The Perfect Model For Research
Prostate cancers characteristic latency makes it the perfect model for longitudinal research, and that is exactly what Hollis and his group conducted over an extended period of time. Their pilot study evaluated the effects of enhancing vitamin D status and the subsequent related changes in prostate cancer tumor progression in a significant number of subjects over 1 year. A secondary objective was to compare prostate gland changes from a molecular standpoint before and after treatment with vitamin D3 for a period of 2 months for men who had chosen surgery over active surveillance. They presented their results at a meeting of the American Chemical Society in March 2015.2
Activity Of Vitamin D In Patients With Prostate Cancer
Unfortunately, the hypercalcemic effect of pharmacological doses of 1,252D3 limits its clinical application as a therapeutic agent. A number of analogs with less calcemic activity and equal or greater antiproliferative activity than 1,252D3 have been developed . We compared the biological actions of 1,252D3 on LNCaP cells to synthetic analogs of vitamin D . Several analogs exhibit up to fourfold greater inhibitory activity than 1,252D3. Interestingly, we noted that the potency of antiproliferative activity does not directly correlate with affinity of the analogs for VDR, which indicates that other factors are involved .
Mechanism Of Vitamin D Effects
Vitamin D and its metabolites reduce the incidence of many types of cancer by inhibiting tumor angiogenesis,â stimulating mutual adherence of cells, and enhancing intercellular communication through gap junctions, thereby strengthening the inhibition of proliferation that results from tight physical contact with adjacent cells within a tissue . Vitamin D metabolites help maintain a normal calcium gradient in the colon epithelial crypts, and high serum levels of 25D are associated with markedly decreased proliferation of noncancerous but high-risk epithelial calls in the colon. 1,252D inhibits mitosis of breast epithelial cells. Pulsatile release of ion-ized calcium from intracellular stores, including the endoplasmic reticulum, induces terminal differentiation and apoptosis, and 1,252D enhances this release.
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Vitamin D And Genistein
Vitamin D and its analogs are believed to have the potential to prevent as well as treat prostate cancer . The antiproliferative and differentiating effects of 1,252D3 on normal epithelial cells in the rat prostate in conjunction with in vitro studies of cultured cells support this concept. The vitamin D analog Ro24-5531 shows chemopreventive activity in the androgen-promoted carcinoma model of the Lobund-Wistar rat seminal vesicle and prostate . Therefore, in addition to considering combinations of vitamin D and other agents that might have additive or synergistic therapeutic activity, investigators have begun to search for combinations that could have enhanced chemopreventive properties. One such factor that is emerging is genistein. This compound is the most-abundant isoflavone in soy, and the association between decreased risk of certain cancers, including prostate cancer, and soy consumption is attributed to genistein. A recent study demonstrates that genistein potentiates the antiproliferative effect of vitamin D analogs on HL-60 leukemia cells , and a similar enhancement of activity of 1,252D3 by genistein is found in prostate cells . The mechanism is unclear, but several recent abstracts suggest that genistein may potentiate activity of vitamin D by decreasing enzymatic activity of 24-hydroxylase, which metabolizes 1,252D3 to less-active products.
Vitamin D And Prostate Cancer
Richard Martin and his team observed association between vitamin D and more aggressive cancers, which indicates the potential role for vitamin D manipulation to control the progression of prostate cancer
- Topic:Prostate cancer
Association of circulating vitamin D metabolite levels with incidence and progression of screen-detected prostate cancer.
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What The Research Says
According to the National Cancer Institute, researchers began exploring the link between vitamin D and cancer after they realized cancer was less common among people who lived in southern latitudes with high sun exposure. Since then, several studies have investigated whether vitamin D deficiency causes cancer.
Results of a 2014 study suggest vitamin D deficiency may be a risk factor for prostate cancer. Researchers found that African-American men with vitamin D deficiency had an increased chance of being diagnosed with prostate cancer.
Both African-American and European American men who were severely vitamin D deficient had a higher Gleason grade and tumor stage. Doctors use the Gleason grade is used to determine how similar cancerous prostate tissue cells are to normal prostate tissue cells. The higher the Gleason grade, the more aggressive the cancer is likely to be.
Research on this connection is still ongoing.
Its unclear whether vitamin D deficiency is a definitive risk factor for prostate cancer.
