Prostate Cancer Is A Disease In Which Malignant Cells Form In The Tissues Of The Prostate
The prostate is agland in the malereproductive system. It lies just below the bladder and in front of the rectum . It is about the size of a walnut and surrounds part of the urethra . The prostate gland makes fluid that is part of the .
Drugs To Treat Cancer Spread To Bone
If prostate cancer spreads to other parts of the body, it almost always goes to the bones first. These areas of cancer spread can cause pain and weak bones that might break. Medicines that can help strengthen the bones and lower the chance of fracture are bisphosphonates and denosumab. Sometimes, radiation, radiopharmaceuticals, or pain medicines are given for pain control.
Side effects of bone medicines
A serious side effect of bisphosphonates and denosumab is damage to the jaw, also called osteonecrosis of the jaw . Most people will need to get approval from their dentist before starting one of these drugs.
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Physical Emotional And Social Effects Of Cancer
Cancer and its treatment cause physical symptoms and side effects, as well as emotional, social, and financial effects. Managing all of these effects is called palliative care or supportive care. It is an important part of your care that is included along with treatments intended to slow, stop, or eliminate the cancer.
Palliative care focuses on improving how you feel during treatment by managing symptoms and supporting patients and their families with other, non-medical needs. Any person, regardless of age or type and stage of cancer, may receive this type of care. And it often works best when it is started right after a cancer diagnosis. People who receive palliative care along with treatment for the cancer often have less severe symptoms, better quality of life, and report that they are more satisfied with treatment.
Palliative treatments vary widely and often include medication, nutritional changes, relaxation techniques, emotional and spiritual support, and other therapies. You may also receive palliative treatments similar to those meant to get rid of the cancer, such as chemotherapy, surgery, or radiation therapy.
Before treatment begins, talk with your doctor about the goals of each treatment in the treatment plan. You should also talk about the possible side effects of the specific treatment plan and palliative care options.
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There Are Different Types Of Treatment For Patients With Prostate Cancer
Different types of treatment are available for patients withprostate cancer. Some treatments are standard , and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.
How Turp Affects Advanced Prostate Cancer
TURP is not used as a curative treatment option in prostate cancer. Instead, it is used as a palliative care measure, meaning a treatment designed to treat or reduce the symptoms of an underlying condition, but not to treat the condition itself. When a prostate cancer tumor grows to the point that it begins pushing on the urethra, bladder or urinary issues may occur. By removing the part of the cancer or prostate that is now pushing on the tube, some of these symptoms may be alleviated.
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After Prostate Cancer Has Been Diagnosed Tests Are Done To Find Out If Cancer Cells Have Spread Within The Prostate Or To Other Parts Of The Body
The process used to find out if cancer has spread within theprostate or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. The results of the tests used to diagnoseprostate cancer are often also used to stage the disease. In prostate cancer, staging tests may not be done unless the patient has symptoms or signs that the cancer has spread, such as bone pain, a high PSA level, or a high Gleason score.
The following tests and procedures also may be used in the staging process:
How Fast Does Prostate Cancer Develop
they typically die with the disease, The following are some of these testHow Quickly and Fast Does Prostate Cancer Spread?The answer is dependent on the following variables:The Gleason score can affect the outlook and treatment, prostate cancer that has spread to the liver is still prostate cancer, Prostate cancer tends to grow slowly compared with most other cancers, Prostate cancer is usually curable when caught and treated early, not liver cancer, Low level of PSA may point to less quickly of cancerHow Prostate Cancer Is Diagnosed?There are several procedures and tests that need to be performed by doctors before making a clearly diagnosis, 20, Therefore, doctor may recommend actiHow Do You Know If Prostate Cancer Has Spread?Cancer that has spread is more likely to generate more complications than when it is still at early stage , It is more likely to occur in men with a family history of prostate cancer and men of African American descent, Growth
For instance,000 menMen who have prostate cancer that has spread to other parts of the body might get some of the problems we describe on this page.The symptoms you have will depend on where the cancer has spread to and how quickly it is growing.
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Turp For Prostate Cancer
Transurethral resection of the prostate is just one of the prostate cancer surgery options offered by Moffitt Cancer Center. Committed to comprehensive patient care, our surgical team is here to provide:
- Individualized assessments of a patients specific needs Each patients case will be assessed by a multispecialty team of surgeons, physicians, medical and radiation oncologists and other medical professionals. This team will work together to determine if a TURP is a proper option for the patients unique situation.
