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Gleason Score Vs Grade Groups
The International Society of Urological Pathology released a revised prostate cancer grading system in 2014. The grade group system seeks to simplify Gleason scores and give a more accurate diagnosis.
One of the major problems with the Gleason score is that some scores can be made up in different ways. For example, a score of 7 can mean:
- 3 + 4. The 3 pattern is the most common in the biopsy and 4 is the second most common. This pattern is considered favorable intermediate risk.
- 4 + 3. The 4 pattern is the most common in the biopsy and 3 is the second most common. This pattern is considered unfavorable and may mean local or metastatic spread.
So, although both situations give a Gleason score of 7, they actually have very different prognoses.
Heres an overview of how the two grading systems compare:
|grade group 5||910|
Not all hospitals have switched to the grade group system. Many hospitals give both grade group and Gleason scores to avoid confusion until grade groups become more widely used.
What Is The Prostate
To understand the signs of prostate cancer, we must know what the prostate is first. And where it is located.
Because most of the symptoms are explained by the prostates location. When cancer grows, it pushes the surrounding structures, causing those symptoms.
The urethra is like a pipe with a faucet. The prostate would be surrounding it. If it enlarges, it will push against the pipe.
It is a gland located below the bladder, surrounding the urethra . Thats right, part of the urethra runs through the prostate.
Its normal size is that of a nut.
As for the function, it produces part of the , around 30% of it. The remaining 70% comes from the seminal vesicles and testicles.
So, as you can imagine, prostate cancer can alter the process of urination and .
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Does Undergoing A Vasectomy Cause Prostate Cancer
The link between prostate cancer and vasectomy is controversial. A 2020 study in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute suggests that undergoing a vasectomy may result in a small increased risk of prostate cancer that persists for at least three decades, regardless of the age at vasectomy. However, other studies have not found this to be true and more research is needed, according to the American Cancer Society.
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What Increases Your Risk Of Prostate Cancer
Factors that can elevate risk prostate cancer include:
- A family history of prostate cancer
- Inherited genetic mutations, such as BRCA1/BRCA2 genes and Lynch syndrome
- Conditions such as prostatitis, inflammation of the prostate, and benign prostatic hyperplasia or BPH, a noncancerous enlargement of the prostate gland
- A diet high in red meats and high-fat dairy and low in fruits and vegetables
- Age: approximately 60 percent of cases are diagnosed in men older than 65
- Race and ethnicity: African-American men and Caribbean men of African ancestry are more likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer
Research has also shown that a healthy lifestyle, including a well-balanced diet and maintaining a healthy weight, may reduce prostate cancer risk.
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Where Does Prostate Cancer Spread
The most common place for prostate cancer to spread to is the bones. It can also spread to the:
A large tumour in the prostate gland can spread into or press on areas around the prostate, such as the back passage or urethra. The urethra is the tube which carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body.
What Is The Outlook
No cure is available for stage 4 prostate cancer. Your healthcare team will work with you to help control the cancer for as long as possible while maintaining a good quality of life.
Your outlook will depend on how fast the cancer is spreading and how well you respond to therapies.
With treatment, you can live for many years with metastatic prostate cancer.
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What Are The 12 Early Signs Of Prostate Cancer
A detailed study of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention about prostate cancer symptoms mentioned if you experience any or more of the symptoms below, its a warning sign that you have to go see your GP. In a lot of cases, if the pain is located in your bones or pelvic area, it could be a signal that cancer has spread.
Here are 12 warning signs and symptoms of prostate cancer that should never be ignored in order to prevent the development and progression of the disease.
If you notice an acute burning while urinating, it may be an early sign of prostate cancer, but not necessarily. Do not over panic, schedule a urology appointment, and follow the medical advice.
- A frequent need to urinate
The urinary frequency may be another prostate cancer early sign. When the prostate enlarges because of a malignant tumor, it may cause frequent urination. But this also may happen because of a benign state, such as BPH. Talk with your urologist about your symptoms and have your prostate checked.
- Difficulty starting or stopping a stream of urine
One of the prostate cancer early warning signs may be the difficulty of starting or stopping the stream of urine. When the prostate gland is affected, it presses on the bladder and creates urinary issues.
- A weak or dribbling flow of urine
Another early prostate cancer sign is weak or even dribbling flow of urine. If you experience this symptom associated with another one, talk with your urologist about your condition.
