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How Do You Remove Prostate Cancer

Side Effects From Radiation

Robotic Surgery to remove Prostate Cancer

Urinary symptoms from radiation treatment for prostate cancer are different from those caused by prostate surgery. Its more like a urinary tract infection-increased urgency and frequency, and men may some have bleeding or pain when they urinate, Calvaresi said. These problems often go away once treatment is complete.

Radiation also may cause bowel changes, such as constipation, loose stools or both. These can be managed by over-the-counter medication. Men may also see some blood in their stool during treatment-if so, let your health care provider know about this.

Men undergoing radiation are likely to have ED, but not immediately. It slowly sets in after radiation treatment, Calvaresi said. Treatments for radiation-related ED are the same as ED caused by prostate cancer surgery.

How Is Prostate Cancer Treated

Through a virtual conversation, Nathan can help you get ready to talk to your doctor about treatment options.

Different types of treatment are available for prostate cancer. You and your doctor will decide which treatment is right for you. Some common treatments are

  • Expectant management. If your doctor thinks your prostate cancer is unlikely to grow quickly, he or she may recommend that you dont treat the cancer right away. Instead, you can choose to wait and see if you get symptoms in one of two ways:
  • Active surveillance. Closely monitoring the prostate cancer by performing prostate specific antigen tests and prostate biopsies regularly, and treating the cancer only if it grows or causes symptoms.
  • Watchful waiting. No tests are done. Your doctor treats any symptoms when they develop. This is usually recommended for men who are expected to live for 10 more years or less.
  • Surgery. A prostatectomy is an operation where doctors remove the prostate. Radical prostatectomy removes the prostate as well as the surrounding tissue.
  • Radiation therapy. Using high-energy rays to kill the cancer. There are two types of radiation therapy
  • External radiation therapy. A machine outside the body directs radiation at the cancer cells.
  • Internal radiation therapy . Radioactive seeds or pellets are surgically placed into or near the cancer to destroy the cancer cells.
  • Other therapies used in the treatment of prostate cancer that are still under investigation include

    What Is Prostate Cancer

    Cancer can start any place in the body. Prostate cancer starts in the prostate gland. It starts when cells in the prostate grow out of control.

    Cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body. Cancer cells in the prostate can sometimes travel to the bones or other organs and grow there. When cancer cells do this, its called metastasis. To doctors, the cancer cells in the new place look just like the ones from the prostate.

    Cancer is always named for the place where it starts. So when prostate cancer spreads to the bones , its still called prostate cancer. Its not called bone cancer unless it starts from cells in the bone.

    Ask your doctor to use this picture to show you where your cancer is.

    The prostate

    The prostate is a gland found only in men, so only men can get prostate cancer.

    The prostate is just below the bladder and in front of the rectum . The tube that carries pee goes through the prostate. The prostate makes some of the fluid that helps keep the sperm alive and healthy.

    There are a few types of prostate cancer. Some are very rare. Most prostate cancers are a type called adenocarcinoma. This cancer starts from gland cells. Your doctor can tell you more about the type you have.

    Read Also: How To Lower Risk Of Prostate Cancer

    Transurethral Resection Of The Prostate

    This operation is more often used to treat men with non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate called benign prostatic hyperplasia . But it is also sometimes used in men with advanced prostate cancer to help relieve symptoms, such as trouble urinating.

    During this operation, the surgeon removes the inner part of the prostate gland that surrounds the urethra . The skin is not cut with this surgery. An instrument called a resectoscope is passed through the tip of the penis into the urethra to the level of the prostate. Once it is in place, either electricity is passed through a wire to heat it or a laser is used to cut or vaporize the tissue. Spinal anesthesia or general anesthesia is used.

    The operation usually takes about an hour. After surgery, a catheter is inserted through the penis and into the bladder. It remains in place for about a day to help urine drain while the prostate heals. You can usually leave the hospital after 1 to 2 days and return to normal activities in 1 to 2 weeks.

    You will probably have some blood in your urine after surgery.

    Other possible side effects from TURP include infection and any risks that come with the type of anesthesia used.

