Who Is At Risk For Prostate Cancer
All men are at risk for prostate cancer, but African-American men are more likely to get prostate cancer than other men.
All men are at risk for prostate cancer. Out of every 100 American men, about 13 will get prostate cancer during their lifetime, and about 2 to 3 men will die from prostate cancer.
The most common risk factor is age. The older a man is, the greater the chance of getting prostate cancer.
Some men are at increased risk for prostate cancer. You are at increased risk for getting or dying from prostate cancer if you are African-American or have a family history of prostate cancer.
How Do You Lower Your Risk Of Prostate Cancer
The success in treating prostate cancer has also provided more knowledge on how to lower our risks of prostate cancer. While there are many factors, such as genes, age and race, that we arent able to control there are a few factors that we can control to help lower risks, including:
- Schedule a physical with your doctor each year. This is important because the beginning stages of prostate cancer have few or no symptoms. An annual physical can help detect the disease in the earliest stages.
- Eating a healthy diet that includes at least 2.5 cups of fruits and vegetables each day. Vegetables such as cabbage, broccoli, tomatoes, and cauliflower are especially good.
- Avoiding obesity by keeping your body at a healthy weight.
- Exercising on a regular basis.
- Avoid smoking, or quit if you already smoke.
- Talk to your doctor. If you feel that you are at a greater risk to develop prostate cancer, talk to your doctor about additional vitamins, mineral, or medications that you can take to help lower your risks.
For help with this disease in the Maryland and Washington, D.C., area, contact us to make an appointment with one of our prostate cancer specialists. Our staff members are up-to-date on the latest clinical trials and cancer research and will help you choose the best treatment option to successfully battle this disease.
What Is A Normal Psa Test Result
There is no specific normal or abnormal level of PSA in the blood, and levels may vary over time in the same man. In the past, most doctors considered PSA levels of 4.0 ng/mL and lower as normal. Therefore, if a man had a PSA level above 4.0 ng/mL, doctors would often recommend a prostate biopsy to determine whether prostate cancer was present.
However, more recent studies have shown that some men with PSA levels below 4.0 ng/mL have prostate cancer and that many men with higher levels do not have prostate cancer . In addition, various factors can cause a mans PSA level to fluctuate. For example, a mans PSA level often rises if he has prostatitis or a urinary tract infection. Prostate biopsies and prostate surgery also increase PSA level. Conversely, some drugsincluding finasteride and dutasteride , which are used to treat BPHlower a mans PSA level. PSA level may also vary somewhat across testing laboratories.
Another complicating factor is that studies to establish the normal range of PSA levels have been conducted primarily in populations of White men. Although expert opinions vary, there is no clear consensus regarding the optimal PSA threshold for recommending a prostate biopsy for men of any racial or ethnic group.
In general, however, the higher a mans PSA level, the more likely it is that he has prostate cancer. Moreover, a continuous rise in a mans PSA level over time may also be a sign of prostate cancer.
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When It Comes To Defeating Prostate Cancer Know Thy Enemy
The quick and dirty answer to the question, who is at risk for prostate cancer? is this: every man on the planet. Are you a man reading this? Then you are at risk for prostate cancer. Its the second most common and lethal form of cancer affecting men in the US. One in eight men this year will be diagnosed with the disease. There are 3.1 million American men living with prostate cancer right now. Its incredibly common. Thats the bad news.
But heres the good news prostate cancer treatment today is not what it was back in your fathers or grandfathers day. Screening, diagnostic, and treatment methods have evolved tremendously over the past few decades. Today, men have so many more options that are far less invasive than the one-size-fits-all treatments of the past. So many options in fact, that more than 98% of men diagnosed with prostate cancer will survive at least 5 years if the disease is caught and treated early.
That last part is key caught and treated early. If weve learned anything, its that early detection saves lives. Thanks to the introduction of advanced, next-generation technology like prostate MRI scans, MRI-guided biopsies, and more biomarker and genetic tests than ever before, men can get the targeted diagnosis and personalized, minimally invasive treatment they need with a much lower risk of side effects.
Prostate Cancer Is Common With Aging
After skin cancer, prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men. About 1 in 7 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in their lifetime. And these are just the men who are diagnosed. Among very elderly men dying of other causes, a surprising two-thirds may have prostate cancer that was never diagnosed.
Only 1 in 36 men, though, actually dies from prostate cancer. Thatâs because most prostate cancers are diagnosed in older men in whom the disease is more likely to be slow-growing and non-aggressive. The majority of these men eventually pass away from heart disease, stroke, or other causes â not their prostate cancer.