- Pain in the bones
A Note About Sex And Gender
Sex and gender exist on spectrums. This article will use the terms, male, female, or both to refer to sex assigned at birth. .
will depend on the cancer stage, among other factors, such as the Gleason score and PSA levels. It is also worth noting that many treatment options may be applicable, regardless of the stage of cancer.
In the sections below, we list some for prostate cancer and explore what treatment may mean for fertility.
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What Are The Treatments For Prostate Cancer
Your treatment options usually depend on your age, your general health, and how serious the cancer is. Your treatment may include one or more of options:
- Observation,which is mostly used if you are older, your prostate cancer isnât likely to grow quickly, and you donât have symptoms or you have other medical conditions. Your doctor will keep checking on your cancer over time so to see whether you will need to start treatment for the cancer. There are two types of observation:
- Watchful waiting means having little or no testing. If symptoms begin or change, you will get treatment to relieve them, but not to treat the cancer.
- Active surveillance means having regular tests to see if your prostate cancer has changed. If the tests show the cancer is starting to grow or if you develop symptoms, then you will have treatment to try to cure the cancer.
Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer
- The need to pee often, especially at night
- Trouble starting or stopping a stream of urine
- A weak stream or one that starts and stops
- Leaking pee when you laugh or cough
- Not being able to pee standing up
- Pain or burning when you pee
- Blood in your pee or
- Pressure or pain in your rectum
- Pain or stiffness in your lower back, hips, pelvis, or thighs
- New trouble getting an erection
These arenât symptoms of the cancer itself. They happen because the cancer growth is blocking your prostate.
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About Dr Dan Sperling
Dan Sperling, MD, DABR, is a board certified radiologist who is globally recognized as a leader in multiparametric MRI for the detection and diagnosis of a range of disease conditions. As Medical Director of the Sperling Prostate Center, Sperling Medical Group and Sperling Neurosurgery Associates, he and his team are on the leading edge of significant change in medical practice. He is the co-author of the new patient book Redefining Prostate Cancer, and is a contributing author on over 25 published studies. For more information, contact the Sperling Prostate Center.
Car T Therapy For Solid Tumors
The idea of training the bodys own immune system to fight cancer has percolated throughout the cancer landscape for years now. Dorff is especially excited about the promise of CAR T treatment: taking a patients immune, or T cells, reengineering them to recognize specific tumor-associated antigens and then reintroducing them as supercharged cancer killers.
Dorff calls the progress in CAR T therapy profound and revolutionary. The Food and Drug Administration has approved two CAR T products for blood cancers.
But solid tumors, including prostate cancer, present special challenges.
Unlike say, leukemia cells, which are fairly uniform, solid tumors are packed with a wide variety of different cells, which means a one-size-fits-all CAR T cell targeting one specific protein cant mount much of an attack. Also, tumors often display an immunosuppressant microenvironment which can counter the punch of a CAR T onslaught. Finally, theres the problem of toxicity. Some of the proteins targeted by CAR T cells also exist in healthy tissue.
Dorff is heavily immersed in research and clinical trials to address all these concerns.
We need to find a way to get the CAR T cells into the tumor with the right amount and find a way to kill tumor cells with different expressions, she said. And we need to reduce toxicity and the immunosuppressant response.
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Inability To Control The Intake Amount
The easiest way to recognize alcohol abuse is to pay attention to involuntary consumption. If a suspected individual is consuming more than they planned to or for longer than they should be, that is an almost clear sign of alcohol abuse. This happens for a very simple reason: the feeling of the addiction being sated completely takes over reasoning, responsibility, and critical thinking. A big problem with alcoholism is that its symptom causes it to worsen, making consumption almost unnoticeable to the sufferer.
Looking For More Of An Introduction
If you would like more of an introduction, explore these related items. Please note that these links will take you to other sections on Cancer.Net:
ASCO Answers Fact Sheet:Read a 1-page fact sheet that offers an introduction to prostate cancer. This free fact sheet is available as a PDF, so it is easy to print.
ASCO Answers Guide:Get this free 44-page booklet that helps you better understand the disease and treatment options. The booklet is available as a PDF, so it is easy to print.
Cancer.Net Patient Education Video:View a short video led by an ASCO expert in prostate cancer that provides basic information and areas of research.
Cancer.Net En EspaÃÂ±ol: Read about prostate cancer in Spanish or read a 1-page ASCO Answers Fact Sheet in Spanish. InfÃÂ³rmase sobre cÃÂ¡ncer de prÃÂ³stata en espaÃÂ±ol o una hoja informativa de una pÃÂ¡gina, Respuestas sobre el cÃÂ¡ncer.