    After Prostate Cancer Has Been Diagnosed Tests Are Done To Find Out If Cancer Cells Have Spread Within The Prostate Or To Other Parts Of The Body

    The Ultimate Guide To Dealing With Prostate Cancer By A ...

    The process used to find out if cancer has spread within theprostate or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. The results of the tests used to diagnoseprostate cancer are often also used to stage the disease. In prostate cancer, staging tests may not be done unless the patient has symptoms or signs that the cancer has spread, such as bone pain, a high PSA level, or a high Gleason score.

    The following tests and procedures also may be used in the staging process:

    Also Check: What Is The Treatment For Prostate Cancer That Has Spread

    The Purpose Of Prostate Surgery

    Prostate cancer surgery, or radical prostatectomy, is a procedure conventional medicine praises for curing prostate cancer.

    It has been performed for many years and was regarded as the gold standard of prostate cancer treatment. However, few studies compare its efficacy to other techniques.

    Most men diagnosed with prostate cancer today are typically diagnosed with Gleason 6 cancer levels. But, according to many experts, this diagnosis may not be cancer! According to Mark Scholz, MD, a board-certified oncologist and expert on prostate cancer:

    Misuse of the term cancer has tragic implications. Real cancer requires action and aggressive medical intervention with the goal of saving a life. But consider the potential havoc created by telling someone they have cancer when it is untrue. This dreadful calamity is occurring to 100,000 men every year in the United States with men who undergo a needle biopsy and are told they have prostate cancer with a grade of Gleason 6.

    The impact of this is quite profound. Most prostate cancer diagnosed today falls into this Gleason 6. If it is not cancer, thousands of men have had aggressive treatment for cancer they dont really have.

    Aggressive treatment, usually a complete surgical removal of the prostate , is the typical result. This leaves the patient to suffer from its side effects for the rest of their life.

    Risks Of The Procedure

    As with any surgical procedure, certain complications can occur. Somepossible complications of both the retropubic and perineal approaches to RPmay include:

    Some risks associated with surgery and anesthesia in general include:

    • Reactions to medications, such as anesthesia

    • Difficulty with breathing

    • Bleeding

    • Infection

    One risk associated with the retropubic approach is the potential forrectal injury, causing fecal incontinence or urgency.

    There may be other risks depending on your specific medical condition. Besure to discuss any concerns with your doctor prior to the procedure.

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    Disadvantages Of A Prostatectomy

    • There may be a small risk of problems after the surgery, such as bleeding or infection.
    • Surgery may cause long-term problems with erectile dysfunction and incontinence.
    • Removing the prostate means you will no longer be able to have children.
    • If you have locally advanced cancer you will usually need further treatment after surgery such as radiotherapy or hormonal therapy.

    How Is Advanced Prostate Cancer Treated

    Radical Prostatectomy (Prostate Cancer Surgery)

    The primary treatment of prostate cancer is prostatectomy, which is a surgery to remove a part of the prostate gland or the entire prostate gland in younger patients.

    Androgen deprivation therapy is usually the choice of treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. Also known as hormone therapy, it is also used for treating patients who are unfit or unwilling to undergo surgery or/and radiation therapy.

    Examples of hormone therapies for advanced prostate cancer include

    • Abiraterone

    Read Also: What Are The Chances Of Prostate Cancer Recurrence

    Signs Of Prostate Cancer Include A Weak Flow Of Urine Or Frequent Urination

    These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by prostate cancer or by other conditions. Check with your doctor if you have any of the following:

    • Weak or interrupted flow of urine.
    • Sudden urge to urinate.
    • Frequent urination .
    • Trouble starting the flow of urine.
    • Trouble emptying the bladder completely.
    • Pain or burning while urinating.
    • Blood in the urine or semen.
    • A pain in the back, hips, orpelvis that doesn’t go away.
    • Shortness of breath, feeling very tired, fast heartbeat, dizziness, or pale skin caused by anemia.