- Advanced treatment in our leading-edge operating rooms Our TURP surgeons are among the most experienced in their field and have access to the latest innovations in surgical technology.
- Postoperative monitoring and supportive care throughout the duration of recovery After a patients TURP, Moffitts surgical team will evaluate the patient for any complications, offer assistance with postsurgical rehabilitation and make recommendations for any other forms of treatment that might be necessary. Patients can also meet with dietitians, social workers, pharmacists, chaplains and educators all in a single, convenient location.
Medically reviewed by Monica Chatwal, MD.
Our expert oncologists can help you determine if a transurethral resection of the prostate would be an appropriate procedure for your specific needs. No referral is required to make an appointment. To learn more about our approach to TURP, call or request to schedule a visit online.
After A Turp For Prostate Cancer
You will be encouraged to start moving around as soon as you can after your operation. This can help reduce the risk of complications. We have more information about what to expect after surgery.
After a TURP, you will usually have a drip into a vein in your arm. This will stay in for a few hours after your operation, until you are eating and drinking again.
You will also have a tube to drain urine from the bladder into a bag.
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An enlarged prostate can also be the cause of other problems. If the enlarged prostate is causing symptoms, the best treatment would be a natural remedy. In the meantime, there are treatments for a wide range of conditions that cause a man to experience pain. A common surgical procedure involves an electric loop, laser, or electro-stimulation. The procedure is a safe and effective option for treating enlarged or symptomatic BPH.
There Are Three Ways That Cancer Spreads In The Body
- Tissue. The cancer spreads from where it began by growing into nearby areas.
- Lymph system. The cancer spreads from where it began by getting into the lymph system. The cancer travels through the lymph vessels to other parts of the body.
- Blood. The cancer spreads from where it began by getting into the blood. The cancer travels through the blood vessels to other parts of the body.
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As Screening Falls Will More Men Die From Prostate Cancer
In active monitoring, men with localized prostate cancer do not get surgery or radiation right after theyre diagnosed. Instead, they have regular biopsies, blood tests, and MRIs to see if their cancer is progressing. If it is, they can receive treatment.
Although some oncologists advise men with early, low-grade prostate cancer to choose active surveillance and professional groups such as the American Society of Clinical Oncology recommend it many patients recoil at what sounds like lets just wait for your cancer to become really advanced. A decade ago fewer than 10 percent of men diagnosed with prostate cancer chose monitoring, UCLA researchers found. But that is changing. Now at least half of men do.
That made sense to Garth Callaghan, author of the best-selling Napkin Notes, a book of missives he tucked into his daughters lunch box. Diagnosed with early prostate cancer in 2012, he said, none of the choices seemed particularly attractive to a 43-year-old man who dreaded the possibility of side effects of surgery or radiation, including incontinence and impotence. I was completely torn. My previous experience was, just get it out of my body. But after his doctor explained that prostate cancer is grossly overtreated in the United States, I did a complete 180 and chose active monitoring.
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How Prostate Cancer Is Treated
In cancer care, different types of doctorsincluding medical oncologists, surgeons, and radiation oncologistsoften work together to create an overall treatment plan that may combine different types of treatments to treat the cancer. This is called a multidisciplinary team. Cancer care teams include a variety of other health care professionals, such as palliative care experts, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, oncology nurses, social workers, pharmacists, counselors, dietitians, physical therapists, and others.
The common types of treatments used for prostate cancer are described below. Your care plan may also include treatment for symptoms and side effects, an important part of cancer care.
Treatment options and recommendations depend on several factors, including the type and stage of cancer, possible side effects, and the patients preferences and overall health.
Cancer treatment can affect older adults in different ways. More information on the specific effects of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy on older patients can be found another section of this website.
Because most prostate cancers are found in the early stages when they are growing slowly, you usually do not have to rush to make treatment decisions. During this time, it is important to talk with your doctor about the risks and benefits of all your treatment options and when treatment should begin. This discussion should also address the current state of the cancer:
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The Initial Causes Can Prostate Cancer Spread To The Colon
One of the first symptoms of prostate issues is pain or tenderness in the groin or lower back. This can be the result of a noncancerous condition called enlarged prostatic tissue, or it could be an infection of the bladder. In either case, its important to see a doctor as soon as possible. If youre suffering from prostate pain, you may want to consider reducing your caffeine intake.
