Questions And Answers About Soy
The soybean plant has been grown in Asia for food for hundreds of years. The soybean can be made into products, such as soy milk, miso, tofu, soy flour, and oil.
Isoflavones are phytoestrogens that attach to estrogen receptors found in prostate cancercells. Genistein may affect some processes inside prostate cancer cells that are involved in the growth and spread of cancer.
Soy may be eaten in food or taken in dietary supplements.
See the Laboratory/Animal/Preclinical Studies section of the health professional version of Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements for information on laboratory and animal studies done using soy.
Population studies and clinical trials have been done to find out if soy can prevent or treat prostate cancer. The results of these studies have been mixed. Some studies have shown a lower risk of prostate cancer or a change in prostate-specific antigen level, and others have not. The results may be mixed because the number of men participating in the studies is small and different types and doses of soy products were given for varying lengths of time.
Combined population studies
The Perfect Model For Research
Prostate cancers characteristic latency makes it the perfect model for longitudinal research, and that is exactly what Hollis and his group conducted over an extended period of time. Their pilot study evaluated the effects of enhancing vitamin D status and the subsequent related changes in prostate cancer tumor progression in a significant number of subjects over 1 year. A secondary objective was to compare prostate gland changes from a molecular standpoint before and after treatment with vitamin D3 for a period of 2 months for men who had chosen surgery over active surveillance. They presented their results at a meeting of the American Chemical Society in March 2015.2
Mechanisms Of Calcium And Vitamin D Action In Control Of Neoplastic Cell Growth
The CaR is an essential part of an intricate network of calcium signaling pathways that control normal and cancer cell growth , Depending on cell-specific coupling to appropriate G-proteins, activation of the CaR by elevated extracellular Ca2+ reduces the rate of cellular proliferation as in human colon carcinoma or ovarian surface epithelial cells , but may also stimulate cell growth as in malignant Leydig cells and protect from apoptosis, for example, in prostate cancer cells .
1,252D3 exerts antiproliferative effects on cancer cells by modulating the transcriptional activity of key genes involved in cell cycle control . 1,252D3 may also suppress tumor growth and progression indirectly by facilitating immunocytotoxic killing of tumor cells: 1,252D3 reduces levels of immunosuppressive CD34+ lymphocytes, which normally limit the cytotoxic activity of infiltrating tumor-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes . The nearly ubiquitous expression of CYP27B1 and the importance of intrinsic 1,252D3 production in controlling cell proliferation may explain why vitamin D insufficiency increases the risk of malignancies in many organs and biological systems.
Co-operative signalling from 1,252D3/VDR and Ca2+/CaR inhibits proliferation and promotes differentiation of human colon cancer cells.
Relative risk of colorectal cancer for total calcium intake by levels of total vitamin D intake. Data are from Table IV in Ishihara et al. .
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What Is Advanced Prostate Cancer
When prostate cancer spreads beyond the prostate or returns after treatment, it is often called advanced prostate cancer.
Prostate cancer is often grouped into four stages, with stages III and IV being more advanced prostate cancer.
- Early Stage | Stages I & II: The tumor has not spread beyond the prostate.
- Locally Advanced | Stage III: Cancer has spread outside the prostate but only to nearby tissues.
- Advanced | Stage IV: Cancer has spread outside the prostate to other parts such as the lymph nodes, bones, liver or lungs.
When an early stage prostate cancer is found, it may be treated or placed on surveillance . Advanced prostate cancer is not curable, but there are many ways to treat it. Treatment can help slow advanced prostate cancer progression.
There are several types of advanced prostate cancer, including:
With biochemical recurrence, the prostate-specific antigen level has risen after treatment using surgery or radiation, with no other sign of cancer.
Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer
Non-Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer that no longer responds to hormone treatment and is only found in the prostate. This is found by a rise in the PSA level, while the testosterone level stays low. Imaging tests do not show signs the cancer has spread.
Metastatic Prostate Cancer
- Lymph nodes outside the pelvis
- Other organs, such as liver or lungs
Metastatic Hormone-Sensitive Prostate Cancer
Vitamin D And Risk Of Prostate Cancer
Valerie Clinard, PharmDCampbell University College of Pharmacy & Health SciencesCo-Director, Campbell University Drug Information CenterBuies Creek, North Carolina
Campbell University College of Pharmacy & Health SciencesFuquay Varina, North Carolina
US Pharm. 2013 38:8-11.
ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men and the second most common cause ofdeath from cancer among white, African American, American Indian/NativeAlaskan, and Hispanic men. The epidemiology of prostate cancer is notfully understood however, several risk factors have been documented,including increasing age, family history, and race. Vitamin D also hasbeen suggested as a risk factor. Dietary vitamin D intake, serum vitaminD levels, and sunlight exposure have been investigated to determinewhether vitamin D is associated with an increased or decreased risk ofprostate cancer. Epidemiologic studies evaluating the correlationbetween risk of prostate cancer and vitamin D levels are conflicting.
Excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer, prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men, regardless of race or ethnicity.1It is the second most common cause of death from cancer among white,African American, American Indian/Native Alaskan, and Hispanic men. In2008, a total of 214,633 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer in theUnited States, and 28,471 men died from the disease.
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Questions And Answers About Green Tea
Tea comes from the Camellia sinensis plant. The way tea leaves are processed determines whether green tea, black tea, or oolong tea is made. Green tea leaves are steamed and dried.
The health benefits studied in green tea are thought to be from compounds called polyphenols. Polyphenols are a group of plant chemicals that include catechins . Catechins make up most of the polyphenols in green tea.
Catechins in green tea can vary widely, depending on the source of the tea leaves and the way they are processed. This makes it hard to identify most of the chemical factors linked to the health benefits of green tea.
People usually drink green tea or take it as a dietary supplement.
See the Laboratory/Animal/Preclinical Studies section of the health professional version of Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements for information on laboratory and animal studies done using green tea.
Why Are Cancer Researchers Studying A Possible Connection Between Vitamin D And Cancer Risk
Early epidemiologic research showed that incidence and death rates for certain cancers were lower among individuals living in southern latitudes, where levels of sunlight exposure are relatively high, than among those living at northern latitudes. Because exposure to ultraviolet light from sunlight leads to the production of vitamin D, researchers hypothesized that variation in vitamin D levels might account for this association. However, additional research based on stronger study designs is required to determine whether higher vitamin D levels are related to lower cancer incidence or death rates.
Experimental evidence has also suggested a possible association between vitamin D and cancer risk. In studies of cancer cells and of tumors in mice, vitamin D has been found to have several activities that might slow or prevent the development of cancer, including promoting cellular differentiation, decreasing cancer cell growth, stimulating cell death , and reducing tumor blood vessel formation .
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An enlarged prostate can also be the cause of other problems. If the enlarged prostate is causing symptoms, the best treatment would be a natural remedy. In the meantime, there are treatments for a wide range of conditions that cause a man to experience pain. A common surgical procedure involves an electric loop, laser, or electro-stimulation. The procedure is a safe and effective option for treating enlarged or symptomatic BPH.
Model Of Vd3 Function In Prostate Cancer Treatment
Considering these findings, it was expected that low-dose VD3 treatment could provide an advantage in the treatment of prostate cancer cells through IGFBP-3dependent and IGFBP-3independent manner. In addition, we uncovered the unique property of IGFBP-3 induction by which temporal VD3 treatment could induce sustained prolonged IGFBP-3 expression, allowing reduction of the amount of VD3 usage, by that could prevent side-effect of VD3 treatment. These findings are summarized in Fig. .
Schematic diagram of the molecular basis of VD3 treatment. VD3 treatment sensitizes the treatment of anticancer drugs in an IGFBP-3dependent manner. DHT treatment enhances IGFBP-3 expression through the suppression of CYP24A1 induction. VD3 treatment also reduces Bcl-2 protein expression in an IGFBP-3independent manner
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Treatments For Prostate Cancer Spread To Bones
If prostate cancer spreads to other parts of the body, it nearly always goes to the bones first. Bone metastasis can be painful and can cause other problems, such as fractures , spinal cord compression , or high blood calcium levels, which can be dangerous or even life threatening.
If the cancer has grown outside the prostate, preventing or slowing the spread of the cancer to the bones is a major goal of treatment. If the cancer has already reached the bones, controlling or relieving pain and other complications is also a very important part of treatment.
Screening For And Diagnosing Prostate Cancer
Some doctors implement routine screens for prostate cancer after youre 50 years old. The digital rectal exam and a prostate-specific antigen blood test are two initial tests that help your doctor diagnose prostate cancer.
During a DRE, your doctor will insert their finger into your rectum to check the size, shape, and texture of your prostate.
Your doctor will likely perform a PSA blood test during the same appointment. This test checks the level of PSA in your bloodstream. The higher the PSA level, the more likely it is that you have a problem with your prostate.
If your rectal exam or PSA tests are abnormal, your doctor may order an ultrasound or a prostate biopsy to assess whether you have prostate cancer.
research shows that vitamin D slows prostate cancer growth, safety concerns exist. High doses of vitamin D may cause hypercalcemia. This occurs when you have too much calcium in your blood. Too much vitamin D may also worsen some pre-existing conditions.
A less toxic form of vitamin D may be a treatment option, but more research is necessary to prove its effective and safe. As a result, vitamin D isnt an established treatment for prostate cancer at this time.
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Lycopene: Questions And Answers
Lycopene is a carotenoid . It mixes with or dissolves in fats. Lycopene protects plants from light-related stress and helps them use the energy of the sun to make nutrients. Lycopene is found in fruits and vegetables like tomatoes, apricots, guavas, and watermelons.
