What Is Enlarged Prostate Or Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
In simplest terms, an enlarged prostate or BPH is a condition where the prostate gland grows larger. In most cases, this enlargement of the prostate isnt caused by cancer.
While its more common in older men, it can also occur in younger men with risk factors such as being overweight or having a family history of prostate enlargement or cancer.
Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer
Once a tumor causes your prostate gland to swell, or once cancer spreads beyond your prostate, you may have symptoms including:
- The need to pee often, especially at night
- Trouble starting or stopping a stream of urine
- A weak stream or one that starts and stops
- Leaking pee when you laugh or cough
- Not being able to pee standing up
- Pain or burning when you pee
- Blood in your pee or
- Pressure or pain in your rectum
- Pain or stiffness in your lower back, hips, pelvis, or thighs
- New trouble getting an erection
These arenât symptoms of the cancer itself. They happen because the cancer growth is blocking your prostate.
When To Get Medical Advice
They’ll ask about the problems you’re having and examine your tummy.
You may also have a rectal examination. This is where a doctor inserts a gloved finger into your bottom to feel for anything unusual. You may have some discomfort during this examination if your prostate is swollen or tender.
Your urine will usually be tested for signs of infection, and you may be referred to a specialist for further tests to rule out other conditions.
See a GP straight away if you get sudden and severe symptoms of prostatitis.
You may have acute prostatitis, which needs to be assessed and treated quickly because it can cause serious problems, such as suddenly being unable to pee.
If you have persistent symptoms , you may be referred to a doctor who specialises in urinary problems .
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What Medications Are Used To In The Treatment Of Bph
Several types of medications have been approved for treatment of urinary symptoms secondary to prostate enlargement. Men with severe symptoms may require treatment with a combination of these medications. Your doctor will determine the optimal combination for your condition:
Alpha-blockers, such as terazosin , prazosin , or doxazosin , relax the muscles in the prostate and thus may relieve symptoms. Newer alpha-blockers, such as tamsulosin , alfuzosin , and silodosin, are more commonly prescribed because they may have fewer side effects.
Finasteride or dutasteride can cause the prostate to shrink. As a result, the urinary symptoms may improve. These drugs are most helpful in men who have at least moderate enlargement of the prostate.
Tadalafil has recently been approved for the treatment of BPH.
Bladder calming medications that help with the symptoms related to bladder irritability from prostate blockage: oxybutynin , solifenacin , darifenacin , trospium , and mirabegron .
Once your doctor has given you a medical plan, you should stick to it and follow up as recommended. Sometimes men need follow-up with a urologist.
Type Of Prostate Pain
At other times, it may be described as a dull ache or pain that is mild, moderate or severe. The pain may be burning, attacks of sharp or stabbing pain, or a bursting pain similar to an extremely distended bladder. Identifying a prostate condition solely on the location and nature of the pain is difficult and therefore other symptoms have to be noted.
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Richard Describes His Symptoms He Had To Get Up Several Times During The Night To Pass Urine He
I was diagnosed with prostate cancer in 2005. I had all the symptoms of somebody whos suffering from prostate cancer, difficult to pee, getting up several times during the night, bursting to go and then not able to go properly, and this lasted, you know quite a few weeks stroke months, went to see my GP, who sent me for a blood test to test my PSA level, I didnt know what that was at the time. So I got the results of that test, he suggested that there may be a problem with my prostate, I was sent to the hospital for them to do a biopsy. They did a biopsy, which, a very unpleasant procedure but necessary, and then got the results of that confirming that I had prostate cancer, and then was given the options by the consultant. After discussing it with my wife, decided the best thing to do was have the prostate removed which I did in July 2005. The operation itself was pretty straightforward, but the recovery was very difficult. Theres a lot of side effects, a lot of incontinence, erectile dysfunction, and its quite a long recovery period, so that was very difficult, much more so than the operation itself, but in the years after that its just got a lot better and everythings sort of, all my functions returned to normal, including the erectile dysfunction problem after two years, and since then Ive been fine, I have an annual check, and my PSA level is zero, which it should be, and Ive been fine ever since.
Three Stages Of An Enlarged Prostate
It is difficult to tell how many men actually have an enlarged prostate since most men do not have any noticeable symptoms. It is believed there are three stages.
The first is known as the microscopic stage where small areas of the prostate are enlarged but can only be seen through a microscope. Symptoms are rare at this stage, and only one in four men will ever develop symptoms.
The macroscopic stage shows larger areas under a microscope, and can be felt by Dr. Steven Gange during a rectal exam.