The next section in this guide is Statistics. It helps explain the number of people who are diagnosed with prostate cancer and general survival rates. Use the menu to choose a different section to read in this guide.
ON THIS PAGE: You will find information about the number of people who are diagnosed with prostate cancer each year. You will also read general information on surviving the disease. Remember, survival rates depend on several factors. Use the menu to see other pages.
Statistics adapted from the American Cancer SocietyÃ¢s publication, Cancer Facts & Figures 2021, and the ACS website .
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When To See A Doctor
Because its so difficult to identify prostate cancer early, it can often be difficult to know when its right to see the doctor. Of course, any of the warning signs and symptoms mentioned above warrant a trip to the doctor.
There are, however, other scenarios when you should see your doctor for prostate cancer screening, notes the Urology Care Foundation. For example, screening is generally recommended for men between the ages of 55 and 69. And if you have additional risk due to being African-American or having a family history of prostate cancer, then you may want to get screened earlier.
A wise approach: Talk to your doctor about whether prostate cancer screening would be right for you.
Questions You May Want To Consider Asking Your Doctor Include:
- What type of prostate problem do I have?
- Is more testing needed and what will it tell me?
- If I decide on watchful waiting, what changes in my symptoms should I look for and how often should I be tested?
- What type of treatment do you recommend for my prostate problem?
- For men like me, has this treatment worked?
- How soon would I need to start treatment and how long would it last?
- Do I need medicine and how long would I need to take it before seeing improvement in my symptoms?
- What are the side effects of the medicine?
- Are there other medicines that could interfere with this medication?
- If I need surgery, what are the benefits and risks?
- Would I have any side effects from surgery that could affect my quality of life?
- Are these side effects temporary or permanent?
- How long is recovery time after surgery?
- Will I be able to fully return to normal?
- How will this affect my sex life?
- How often should I visit the doctor to monitor my condition?
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Sure Signs You Have Cancer
Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States after heart disease and while getting a cancer diagnosis is terrifying, it’s no longer a death sentence in many cases thanks to routine screenings and advances in treatment. “In the past 20 years, from 2001 to 2020, cancer death rates went down 27%, from 196.5 to 144.1 deaths per 100,000 population,” according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Early detection and knowing the signs of cancer can make the difference between life and death. Here’s seven signs not to ignore. Read onand to ensure your health and the health of others, don’t miss these Sure Signs You’ve Already Had COVID.
Prostate Tumor Biology May Be Influenced By Genetic Ancestry
Cancer Research Communications
Certain genetic variants found in prostate tumors of men of African descent were associated with African ancestry, according to two studies presented at the 15th AACR Conference on the Science of Cancer Health Disparities in Racial and Ethnic Minorities and the Medically Underserved, held September 1619.
One of the studies was published concurrently in the journal Cancer Research Communications.
In the United States, Black men have the highest rate of prostate cancer-related mortality. Most studies examining disparities focus on race, which is typically self-reported and defined by skin color and social and cultural traits, explained Clayton Yates, Ph.D., the senior author on both studies, the director of the Center for Biomedical Research at Tuskegee University, and chair of the AACR Minorities in Cancer Research Council.
However, Yates argued, addressing health disparities will also require understanding the contributions of genetic ancestry to tumor biology. Insights into genetic ancestry could aid precision medicine efforts by uncovering potential therapeutic targets specific to patients with African ancestry, he explained.
Elhussin and colleagues previously reported that prostate tumors from African American men had a two-fold greater activation of inflammatory signaling, which may contribute to the more aggressive disease typically observed in these patients.
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What Should I Do If I Have Prostate Cancer Symptoms
If you are displaying one or more signs of prostate cancer, be sure to promptly consult with a physician. Even benign prostate conditions like prostate enlargement warrant timely medical attention, so dont delay seeking treatment. And, like most other malignancies, prostate cancer is usually more easily treated when it is detected at an early stage.
Medically reviewed by Monica Chatwal, MD.
At Moffitt Cancer Center, we provide a full range of diagnostic testing for prostate cancer. If you have received a prostate cancer diagnosis, we understand that every day counts, and we want to support you every step of the way. Our Urologic Oncology Program includes a multispecialty team that focuses exclusively on evaluating and treating prostate cancer.
Contact Moffitt at or complete a new patient registration form online to speak with one of our specialized oncologists about your symptoms. As Floridas top cancer hospital, were committed to providing all new patients rapid access to a cancer expert within a day of their reaching out.