Another symptom of a potentially enlarged prostate is difficulty starting a stream of urine, leaking, or dribbling. These symptoms are not serious, but theyre still alarming. Most men put up with an enlarged prostate for years before seeking medical attention, but they typically seek treatment as soon as they notice symptoms. Even if you dont have symptoms, its worth getting checked to determine if you have any prostate issues.
If you experience nightly bathroom runs, you may be experiencing an enlarged prostate. You may be having difficulty starting a stream of urine, or you may even be dribbling or leaking during the day. These problems arent life-threatening, but can become a nuisance. You should not ignore these signs and seek treatment as soon as you notice them. If you feel any of these symptoms, you should consult a doctor.
How Is It Treated
Your treatment choices depend on your overall health, how fast the cancer is growing, and how far it has spread.
Locally advanced prostate cancer may be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, or a combination of these.
Treatment of metastatic cancer focuses on slowing the spread of the cancer and relieving symptoms, such as bone pain. It also can help you feel better and live longer. Treatment may include hormone therapy, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy.
Men over age 80 or those with other serious health problems may decide not to have treatment except for what is needed to treat any symptoms .
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When Should You Call Your Doctor
Be sure to follow your doctor’s instructions about calling when you have problems, new symptoms, or symptoms that get worse.
- Are completely unable to urinate.
- Have painful urination and a fever, chills, or body aches.
- Dull, aching pain in your lower back, pelvis, or hips.
- Swollen lymph nodes in the groin area. These nodes are usually not tender.
What Happens When Prostate Cancer Is Left Untreated
Doru Paul, MD, is triple board-certified in medical oncology, hematology, and internal medicine. He is an associate professor of clinical medicine at Weill Cornell Medical College and attending physician in the Department of Hematology and Oncology at the New York Presbyterian Weill Cornell Medical Center.
While most men undergo some form of treatment for their prostate cancer, some men today choose to not be treated for their prostate cancer. Instead, they may choose to have their healthcare providers monitor their cancer.
Known as active surveillance, it is common when the cancer is expected to grow slowly based on biopsy results, confined to the prostate, not causing any symptoms, and/or small. In active surveillance, healthcare providers will initiate cancer treatment only if cancer starts growing.
Others men may choose to not undergo cancer treatment because of a short life expectancy or other serious medical problems. They may feel that the risks or side effects of cancer treatment outweigh their potential benefits.
This option is certainly OK and reasonable in the right circumstancesrequiring a careful and thoughtful discussion with your healthcare provider and family.
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Transitional Cell Prostate Cancer
This is also known as urothelial carcinoma. This cancer starts in the cells that line the urethra .
Studies of men with transitional cell prostate cancer show that PSA levels can be low or high. More research is needed before we can know whether PSA tests can help to diagnose transitional cell prostate cancer.
Men with this cancer often have difficulty urinating and find blood in their urine. This is because the cancer grows around the urethra , causing it to narrow. So transitional cell carcinoma is often diagnosed when men have surgery called transurethral resection of the prostate to treat their urinary problems. Tissue removed during surgery is looked at under the microscope to confirm you have transitional cell prostate cancer. Youll also need scans to see if your cancer has spread.
In the UK, docetaxel is the standard chemotherapy drug for men with advanced prostate cancer that is no longer responding to hormone therapy. But if you have transitional cell prostate cancer you may have other types of chemotherapy, called carboplatin or cisplatin chemotherapy. If you have cisplatin chemotherapy, you will probably have it alongside another chemotherapy drug called gemcitabine.
Having A Turp For Prostate Cancer
A TURP can be done under a general anaesthetic. Or, you may have a spinal anaesthetic . You have an injection of anaesthetic into your spine. This temporarily numbs the lower part of your body, so you do not feel anything.
During surgery the surgeon passes a thin tube, which contains a cutting instrument and tiny camera, through the urethra into the prostate. They use the cutting instrument to shave off the inner area of the prostate and to unblock the urethra.
A TURP can also be done using a special laser. This is only done in some specialist treatment centres. Your doctor will advise you if this is suitable for you.
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