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How To Lower Risk Of Prostate Cancer

Five Ways To Reduce Your Risk Of Prostate Cancer

How to lower your risk for prostate cancer

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Prostate cancer impacts one out of every nine men. While this statistic may seem unsettling, the disease is 99 percent treatable when its detected early. There are also a number of things you can do to reduce your risk of developing prostate cancer and support your overall health on a daily basis.

Here are five ways to help prevent prostate cancer:

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What Is Prostate Cancer

The prostate is a walnut-sized gland found in the male pelvis under the bladder and surrounding the urethra. This spongy gland is regulated by the hormone testosterone and produces a milky fluid that is part of seminal fluid. The seminal fluid carries sperm through the urethra during ejaculation.

Prostate cancer, also known as prostatic carcinoma, occurs when malignant cells in the prostate grow abnormally and form a tumor. Even if cancer spreads to other places in the body, which is known as metastasis, it is still called prostate cancer.

More than 99% of prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas. However, there are several different types of carcinoma. The types of prostate cancer are:

  • Adenocarcinomas develop from the gland cells that make the prostate fluid for semen
  • Small cell carcinoma
  • Neuroendocrine tumors
  • Transitional cell carcinomas
  • Sarcomas

Isoflavones Organic Soy Foods

Isoflavones are phytochemicals capable of binding with estrogen receptor sites in the body without unlocking the metabolism process for or cancer growth. When isoflavones bind into an estrogen receptor site, they can block estrogen from occupying the same receptor site. In this way, it is beneficial in discouraging breast or prostate cancer growth.

Though soy elicited controversy years ago with uncertainty around its safety, Woodward says multiple studies published since 2009 have demonstrated not only that it is safe but that it is cancer preventive. Traditional soy foods include tofu, tempeh, edamame, miso, and soymilk.

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What Are The Risks Of Screening For Prostate Cancer

The risks of screening include a false positive test result, meaning an elevated PSA level without having prostate cancer. When the test results come back abnormal, you may feel anxious about your health and have an unnecessary biopsy. The risk of an elevated PSA level increases with age.

Screening can also detect prostate cancer in men who do not have symptoms and may have eventually died from another cause. These men are at risk for complications without the benefits of treatment.

However, for men with at least a 10-year life expectancy, on balance the benefits of prostate cancer screening outweigh these risks. Cancer screening has been shown to save lives.

Purpose Of This Summary

Prostate cancer publication round

This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about prostate cancer prevention. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians in the care of their patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.

Recommended Reading: New Jersey Prostate Cancer Center

The Following Have Been Proven Not To Affect The Risk Of Prostate Cancer Or Their Effects On Prostate Cancer Risk Are Not Known:

Selenium and vitamin E

The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial studied whether taking vitamin E and selenium will prevent prostate cancer. The selenium and vitamin E were taken separately or together by healthy men 55 years of age and older . The study showed that taking selenium alone or selenium and vitamin E together did not decrease the risk of prostate cancer.


It is not known if decreasing fat or increasing fruits and vegetables in the diet helps decrease the risk of prostate cancer or death from prostate cancer. In the PCPT trial, certain fatty acids increased the risk of high-grade prostate cancer while others decreased the risk of high-grade prostate cancer.


Regular use of multivitamins has not been proven to increase the risk of early or localized prostate cancer. However, a large study showed an increased risk of advanced prostate cancer among men who took multivitamins more than seven times a week.


Some studies have shown that a diet high in lycopene may be linked to a decreased risk of prostate cancer, but other studies have not. It has not been proven that taking lycopene supplements decreases the risk of prostate cancer.

Men: Are You At Risk For Prostate Cancer

Every man and those who love him should know how to prevent prostate cancer. This is because a man is diagnosed with prostate cancer every three minutes. Fortunately, thanks to strides in cancer research and cancer clinical trials, this disease is often preventable and has a very high survival rate, if detected in the early stages.