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How Is Prostate Cancer Diagnosed
Screenings are the most effective way to catch prostate cancer early. If you are at average cancer risk, youll probably have your first prostate screening at age 55. Your healthcare provider may start testing earlier if you have a family history of the disease or are Black. Screening is generally stopped after age 70, but may be continued in certain circumstances.
Screening tests for prostate cancer include:
- Digital rectal exam: Your provider inserts a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum and feels the prostate gland, which sits in front of the rectum. Bumps or hard areas could indicate cancer.
- Prostate-specific antigen blood test: The prostate gland makes a protein called protein-specific antigen . Elevated PSA levels may indicate cancer. Levels also rise if you have BPH or prostatitis.
- Biopsy: A needle biopsy to sample tissue for cancer cells is the only sure way to diagnose prostate cancer. During an MRI-guided prostate biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging technology provides detailed images of the prostate.
Being Overweight Or Obese
Obese means being very overweight with a body mass index of 30 or higher. And being overweight means having a BMI of between 25 and 30.
Try to keep a healthy weight by being physically active and eating a healthy, balanced diet.
There is some evidence that being active might help to lower your risk of developing prostate cancer.
Being overweight or obese increases your risk of advanced prostate cancer. Researchers have found a link between being obese or overweight and cancers being higher grade .
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Possible Changes In Circulation And Temperature
- Arms and legs may feel cool to the touch as circulation slows down
- Skin on arms, legs, hands, and feet may darken and look blue or mottled
- Other areas of the body may become either darker or paler
- Skin may feel cold and either dry or damp
- Heart rate may become fast, faint, or irregular
- Blood pressure may get lower and become hard to hear
Family History And Genetics
Your family history is information about any health problems that have affected your family. Families have many common factors, such as their genes, environment and lifestyle. Together, these factors can help suggest if you are more likely to get some health conditions.
Inside every cell in our body is a set of instructions called genes. These are passed down from our parents. Genes control how the body grows, works and what it looks like. If something goes wrong with one or more genes , it can sometimes cause cancer.
Is prostate cancer hereditary?
If people in your family have prostate cancer or breast cancer, it might increase your own risk of getting prostate cancer. This is because you may have inherited the same faulty genes.
My father had prostate cancer. What are my risks?
- You are two and a half times more likely to get prostate cancer if your father or brother has had it, compared to a man who has no relatives with prostate cancer.
- Your chance of getting prostate cancer may be even greater if your father or brother was under 60 when he was diagnosed, or if you have more than one close relative with prostate cancer.
- Your risk of getting prostate cancer may also be higher if your mother or sister has had breast cancer.
Do you have a family history of prostate cancer?
If you’re over 45 and your father or brother has had prostate cancer, you may want to talk to your GP. Our Specialist Nurses can also help you understand your hereditary risk of prostate cancer.
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What Are The Stages Of Prostate Cancer
Your healthcare provider uses the Gleason score and Grade Groups to stage prostate cancer based on its projected aggressiveness. To get this information, the pathologist:
- Assigns a grade to each type of cell in your sample. Cells are graded on a scale of three to five . Samples that test in the one to two range are considered normal tissue.
- Adds together the two most common grades to get your Gleason score .
- Uses the Gleason score to place you into a Grade Group ranging from one to five. A Gleason score of six puts you in Grade Group 1 . A score of nine or higher puts you in Grade Group five . Samples with a higher portion of more aggressive cells receive a higher Grade Group.
Youre Exposed To Toxins Or Stress
If you live in a polluted environment or work with toxic chemicals, youre at increased risk for prostate cancer. Sexually transmitted diseases also increase your risk, so wear a condom during intercourse and be sure to get tested regularly for STDs.
Even the kinds of habits and substances you expose yourself to due to lifestyle choices may increase your risk. Avoid:
You should also try to achieve and maintain a healthy weight, because obesity raises your risk. If you need help adjusting your lifestyle, talk to us about medically supervised weight loss. We can also refer you to a substance-use program, if necessary.
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A Note About Sex And Gender
Sex and gender exist on spectrums. This article will use the terms, male, female, or both to refer to sex assigned at birth. .
will depend on the cancer stage, among other factors, such as the Gleason score and PSA levels. It is also worth noting that many treatment options may be applicable, regardless of the stage of cancer.
In the sections below, we list some for prostate cancer and explore what treatment may mean for fertility.
What Questions Should I Ask My Healthcare Provider
If you have prostate cancer, you may want to ask your healthcare provider:
- Why did I get prostate cancer?
- What is my Gleason score? What is my Grade Group? What do these numbers mean for me?
- Has the cancer spread outside of the prostate gland?
- What is the best treatment for the stage of prostate cancer I have?
- If I choose active surveillance, what can I expect? What signs of cancer should I look out for?