    Other conditions may cause the same symptoms. As men age, the prostate may get bigger and block the urethra or bladder. This may cause trouble urinating or sexual problems. The condition is called benign prostatic hyperplasia , and although it is not cancer, surgery may be needed. The symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia or of other problems in the prostate may be like symptoms of prostate cancer.

    Tips For Talking With Your Partner

    Feeling less of a desire to have sex or having trouble getting an erection may affect your relationship. Try to be as open with your partner as you can. Here are some tips:

    • Bring your partner with you to doctors visits. Being part of the conversation may help them understand what youre experiencing.
    • Listen to your partners concerns, too. Remember that this issue affects both of you.
    • See a therapist or a sex therapist to help you work out any issues that are affecting your sex life.
    • If sex is a problem right now, its possible to fulfill each other sexually in other ways. Cuddling, kissing, and caressing can also be pleasurable.

    Read Also: Things To Know About Prostate Cancer

    How Will Sex After Prostate Cancer Be Different

    One of the treatments of prostate cancer is to remove a portion of the prostate or the totality of the gland before cancer spreads beyond it You may have heard that the tumor is inside the capsule, but moving fast.

    The procedure is known as radical prostatectomy and involves incisions, either above the perineum or on the lower abdomen.

    Newer surgeries are sometimes robot-assisted, and we also have laparoscopic prostatectomies that do not require a large incision.

    The end result is the removal of a portion or the totality of the prostate, and certain surgical approaches may be associated with a lower risk of nerve damage than others. Youll see this referred to as nerve-sparing prostatectomies throughout this guide.

    As soon as a man is informed that he will need to go through a Radical Prostatectomy, the likelihood is that one of the very first questions will be about the effect that it will have on their sex life. In a lot of mens minds, the surgery is thought of like its castration.

    However, now that there are multiple types of nerve-sparing prostate surgery, many men have found they can maintain sexual activity after surgery.

    Likewise, there are plenty of sexual activities open to those who do find they still have the desire, even with some physical changes. We want to help you understand the changes that men can experience after prostate surgery, whether that is physical or mental.

    For more information on prostate surgery, click here.

    Advantages Of A Prostatectomy

    Open prostatectomy
    • If the cancer has not spread outside the prostate, removing it may cure the cancer and you will not need any more treatment.
    • If you have locally advanced cancer, having a prostatectomy may increase the chance of curing the cancer.
    • If the cancer comes back, you will still be able to have further treatment.
    • If you had urinary symptoms before surgery, these may improve after surgery.

    Also Check: What Does Low Grade Prostate Cancer Mean

    What Is The Difference Between Robotic And Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy

    Both are minimally-invasive techniques of performing radical prostatectomy for cancer. In laparoscopic radical prostatectomy, the surgeon stands by the operating table and himself manipulates the instruments. In robotic prostatectomy the surgeon is seated at a robotic console near the patient from where he drive the robotic instruments to perform the operation. The robot faithfully and accurately reproduces the surgeon’s sophisticated maneuvers.

    Advantages And Disadvantages Of Surgery

    What may be important for one person might be less important for someone else. The advantages and disadvantages of surgery may depend on your age, general health and the stage of your cancer.

    Advantages

    • If the cancer is completely contained inside the prostate, surgery will remove all of the cancer.
    • The prostate is looked at under a microscope to give a clearer picture of how aggressive your cancer is, whether it has spread outside your prostate and if you need further treatment.
    • Your health professionals can get a good idea of whether your cancer was completely removed during surgery. Your PSA level should drop so low that its not possible to detect it at six to eight weeks after surgery.
    • If there are signs that your cancer has come back or wasnt all removed, you may be able to have further treatment.
    • Some men find it reassuring to know that their prostate has been physically removed, although you will still need to have follow-up tests to make sure no cancer cells have spread outside the prostate.

    Disadvantages

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    What Is The Alternative To Surgery To Remove Prostatic Stones

    Answered by: Dr Rajesh Ahlawat | ChairmanDivision of Urology and Renal TransplantationMedanta Kidney and Urology InstituteMedanta, the Medicity

    Q: Is it possible to treat prostate calculus without surgery? If yes, how? If someone has prostate calculus and fever whenever he has sex, does this indicate the need to immediately remove the calculus?