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Prevent Prostate Cancer With Lifestyle Changes

When it comes to prostate cancer, there are some risk factors men can control and others they cant. Among the uncontrollable prostate cancer risk factors are age , ethnicity and genetics or a family history . As for prostate cancer risk factors men can control, these include diet and other lifestyle components. Urologist Michael Zaragoza, MD, shares the following in terms of what men can do with regard to controllable factors to help prevent prostate cancer.

  • Avoid diets high in saturated fat and low in fiber. A diet high in saturated fat and trans fatty acids and low in fiber increases risk of prostate cancer. Therefore, read food labels and stay away from saturated fats and trans fatty acids and replace these bad fats with the good omega-3 fatty acids found in nuts, seeds and fish.

    To help prevent prostate cancer, men should also increase the amount of fiber in their diet and take a fiber supplement if needed. Some examples of high-fiber foods are whole wheat, apples, bananas, beans, and broccoli. In addition to fiber, broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables contain a compound called sulforaphane, which has been shown in some research studies to reduce risk of prostate cancer.

  • Avoid charred meat. Research suggests that charred meat may have an overall carcinogenic effect. Thats because when meat is grilled it produces chemicals that have been linked to an increased risk of cancer. Therefore, its best to avoid grilling meat and use other cooking methods instead.

  • Eat Tomatoes And Other Red Foods

    What to Expect: Low-Risk Prostate Cancer

    Tomatoes, watermelon, and other red foods owe their bright color to a powerful antioxidant called lycopene. Some recent studies show that men who consume this fruit and tomato-based products have a lower risk of prostate cancer than those who dont. However, the American Institute for Cancer Research cautions that studies linking tomatoes to prostate cancer prevention are limited and ongoing.

    A 2018 study from Spain suggest that cooking tomatoes makes it easier for your body to absorb lycopene. The redder the tomato, the better because lycopene accumulates during ripening. That means that pale, store-bought tomatoes that are picked too early have less lycopene than vine-ripened tomatoes.

    • Drinking four to five cups of coffee every day can lower your chances of fatal and high-grade prostate cancer, according to a 2014 review of clinical studies.
    • Regardless of how many cups you drink overall, every three cups of coffee you drink can reduce your risk of fatal prostate cancer about 11 percent.

    This describes a dose-response relationship between prostate cancer and coffee. That means the effect on prostate cancer goes up or down with the amount of coffee you drink. These effects may not extend to someone who only grabs an occasional cup.

    However, high doses of caffeine can cause major health issues, such as irregular heartbeat and seizures. The Mayo Clinic cautions against ingesting more than 400 milligrams of caffeine a day, the equivalent of four cups of brewed coffee.

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    Prostate Cancer Is The Second Most Common Cancer Among Men In The United States

    Prostate cancer is most common in older men. In the U.S., about one out of ten men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer. Most men diagnosed with prostate cancer do not die of it.

    See the following PDQ summaries for more information about prostate cancer:

    • Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may help prevent cancer.
    • The following risk factors may increase the risk of prostate cancer:
    • Age
    • Family history of prostate cancer
    • Race
  • The following protective factors may decrease the risk of prostate cancer:
  • Folate
  • Finasteride and Dutasteride
  • The following have been proven not to affect the risk of prostate cancer, or their effects on prostate cancer risk are not known:
  • Selenium and vitamin E
  • Cancer prevention clinical trials are used to study ways to prevent cancer.
  • New ways to prevent prostate cancer are being studied in clinical trials.
  • The Following Protective Factors May Decrease The Risk Of Prostate Cancer:


    Folate is a kind of vitamin B that occurs naturally in some foods, such as green vegetables, beans and orange juice. Folic acid is a man-made form of folate that is found in vitamin supplements and fortified foods, such as whole-grain breads and cereals. A 10-year study showed that the risk of prostate cancer was lower in men who had enough folate in their diets. However, the risk of prostate cancer was increased in men who took 1 milligram supplements of folic acid.