The symptomatic stage is noted by changes in urinary habits. There is decreased blood flow to the prostate and there can be additional symptoms related to inflammation of the prostate, an infection, or even prostate cancer.
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Suggestions For Keeping Ones Back Healthy
Exercise regularly to keep muscular tissues solid as well as flexible. Get in touch with a doctor for a list of low-impact, age-appropriate exercises that are specifically targeted to strengthening lower back as well as abdominal muscles.
Keep a healthy weight and consume a nutritious diet plan with an adequate everyday consumption of calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D to advertise new bone growth.
Usage ergonomically made furniture and tools in your home and at the workplace. Make sure work surfaces are at a comfy height.
Switch sitting positions commonly as well as periodically walk the workplace or carefully stretch muscles to alleviate tension. A cushion or rolled-up towel put behind the small of the back can offer some back assistance. Place your feet on a reduced stool or a pile of publications when sitting for a very long time.
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Risk Factors For Prostate Cancer
Some risk factors have been linked to prostate cancer. A risk factor is something that can raise your chance of developing a disease. Having one or more risk factors doesn’t mean that you will get prostate cancer. It just means that your risk of the disease is greater.
- Age. Men who are 50 or older have a higher risk of prostate cancer.
- Race. African-American men have the highest risk of prostate cancerâthe disease tends to start at younger ages and grows faster than in men of other races. After African-American men, prostate cancer is most common among white men, followed by Hispanic and Native American men. Asian-American men have the lowest rates of prostate cancer.
- Family history. Men whose fathers or brothers have had prostate cancer have a 2 to 3 times higher risk of prostate cancer than men who do not have a family history of the disease. A man who has 3 immediate family members with prostate cancer has about 10 times the risk of a man who does not have a family history of prostate cancer. The younger a man’s relatives are when they have prostate cancer, the greater his risk for developing the disease. Prostate cancer risk also appears to be slightly higher for men from families with a history of breast cancer.
- Diet. The risk of prostate cancer may be higher for men who eat high-fat diets.
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Potential Complications Of Prostatitis
Acute prostatitis can be a life threatening condition that requires treatment in an emergency setting. Some medications for chronic prostatitis have side effects, such as headaches or low blood pressure.
Complications of untreated prostatitis can be serious, but you can help minimize your risk of serious complications by following the treatment plan that you and your urologist design specifically for you.
Complications of prostatitis can include:
- adverse effects of prostatitis treatment
- epididymitis, which refers to inflammation of the coiled tube in the back of the testicle
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Causes Of Nonbacterial Prostatitis
Experts do not know exactly what causes chronic prostatitis that does not result from a bacterial infection. The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases lists the following possible causes:
- a nonbacterial microorganism that enters the prostate
- an immune response to a previous UTI
- nerve damage in the pelvic area
Because the symptoms of prostatitis are similar to those of other conditions, doctors often diagnose chronic prostatitis after ruling out other possible causes.
What Causes The Pain
We feel pain when our bones, muscles, organs, nerves or other parts of our bodies are damaged or irritated. Cancer which has spread into these areas might cause pain.
Sometimes pain can be due to cancer treatments. For example, radiotherapy to treat bone pain can sometimes cause your pain to get worse during treatment and for a few days afterwards. But this isnt very common.
Pain can also be caused by problems not linked to the cancer, such as an infection.
Your doctors and nurses will work with you to find out what is causing your pain and will talk to you about suitable treatments. There are effective ways to treat different types of pain.
If prostate cancer spreads to the bone, it can damage or weaken the bone and may cause pain. But not all men with cancer in their bones will get bone pain. Prostate cancer can spread to any area of bone around the body. It most commonly spreads to the spine. Pain in these areas can sometimes make it painful to walk and move around. The pain might remain in only one area, but over time it can spread to several parts of your body.
Bone pain is a very specific feeling. Some men describe it as feeling similar to a toothache but in the bones, or like a dull aching or stabbing. It can get worse when you move and can make the area tender to touch. Each mans experience of bone pain will be different. The pain may be constant or it might come and go. How bad it is can also vary and may depend on where the affected bone is.
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Do All Men With Advanced Prostate Cancer Have Pain
No, not all men with advanced prostate cancer have pain. Men who do have pain experience different levels of pain. Pain is more common in men whose cancer has spread to their bones. If the cancer has spread to several places in your body, you might not get pain in all of these places.
With the right treatment and management, pain can usually be relieved or reduced. Tell your doctor or nurse if youre in pain or your pain relief isnt working well.