The main source of lycopene in the United States is tomato-based products. Lycopene is easier for the body to use when it is eaten in processed tomato products like tomato paste and tomato puree than in raw tomatoes.
Lycopene may be eaten in food or taken in dietary supplements.
For information on laboratory and animal studies done using lycopene, see the Laboratory/Animal/Preclinical Studies section of the health professional version of Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements.
Population studies and clinical trials have been done to find out if lycopene can prevent or treat prostate cancer. Clinical trials have shown mixed results some studies have shown a lower risk of prostate cancer or a decrease in prostate-specific antigen level, and others have not. There is not enough evidence to know whether lycopene can prevent or treat prostate cancer.
Population and combined studies
What You Need To Know About The Prostate Vitamin D Kills Prostate Cancer Cells
The main purpose of the prostate is to produce semen, a milky fluid that sperm swims in. During puberty, the body produces semen in a large number of cases, including enlarged prostate. This fluid causes the prostate to swell and cause a number of bladder-related symptoms. This is why the prostate is important to the body. It can be caused by many factors, including infection and inflammation.
A enlarged prostate can also cause blockages in the urethra. A blocked urethra can also damage the kidneys. A patient suffering from an enlargement of the prostate may have pain in his lower abdomen and genitals. If pain is present, a digital rectal examination will reveal hard areas. A doctor may prescribe surgery or perform an endoscopic procedure. If the enlarged prostate is not completely removed, it will shrink.
While the size of an enlarged prostate will influence the extent of urinary symptoms, men may experience a range of urinary symptoms. Some men have minimal or no symptoms at all. Some men will have a very enlarged prostate, whereas others will have a mild enlargement. Generally, the symptoms can stabilize over time. Some men may have an enlarged prostate but not notice it. If they have an enlarged colon, their physician can perform a TURP procedure.
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Gcmaf Therapy Destroys Cancer
Neither physicians nor scientists alike completely understood the critical role and benefits that optimal vitamin D3 levels provide to human physiology and pathology until the past decade. There has been zero evidence suggesting any toxicity concerns for the use of D3 to modulate GcMAF activity and suppress cancer since research from 2007. What we know today is that vitamin D elevates GcMAF concentrations and provides the following anti-cancer mechanisms:
- Boost macrophage activity
- Increase in lymphocytes to normal levels
- Increases platelet and red blood cell count
- Stimulate cancer cell apoptosis
- 25% Reduction in tumor size in less than 1 week
Clinical Trials Of Vitamin D And Its Analogues For Treatment Of Cancers
2.3.1. Vitamin D and 1,252D3
Initial trials of vitamin D have been conducted using its original form. It has been found that 400 IU is the optimal and safe dose of vitamin D for adults to prevent cancers, while high-dose higher than 2000 IU may inversely promote cancer growth in multiple cancer types such as gastric, pancreatic, colorectal and breast cancers58. The selection of proper doses might be one of the reasons for the controversial role of vitamin D in cancer prevention and treatment. In one study, vitamin D intake daily significantly decreased risks of lung cancer among non-smoking participants59. However, a clinical trial including 2303 subjects found that vitamin D intake was not associated with lower cancer risk compared with the placebo control group in all cancer types60. Furthermore, it is seemed that high dose supplementation of calcium and vitamin D was correlated with undesirable results. For example, daily intake of calcium and vitamin D continuous for 35 years could increase the incidence of serrated adenomas in colon among the participants with one or more colon polyps61.
2.3.2. Vitamin D analogues
Structures of vitamin D analogues.
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Early Acceptance Positive Mindset Key To Fighting Cancer: Survivors
Taking vitamin D supplements could slow or even reverse the progression of less aggressive, or low-grade, prostate tumours without the need for surgery or radiation, new research has found.
“We do not know yet whether vitamin D treats or prevents prostate cancer,” said Bruce Hollis from the Medical University of South Carolina.
“At the minimum, what it may do is keep lower-grade prostate cancers from going ballistic,” Hollis noted.
The findings were presented at the 249th National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society , the world’s largest scientific society, in Denver, US.
In cases of low-grade prostate cancer, many urologists do not treat the disease, but instead do what’s called “active surveillance,” Hollis explained.
As a man must wait 60 days from the time of his biopsy before he can undergo a prostatectomy, so that inflammation from the biopsy can subside, Hollis wondered if giving these men vitamin D supplements during the 60-day waiting period would affect their prostate cancer.
In a new randomised, controlled clinical trial, his team assigned 37 men undergoing elective prostatectomies either to a group that received 4,000 unit of vitamin D per day, or to a placebo group that did not receive vitamin D.
The men’s prostate glands were removed and examined 60 days later.
Also, vitamin D caused dramatic changes in the expression levels of many cell lipids and proteins, particularly those involved in inflammation.