Is Prostate Cancer Diagnosed

Doctors describe the growth and spread of prostate cancer in stages. Doctors use these stages as guides when choosing treatment options or offering prognoses to their patients.

Prostate cancer staging is based on a number of different factors, including prostate cancer screening tests such as a digital rectal exam or prostate-specific antigen test and imaging studies like bones scans, MRIs, CT scans, and trans-rectal ultrasounds.

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Survivability For Prostate Cancer According To Stage

Prostate Cancer

Relative survival looks at a persons chances of surviving after diagnosis compared to a healthy person from the general population who shares similar characteristics, such as age, sex, and race.

For prostate cancer, relative survival depends on the stage of the disease . It is important to note that this prognostic grouping, also established by the UICC, is more accurate than stage grouping in assessing a survival prognostic.

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How Is Prostate Cancer Staged

Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer that develops in men and is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in American men, behind lung cancer and just ahead of colorectal cancer. The prognosis for prostate cancer, as with any cancer, depends on how advanced the cancer has become, according to established stage designations.

The prostate gland is a walnut-sized gland present only in men, found in the pelvis below the bladder. The prostate gland wraps around the urethra and lies in front of the rectum. The prostate gland secretes part of the liquid portion of the semen, or seminal fluid, which carries sperm made by the testes. The fluid is essential to reproduction.

The term to stage a cancer means to describe the evident extent of the cancer in the body at the time that the cancer is first diagnosed.

  • Clinical staging of prostate cancer is based on the pathology results, physical examination, PSA, and if appropriate, radiologic studies.
  • The stage of a cancer helps doctors understand the extent of the cancer and plan cancer treatment.
  • Knowing the overall results of the different treatments of similarly staged prostate cancers can help the doctor and patient make important decisions about choices of treatment to recommend or to accept.

Radical Prostatectomy Plus Radiotherapy Extends Os In Prostate Cancer

A study in Cancer found a lower risk of prostate cancerspecific death and improved overall survival when patients were treated with this combination.

Men with locally or regionally advanced prostate cancer treated initially with radical prostatectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy may have a lower risk of prostate cancerspecific death and improved overall survival compared with men treated with radiotherapy plus androgen deprivation therapy , according to research in Cancer.

Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Medicare data, researchers evaluated 13,856 men with high-risk to very high-risk prostate cancers. The cohort included men with locally advanced disease and regionally advanced disease . Both treatment groups were matched by age, race, comorbid conditions, as well as tumor and nodal stage to control for factors that may influence outcomes. They then analyzed which group fared better 10 to 15 years after treatment.

In this study, all men were age 65 or older and were treated between 1992 and 2009. Among 13,856 men, 6.1% received RP plus radiotherapy and 23.6% received radiotherapy plus ADT.

The survival and functional outcomes data in our study need to be verified in the setting of a prospective clinical trial, and the data suggests the need to include a surgical arm in future trials for men with high-risk to very high-risk prostate cancer, Dr. Jang told Cancer Network.

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Read Also: How Painful Is A Biopsy Of The Prostate

Understanding The Statistics: Cancer Survival

It is important to remember that all cancer survival numbers are based on averages across huge numbers of people. These numbers cannot predict what will happen in your individual case.

Survival rates will not tell you how long you will live after you have been diagnosed with bladder cancer. But, these numbers can give you an idea of how likely your treatment will be successful. Also, survival rates take into account your age at diagnosis but not whether you have other health conditions too.

Survival For All Stages Of Prostate Cancer

Oncologic Outcomes of Surgery in T3 Prostate Cancer: Experience of a ...

Generally for men with prostate cancer in England:

  • more than 95 out of 100 will survive their cancer for 1 year or more
  • more than 85 out of 100 will survive their cancer for 5 years or more
  • almost 80 out of 100 will survive their cancer for 10 years or more

Survival for prostate cancer is also reported in Scotland and Northern Ireland. But it is difficult to compare survival between these countries because of differences in the way the information is collected.

Cancer survival by stage at diagnosis for England, 2019Office for National Statistics

These statistics are for net survival. Net survival estimates the number of people who survive their cancer rather than calculating the number of people diagnosed with cancer who are still alive. In other words, it is the survival of cancer patients after taking into account the background mortality that they would have experienced if they had not had cancer.

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Survival Rates In Prostate Cancer: The Facts

For you as a patient, the disease-specific survival rate is the decisive aspect: what are the chances of surviving prostate cancer? 98 % of our patients who underwent radical prostatectomy, and in whom the tumor was confined to the prostate gland , were still alive 10 years after their operation. Even in patients with an advanced stage tumor , the survival rates are between 72 and 95 %.

Disease-speciic survival rates of our patients after 10 years in percent

The table on the page Results shows the disease-specific survival rate of our patients following surgery, according to the stage of the tumor.