Urinating Frequently During The Day
It may be more difficult to notice a change in frequency during the day than at night. Most of us dont go around counting how many times we use the washroom in a given day!
Besides, whats normal, anyway?
Normal urination during the day is considered to be within a range offour to seven times for most healthy adult men. If youre going more often than this, it could indicate a prostate issue.
It can be easy to miss this sign. Drinking more water or caffeinated beverages than usual can be an easy explanation for a few extra trips.
Even a night out for dinner with a few more glasses of beer than usual can cause several extra trips to the bathroom because alcohol is a diuretic, meaning it triggers anincrease in urine production.
Diuretics cause your kidneys to process more salt and water out into your urine, resulting in increased volume that makes you need to go more often.Source:WonderWhizKids.com
But like your nighttime routine, if you notice an ongoing pattern of having to go more often during the day, ask your doctor about it. A simple blood test and rectal examination is often the first diagnostic step, which is quick and painless.
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What Is Prostate Cancer
In prostate cancer, normal cells undergo a transformation in which they not only grow and multiply without normal controls, but they also change in their microscopic appearance and can invade adjacent tissues. Prostate cancer cells form into malignant tumors or masses, which then overwhelm surrounding tissues by invading their space and taking vital oxygen and nutrients. Cancer cells from these tumors can eventually invade remote organs via the bloodstream and the lymphatic system. This process of invading and spreading to other organs is called metastasis. Common metastatic locations where prostate cancer cells may eventually be found include pelvic lymph nodes, and bones. The lungs and the liver may also show deposits of, or metastases from, prostate cancer, but that is less common.
Almost all prostate cancers arise from the glandular cells in the prostate. Cancer arising from a glandular cell in any organ in the body is known as adenocarcinoma. Therefore, the most common type of prostate cancer is an adenocarcinoma. The most common non-adenocarcinoma is transitional cell carcinoma. Other rare types include small cell carcinoma and sarcoma of the prostate.
Older men commonly have an enlarged prostate, caused by a benign condition called benign prostatic hyperplasia . Prostate gland cells simply keep growing in number in the prostate gland in BPH. BPH can cause urinary symptoms but is not a form of prostate cancer .
Posted by Dr. Chris
Where Does Prostate Cancer Spread
The most common place for prostate cancer to spread to is the bones. It can also spread to the:
A large tumour in the prostate gland can spread into or press on areas around the prostate, such as the back passage or urethra. The urethra is the tube which carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body.
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Talking With Your Doctor
Different kinds of doctors and other health care professionals manage prostate health. They can help you find the best care, answer your questions, and address your concerns. These health care professionals include:
- Family doctors and internists
- Physician assistants and nurse practitioners
- Urologists, who are experts in diseases of the urinary tract system and the male reproductive system
- Urologic oncologists, who are experts in treating cancers of the urinary system and the male reproductive system
- Radiation oncologists, who use radiation therapy to treat cancer
- Medical oncologists, who treat cancer with medications such as hormone treatments and chemotherapy
- Pathologists, who identify diseases by studying cells and tissues under a microscope
View these professionals as your partnersâexpert advisors and helpers in your health care. Talking openly with your doctors can help you learn more about your prostate changes and the tests to expect.
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Radiotherapy To The Prostate
Some men who have just been diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer may be offered external beam radiotherapy as part of their first treatment. This is where high-energy X-ray beams are directed at the prostate from outside the body. The X-ray beams damage the cancer cells and stop them from dividing and growing. Read more about radiotherapy for advanced prostate cancer.
Radiotherapy to the prostate isnt suitable for all men with advanced prostate cancer. If it isnt suitable for you, you might be offered a type of radiotherapy to help manage symptoms instead.
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When To Contact A Medical Professional
- Less urine than usual
- Back, side, or abdominal pain
- Blood or pus in your urine
Also call if:
- Your bladder does not feel completely empty after you urinate.
- You take medicines that may cause urinary problems, such as diuretics, antihistamines, antidepressants, or sedatives. DO NOT stop or change your medicines without talking to your provider.
- You have tried self-care steps for 2 months and symptoms have not improved.
How Are Prostate Conditions Diagnosed
There are several ways of diagnosing prostate conditions. They include:
- A digital rectal exam involves a doctor placing a gloved finger into your rectum to examine your prostate.
- Several blood tests, specifically to test the levels of a protein known as the prostate-specific antigen. Levels of this protein can help distinguish between prostatitis, BPH, and prostate cancer.
- A transrectal ultrasound involves placing an ultrasound probe into the rectum to visualize the prostate.
- Imaging studies like CT scans and MRIs.
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