    Finasteride and Dutasteride

    Finasteride and dutasteride are drugs used to lower the amount of male sex hormones made by the body. These drugs block the enzyme that changes testosterone into dihydrotestosterone . Higher than normal levels of DHT may play a part in developing prostate cancer. Taking finasteride or dutasteride has been shown to lower the risk for prostate cancer, but it is not known if these drugs lower the risk of death from prostate cancer.

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    Quick Answer: How To Lower Risk Of Prostate Cancer

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    Researchers dont completely understand the relationship between diet and prostate cancer prevention, but studies suggest that certain eating habits may help. Reduce fat intake. Eat less trans fats and saturated fats. Eat more fruits and vegetables. Add green tea and soy. Avoid charred meat.

    Prostate Cancer Prevention: How To Reduce Your Risk

    What Is Watchful Waiting and When Is it Right for ...

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men, with 1 in 9 men being diagnosed throughout their lifetime.

    While it is more common in men over the age of 65, younger men can also fall victim to it. Many men live in fear of a prostate cancer diagnosis.

    However, by taking certain steps and eliminating specific risk factors, there are several things you can do for prostate cancer prevention. Follow these 7 steps to reduce your risk of prostate cancer and improve your overall health.

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    Dairy And Calcium Intake

    A meta-analysis of ten cohort studies , concluded that men with the highest intake of dairy products and calcium were more likely to develop prostate cancer than men with the lowest intake. The pooled RRs of advanced prostate cancer were 1.33 for the highest versus lowest intake categories of dairy products and 1.46 for the highest versus lowest intake categories of calcium. High intake of dairy products and calcium may be associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer although the increase may be small.

    What Factors Can Impact Psa Level

    Several conditions can lead to an elevated PSA level, not just prostate cancer.

    As men grow older, many are affected by prostatitis, an inflammation of the prostate, or benign prostatic hyperplasia , a non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate which causes PSA levels to rise. Ejaculation, male hormone medications, and some urologic procedures can also lead to an elevated reading.

    Additionally, PSA levels tend to slowly rise with age, even if there is no abnormality within the prostate.

    There are several factors that may cause a lowered PSA level as well. Patients who are overweight, frequently take aspirin, or use certain cholesterol-lowering drugs may see misleadingly low changes in their PSA levels.

    Similarly, medication for the urinary symptoms of BPH, such as finasteride or dutasteride, may cause misleadingly low PSA levels.

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    What Foods Kill Prostate Cancer Cells

    No food will directly kill prostate cancer cells. A healthy diet made up of specific superfoods will improve prostate health. Start by increasing your consumption of fruits and vegetables that contain antioxidants that fight cancer.

    • Isoflavones are present in foods like soybeans, chickpeas, peanuts, alfalfa sprouts and lentils. Isoflavones are phytoestrogens that help regulate hormones and cause cell death. Consider adding foods like peanut butter, hummus and tofu to your diet to boost isoflavone consumption.
    • Lycopene is an antioxidant that is in red foods like tomatoes. It is easiest for your body to break down if it is cooked or pureed like in marinara sauce, tomato paste, tomato juice or sundried tomatoes.
    • Plant-based fats are the preferred dietary choice. Animal fats, like those found in lard, butter and cheese, cause an increase in the risk of prostate cancer. Choose instead olive oil, avocados, nuts and seeds for your fat consumption.
    • Coffee also has benefits. A 2015 study found that coffee may have a beneficial effect related to coffee consumption.
    • Green tea according to multiple studies. Green tea supplements may help as well.

    Whats Causes Prostrate Cancer

    How To Reduce Risk For Prostate Cancer & Lower PSA Levels

    According to mayo clinic, the actual cause of prostate cancer, like all types of cancer, is difficult to pinpoint. Multiple factors, including as heredity and exposure to environmental pollutants, may be involved. The cells in your prostate begin to develop uncontrollably and improperly as a result of these alterations. Age is the most important but not the only risk factor for prostate cancer, as evidenced by diagnosis rates. Other essential considerations are:

  • History of the family.
  • Lifestyle.
  • Habits of eating.
  • The cause of prostate cancer is unknown. It could be caused by a variety of factors, including a family history of cancer or exposure to particular substances, as with all cancers. Whatever triggers cell mutations and uncontrolled cell growth in the prostate, the result is cell mutations and uncontrolled cell proliferation.