  • If the tumor was confined to the protstate or had “only” spread to the periphery of the prostate, the 10-year survival rate was more than 98%.
  • If cancer cells had already spread to the seminal vesicle or to the area surrounding the prostate, the rate was between 87% and 77% respectively.
  • If the lymph nodes were affected , 81% of our patients survived.
  • If the preoperative PSA value was > 20 ng/mL , the disease-specific survival rate was 93%.
  • If the preoperative Gleason Score was 8 or higher, 70% of the patients survived.

Good Prostate Cancer Care

Your MDT will be able to recommend what they feel are the best treatment options, but ultimately the decision is yours.

You should be able to talk with a named specialist nurse about treatment options and possible side effects to help you make a decision.

You should also be told about any clinical trials you may be eligible for.

If you have side effects from treatment, you should be referred to specialist services to help stop or ease these side effects.

Recommended Reading: What Causes The Prostate Gland To Become Enlarged

Risk Of Progression Of Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer can also be classified based on the risk of recurrence . For this assessment, that can impact your choice of therapeutic approach, we take into account your clinical stage, PSA level, and Gleason score.

Low risk

Your cancer may be at low risk of spreading if:

  • Your PSA level is less than 10 ng/mL
  • You Gleason score is 6 or less
  • Your cancer is stage T1 or T2a

Medium risk

Your cancer may be at medium risk of spreading if:

  • Your PSA level is between 10 and 20 ng/mL
  • Your Gleason score is 7
  • Your cancer is stage T2b

High risk

Your cancer may be at high risk of spreading if:

  • Your PSA level is higher than 20 ng/mL
  • Your Gleason score is 8, 9 or 10
  • Your cancer is stage T2c, T3 or T4

Staging Of Prostate Cancer

Metastatic Prostate Cancer Death Rate Remains Unchanged

Doctors will use the results of your prostate examination, biopsy and scans to identify the stage of your prostate cancer .

The stage of the cancer will determine which types of treatments will be necessary.

If prostate cancer is diagnosed at an early stage, the chances of survival are generally good.

Read Also: Best Treatment For Gleason 7 Prostate Cancer

Towards A Meaningful Definition Of High

In the United States, approximately 238,590 men were expected to be diagnosed with prostate cancer in 2013, and 29,720 prostate cancer patients were anticipated to die of their disease in 2013.2 Many of the patients who die of prostate cancer present initially with tumours seemingly confined to the gland this arguably represents true high-risk disease and new approaches are needed for these patients. By current estimates, high-risk disease accounts for 15% of all prostate cancer diagnoses3. The limitations of determining risk based on the T, N, M classification, which does not include Gleason score or PSA, have long been recognized. An important first step toward a more reliable schema was first proposed by D’Amico et al.,4 using an endpoint of PSA failure and defining high-risk as a clinical T stage cT2c, a Gleason score 8, or a PSA > 20 ng/mL this definition has been adopted by the American Urological Association .5 The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group developed the first classification which associated specific baseline factors with overall survival and cause-specific survival, arguably more relevant measures. High risk in the RTOG classification includes 1) Gleason 8, or 2) Gleason =7 plus either cT3 or node-positive PSA adds little to this model for the prediction of cause-specific survival or overall survival.6 When combining the RTOG model with the Kattan nomogram, the ability to predict prostate cancerspecific survival is improved.7

Stage 1 Prostate Cancer

In stage 1, the cancer is confined to the prostate. Stage 1 prostate cancer cant be detected during a digital rectal exam and is usually expected to be slow-growing. The tumor is one half of one lobe of the prostate or even less . There is no regional lymph node metastasis and no distant metastasis. . The PSA level is below 10ng/ml. The Grade Group is 1.

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How Do Health Care Professionals Determine Bladder Cancer Staging

Bladder cancer is staged using the tumor node metastases system developed by the International Union Against Cancer in 1997 and updated and used by the American Joint Committee on Cancer . In addition, the American Urologic Association has a similar staging system that varies slightly from that used by the AJCC. The combination of both staging systems appears below. This staging gives your physician a complete picture of the extent of the persons bladder cancer.

The T stage refers to the depth of penetration of the tumor from the innermost lining to the deeper layers of the bladder. The T stages are as follows:

  • Ta Noninvasive papillary carcinoma
  • T3 Tumor invades perivesical fatty tissue
  • T3a Microscopically
  • T3b Macroscopically
  • T4 Tumor spreads beyond fatty tissue and invades any of the following: prostate, uterus, vagina, pelvic wall, or abdominal wall
  • The presence and extent of involvement of the lymph nodes in the pelvic region of the body near the urinary bladder determines the N stage. The N stages are as follows:

    The metastases or the M stage signifies the presence or absence of the spread of bladder cancer to other organs of the body.

    • Mx Distant metastasis cannot be evaluated
    • M0 No distant metastasis

    A health care professional then assigns a stage:


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