- What are the treatment risks and side effects?
- Is my family at risk for developing prostate cancer? If so, should we get genetic tests?
- Am I at risk for other types of cancer?
- What type of follow-up care do I need after treatment?
- Should I look out for signs of complications?
A note from Cleveland Clinic
Prostate cancer is a common cancer that affects males. Most prostate cancers grow slowly and remain in the prostate gland. For a small number, the disease can be aggressive and spread quickly to other parts of the body. Men with slow-growing prostate cancers may choose active surveillance. With this approach, you can postpone, and sometimes completely forego, treatments. Your healthcare provider can discuss the best treatment option for you based on your Gleason score and Group Grade.
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Myth: If You Have A Low Psa You Dont Have Prostate Cancer
Fact: PSA levels can be useful in diagnosing prostate cancer, but theyre really only one piece of the larger puzzle. The PSA test is far from perfect, Sartor says. He draws a parallel between low PSA readings and negative mammograms in women. If you have a negative mammogram, its not 100 in terms of excluding cancer. The probability is less, but likewise just because your PSA is relatively low, you cant interpret that to mean that there is no cancer present.
However, the opposite can also occur: Sartor described a different scenario in which one of his patients a very bright and accomplished attorney has a biopsy after getting an elevated PSA, and the biopsy came back negative. After this negative result he figured he didnt have cancer, and waited three to four years before having his PSA tested again, Sartor says. Now he has prostate cancer that has spread to other parts of his body. In other words: metastatic disease. He took the negative biopsy as literally meaning he doesnt have cancer, and it turned out badly for him.
To get the most complete picture of your prostate health, you need to get other diagnostic tests as well. This may mean getting a biopsy. But that standard is changing, says Sartor, citing a major study published in The New England Journal of Medicine in March 2018 and The Lancet in February 2017 that point to the value of a special type of MRI imaging called multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging.
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Regular Aspirin Use May Reduce Risk Of Dying From Prostate Cancer
A large observational study has found that men who take aspirin regularly may have a lower risk of dying from prostate cancer.
Men who took aspirin regularly after their prostate cancer diagnosis were less likely to die from the disease.
However, aspirin did not affect the overall incidence of prostate cancer.
It is premature to recommend aspirin for prevention of lethal prostate cancer, butmen with prostate cancer who may already benefit from aspirins cardiovascular effects could have one more reason to consider regular aspirin use, said lead study author Christopher Brian Allard, MD, Urologic Oncology Fellow at Brigham and Womenâs Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts.
When discussing potential benefits of aspirin with their doctors, in terms of both cardiovascular health and risk of prostate cancer death, men should also consider potential risks of regular aspirin use.
Many studies have looked at medications and supplements that help reduce the risk of death from prostate cancer among healthy men or prolong survival of men with prostate cancer.
Prior studies on aspirin and prostate cancer prevention have reported conflicting findings.
According to the authors, this is the first study to specifically focus on prevention of lethal cancer, clarifying the role aspirin may play in prevention of advanced disease.
The researchers analysed data from 22,071 men enrolled in the Physicians Health Study.
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How Does Prostate Cancer Kill You In The End
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer after skin cancer in men in the US and the second leading cause of cancer death. Prostate-specific antigen testing has made the detection of prostate cancer easier in its early stages. Ninety-two out of 100 men get diagnosed when the cancer is limited to the prostate.
Most men are diagnosed with prostate cancer in their senior years and only 1 out of 36 men die from it. Death from prostate cancer most often happens when cancer has spread to other organs in the body. This is known as the advanced stage of prostate cancer.
The chances of survival decrease as cancer spreads beyond the prostate. If cancer has metastasized to other parts of the body, only three out of 10 men will survive for five years after the diagnosis.
Advanced stage prostate cancer or metastasized prostate cancer
Cancerous cells may spread to organs other than the site of origin. In the case of prostate cancer, this tendency is decreased, but it can happen. Advanced stage prostate cancer is defined based on the Gleason score, which is based on the TNM staging of cancer. T stands for tumor size, N stands for lymph node involvement and M stands for metastasis.
Prostate cancer can kill in the end through metastases that can develop in
Metastasis to the liver can affect the livers ability to filter out toxins from the body. This can eventually lead to jaundice, nausea, loss of appetite and weight loss.
You Live In A Prostate
Asian men who live in Asia have a reduced risk for prostate cancer, when compared to Asian men who live in other parts of the world. Researchers dont yet know why certain geographic areas are more associated with prostate cancer than others, though levels of pollution and lifestyle factors may be at play.
Youre more likely to develop prostate cancer if you live in:
Men who live in Africa, Asia, and Central or South America, in contrast, are at decreased risk.
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