Established risk factors exist. You may have an increased risk if you:
- are over age 50
- have been exposed to chemicals such as Agent Orange
Having one or more of these risk factors doesnt mean that youll get prostate cancer. Talk to your doctor about your risk to determine if prostate screening is right for you.
Questions And Answers About Modified Citrus Pectin
Pectin is a substance made of small sugar molecules that are linked together. Pectin is found in the cell wall of most plants and has gel-like qualities that are useful in making many types of food and medicine.
Citrus pectin is found in the peel and pulp of citrus fruits such as oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. Citrus pectin can be modified during manufacturing so that it can be dissolved in water and absorbed by the body. This changed citrus pectin is called modified citrus pectin .
MCP may be taken by mouth in powder or capsule form.
MCP is available in the United States in food products and dietary supplements. The FDA does not approve dietary supplements as safe or effective. The company that makes the dietary supplements is responsible for making sure that they are safe and that the claims on the label are true and do not mislead the consumer. The way that supplements are made is not regulated by the FDA, so all batches and brands of MCP supplements may not be the same.
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Questions And Answers About Selenium
Selenium is a mineral that is essential to humans in tiny amounts. Selenium is needed for many body functions, including reproduction and immunity. Food sources of selenium include meat, vegetables, and nuts. The amount of selenium found in the food depends on the amount of selenium in the soil where the food grows. Selenium is stored in the thyroid gland, liver, pancreas, pituitary gland, and kidneys.
Selenium may play a role in many diseases, including cancer. Results of the large National Cancer Institute-sponsored Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial suggest that men with prostate cancer should not take selenium supplements.
Selenium may be eaten in food or taken in dietary supplements.
- Vitamin E and selenium.
- Two placebos.
Early results of SELECT reported in 2009 found no difference in the rate of developing prostate cancer among the 4 groups. In the selenium alone group, there was a slight increase in the rate of diabetes mellitus. Even though this change was not clearly shown to be due to the supplement, the men in the study were advised to stop taking the study supplements.
A study of 1,434 men in SELECT suggested that changes in certain genes which control the way selenium is used by the body may have an effect on the risk of developing prostate cancer.
Are Vitamin D And Prostate Health Related
Half of all men over age 50 will be diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia. This statistic rises to nearly 90% in men over age 80. While an enlarged prostate due to BPH can be related to age, it may be even more intricately linked to hormonal and vitamin imbalances in the body.
In fact, numerous studies in recent years may have found a strong link between BPH and vitamin D. A majority of men are deficient in vitamin D, especially as they get older. Studies show this deficiency increases the risk for male sexual health problems among other concerns like cancers, heart disease, and depression.
Lets first take a look at BPH and vitamin D separately, and then use information about both to understand the correlation between the two.
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A Good Vitamin D Status Can Protect Against Cancer
- University of Eastern Finland
- A good vitamin D status is beneficial both in cancer prevention and in the prognosis of several cancers, according to a new research review. The anti-cancer effects of vitamin D are especially pronounced in the prevention and treatment of colon cancer and blood cancers. In addition, high vitamin D responsiveness can be linked to a smaller cancer risk. Vitamin D responsiveness varies between individuals, affecting their need for vitamin D supplementation.
A good vitamin D status is beneficial both in cancer prevention and in the prognosis of several cancers, according to a new research review. The anti-cancer effects of vitamin D are especially pronounced in the prevention and treatment of colon cancer and blood cancers. In addition, high vitamin D responsiveness can be linked to a smaller cancer risk. Vitamin D responsiveness varies between individuals, affecting their need for vitamin D supplementation.
The review article, published in Seminars in Cancer Biology and written by Professor Carsten Carlberg from the University of Eastern Finland and Professor Alberto Muñoz from the Autonomous University of Madrid, provides an update on the molecular basis of vitamin D signaling and its role in cancer prevention and therapy.
According to the review, a good vitamin D status is beneficial in general cancer prevention. There is less evidence of its usefulness in the treatment of cancer.
How Is Vitamin D Being Studied Now In Clinical Cancer Research
Taken together, the available data are not comprehensive enough to establish whether taking vitamin D can prevent cancer . To fully understand the effects of vitamin D on cancer and other health outcomes, new randomized trials need to be conducted . However, the appropriate dose of vitamin D to use in such trials is still not clear . Other remaining questions include when to start taking vitamin D, and for how long, to potentially see a benefit.