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    Body Weight Physical Activity And Diet

    The effects of body weight, physical activity, and diet on prostate cancer risk aren’t completely clear, but there are things you can do that might lower your risk.

    Some studies have found that men who are overweight or obese have a higher risk of developing advanced prostate cancer or prostate cancer that is more likely to be fatal.

    Although not all studies agree, several have found a higher risk of prostate cancer in men whose diets are high in dairy products and calcium.

    For now, the best advice about diet and activity to possibly reduce the risk of prostate cancer is to:

    • Get to and stay at a healthy weight.
    • Keep physically active.
    • Follow a healthy eating pattern, which includes a variety of colorful fruits and vegetables and whole grains, and avoids or limits red and processed meats, sugar-sweetened beverages, and highly processed foods.

    It may also be sensible to limit calcium supplements and to not get too much calcium in the diet.

    To learn more, see our American Cancer Society Guideline for Diet and Physical Activity for Cancer Prevention.

    Maintain A Healthy Diet

    According to a 2017 study into the diet and lifestyle factors that affect prostate cancer progression, there are several additions to your diet that can help your chances of surviving the disease. The study, published in the World Journal of Urology, listed tomato sauce, cruciferous vegetables, healthy sources of vegetable fats, and coffee, as items that can reduce the risk of prostate cancer progression.

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    How To Reduce Your Risk Of Prostate Cancer

    In the United States, 1 in 9 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during his lifetime. In fact, besides skin cancer, prostate cancer is the most common cancer in American men. More importantly this topic extremely important for men because

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death for men in America, behind only lung cancer. About 1 man in 41 will die of prostate cancer.

    Still, while theres no sure-fire prostate cancer prevention program there are beneficial lifestyle choices, such as exercising and eating a healthy diet that have been shown to reduce your risk of prostate cancer.

    If youre a male 50 or older, we encourage you to read this article in full and put the contents into practice. Its a science-backed plan that not only supports prostate health but will provide the best non-pharmaceutical methods for reducing the risk of this deadly disease.

    Drugs To Prevent Prostate Cancer

    Prostate Cancer Results Study Group

    Men with benign prostatic hyperplasia are often treated with dihydrotestosterone -lowering drugs called finasteride or dutasteride. These drugs have been studied extensively to determine whether they can prevent prostate cancer, and results suggest that they could reduce cancer risk by about 25 percent. Patients who develop cancer while on the drugs are more likely to get an aggressive form of the disease, so discuss the advantages and disadvantages with your doctor.

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    Inflammation Of The Prostate

    Some studies have suggested that prostatitis may be linked to an increased risk of prostate cancer, but other studies have not found such a link. Inflammation is often seen in samples of prostate tissue that also contain cancer. The link between the two is not yet clear, and this is an active area of research.

    Take These Steps To Help Protect Yourself From This Common Cancer In Men

    Prostate cancer affects more than 50% of men by the time they’re 80. This year, over 248,000 men in the U.S. may be diagnosed with prostate cancer, according to the American Cancer Society . Making a few changes in your life may help you avoid being one of them.

    The prostate is a small gland that is about as big as a walnut. Located between the penis and the bladder, it makes fluid that helps sperm cells swim. The gland also controls the flow of urine. One sign that you may have prostate cancer is that your bathroom habits have changedyou may find it harder to pee, have a weaker stream or get up often during the night to go to the bathroom. Since these things can also happen if you don’t have prostate cancer, it’s best to see a doctor.

    Although it may not be possible to completely prevent prostate cancer, here are some things you can do to lower your risk of developing the disease:

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