    A:Prostatic stones are very common. When ultrasound exams of the prostate are done for other reasons, 75% of middle-aged men and nearly 100% of older men are found to have prostate stones. These may be seen in younger men too having chronic prostatitis. They arent always apparent during a rectal exam or on X-rays. Prostate stones are usually tiny and do not cause symptoms. In some men, association of prostatic stones with prostatitis may cause recurrent urine infection difficult to cure. Association of fever and act of ejaculation also points to such a possibility in your case. You need to be evaluated for the infection and treated with appropriate antibiotic therapy for a long period, usually upto 8 to 10 weeks. Prostatic calculi are not removed like kidney or ureteric stones, and it is necessary to remove part of prostate gland to remove them. In young patients it is not advisable to offer any surgical treatment for prostate or its contained calculi since it carries a risk of retrograde ejaculation, and thus infertility.

    What Changes Do I Need To Make To My Diet

    Using Robotic Surgery to Remove Prostate Cancer at Stanford: Gil Khalil’s story

    Discuss your post-surgery diet with your doctor as you will probably want to avoid or at least minimize issues such as constipation. The lack of exercise, the medication, even the stress, might affect your bowel functions. Your diet will be focused on eating more vegetables, fruits, grains and avoiding meat, especially the red one, pasta, alcohol, fast-food, sugar and processed desserts.

    Also Check: What Is Perineural Invasion In Prostate Cancer

    Also Check: Digital Examination Of The Prostate

    What Will Happen After Treatment

    Youll be glad when treatment is over. But its hard not to worry about cancer coming back. When cancer comes back it is called a recurrence. Even when cancer never comes back, people still worry about it. For years after treatment ends, you will see your cancer doctor. At first, your visits may be every few months. Then, the longer youre cancer-free, the less often the visits are needed.

    Be sure to go to all follow-up visits. Your doctors will ask about your symptoms, examine you, and might order blood tests and maybe other tests to see if the cancer has come back.

    Having cancer and dealing with treatment can be hard, but it can also be a time to look at your life in new ways. You might be thinking about how to improve your health. Call us at 1-800-227-2345 or talk to your doctor to find out what you can do to feel better.

    You cant change the fact that you have cancer. What you can change is how you live the rest of your life, making healthy choices and feeling as good as you can.

    How Do Doctors Perform Prostate Removal

    During prostate removal the prostate gland and some tissue around the gland, including the seminal vesicles, are removed. A prostatectomy takes about two hours and is performed under general anesthesia.

    There are two approaches used for a prostatectomy:

    • Robotic surgery
    • Minimally invasive procedure with faster recovery time
    • Uses smaller incisions and robotic technology
  • Open surgery
  • Uses traditional incisions and tools
  • May be used for more complex cases
  • The surgical process is as follows:

    • The doctor will make a small incision to gain access to the prostate
    • The prostate is removed
    • The bladder is reconnected to the urethra
    • A catheter is connected to the bladder to allow urine to drain while the area heals

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    If Treatment Does Not Work

    Recovery from cancer is not always possible. If the cancer cannot be cured or controlled, the disease may be called advanced or terminal.

    This diagnosis is stressful, and for many people, advanced cancer may be difficult to discuss. However, it is important to have open and honest conversations with your health care team to express your feelings, preferences, and concerns. The health care team has special skills, experience, and knowledge to support patients and their families and is there to help. Making sure a person is physically comfortable, free from pain, and emotionally supported is extremely important.

    People who have advanced cancer and who are expected to live less than 6 months may want to consider hospice care. Hospice care is designed to provide the best possible quality of life for people who are near the end of life. You and your family are encouraged to talk with the health care team about hospice care options, which include hospice care at home, a special hospice center, or other health care locations. Nursing care and special equipment, including a hospital bed, can make staying at home a workable option for many families. Learn more about advanced cancer care planning.

    After the death of a loved one, many people need support to help them cope with the loss. Learn more about grief and loss.

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