To begin addressing these issues, researchers are conducting two phase I trials to determine what dose of vitamin D may be useful for chemoprevention of prostate, colorectal, and lung cancers . In addition, larger randomized trials have been initiated to examine the potential role of vitamin D in the prevention of cancer. The Vitamin D/Calcium Polyp Prevention Study, which has finished recruiting approximately 2,200 participants, is testing whether vitamin D supplements, given alone or with calcium, can prevent the development of colorectal adenomas in patients who previously had an adenoma removed. The studyâs estimated completion date is December 2017. The Vitamin D and Omega-3 Trial will examine whether vitamin D supplements can prevent the development of a variety of cancer types in healthy older men and women . The organizers of VITAL expect to recruit 20,000 participants and complete the trial by June 2016.
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Epidemiology Etiology Diagnosis And Treatment Of Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer is more common in men over the age of 65 years. There are 15% cases with positive family history of prostate cancer Worldwide. Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of death among the U.S. men. Prostate cancer incidence is strongly related to age with the highest rates in older man. Globally millions of people are suffering from this disease. This study aims to provide awareness about prostate cancer as well as an updated knowledge about the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer.
Inclusion And Exclusion Criteria
Studies must meet the following criteria for the two pathways addressed in the review.
Vitamin D-testosterone criteria
Participants: human or animalwith measures of vitamin D as the exposure and testosterone as the outcome
Exposures: any duration, frequency, and dose of vitamin D, including nutrition supplements, and sunlight exposure
Outcome: serum or plasma levels of total and/or free testosterone.
Testosterone-prostate cancer criteria
Participants: human or animalwith measures of testosterone as the exposure and prostate cancer as the outcome
Exposure: any duration, frequency, and dose of testosterone, including therapeutic use for non-cancerous conditions
Outcomes: incidence or prevalence of prostate cancer, number and size of tumour, measures of prostate cancer progression and prostate cancer-specific mortality
Observational studies and experimental studies will be eligible for the review.
The following studies will be excluded:
Studies investigating treatment effects of testosterone on prostate cancer
Cell culture and animal studies presenting cell line data only
Observational studies where the exposure is measured within 2years of the outcome to reduce the risk of reverse causality.
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The best way to cite this PDQ summary is:
PDQ® Integrative, Alternative, and Complementary Therapies Editorial Board. PDQ Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Updated < MM/DD/YYYY> . Available at: . Accessed < MM/DD/YYYY> .
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Recommendations For Vitamin D Intake
The National Academy of Sciences recommends the following daily intakes of vitamin D: 1 to 50 years of age, 200 international units 51 to 70 years, 400 IU older than 71 years, 600 IU. In one study, 500 IU per day was associated with a 25D level of 30 ng/mL, although this included photosynthesized vitamin D. Sufficient vitamin D intake to achieve 30 to 35 ng/mL of 25D in serum was associated with reduced incidence of colonic adenomas,, the latter in combination with adequate calcium intake. On the basis of the studies of serum 25D and risk of colorectal cancer cited in this article, the target range for serum 25D should be at least 30 ng/mL, but no more than 150 ng/mL., The National Academy of Sciences does not recommend a different intake of vitamin D by Blacks, although it suggests a need for further research on racial differences. On the basis of the markedly higher prevalence of 25D deficiency in Blacks,, a higher level of supplementation is probably needed. Althought adverse VDR genotypes,â, are present in a large proportion of the population,, different intakes according to genotype would not be practical.
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Search Strategy And Selection Criteria
We conducted MEDLINE searches to identify epidemiological studies on the relationship between vitamin D and prostate cancer risk. To identify the studies of prostate cancer risk in relation to vitamin D, we searched using the terms prostate cancer and prostate cancer risk in combination with the following terms: epidemiology, incidence, prevalence, risk factors, vitamin D, sunlight exposure, ultraviolet radiation, geography, dairy, dietary, diet, micronutrients, nutrition, serum vitamin D, serum 1,252D3 and serum 25-dihydroxyvitamin D. We also searched the bibliography of the selected papers to identify relevant articles that we might have missed during the primary MEDLINE search. To be included in the review, a study must have been published in English, reported on data collected in humans with prostate cancer, had prostate cancer risk as the primary outcome measure, had vitamin D as one of the or the only risk factor measured as follows and had any of the following study designs . There were no restrictions according to age, ethnicity or stage of prostate cancer.