What Questions Should I Ask My Healthcare Provider
If you have prostate cancer, you may want to ask your healthcare provider:
- Why did I get prostate cancer?
- What is my Gleason score? What is my Grade Group? What do these numbers mean for me?
- Has the cancer spread outside of the prostate gland?
- What is the best treatment for the stage of prostate cancer I have?
- If I choose active surveillance, what can I expect? What signs of cancer should I look out for?
- What are the treatment risks and side effects?
- Is my family at risk for developing prostate cancer? If so, should we get genetic tests?
- Am I at risk for other types of cancer?
- What type of follow-up care do I need after treatment?
- Should I look out for signs of complications?
A note from Cleveland Clinic
Prostate cancer is a common cancer that affects males. Most prostate cancers grow slowly and remain in the prostate gland. For a small number, the disease can be aggressive and spread quickly to other parts of the body. Men with slow-growing prostate cancers may choose active surveillance. With this approach, you can postpone, and sometimes completely forego, treatments. Your healthcare provider can discuss the best treatment option for you based on your Gleason score and Group Grade.
Causes Of Malignant Neoplasm Cancer
The abnormal growth of cells in the human body can be linked to various causal factors. One or more of these factors may be at play, and the exact cause can be determined only after elaborate medical tests are performed on the patient. The main factors that can lead to a cancerous growth of cells in the human body are as follows:
Gene Mutations Mutation or changes in the DNA sequence of one or more cells in the human body may lead to cancer. The cells may be located at any part of the body. When the DNA sequencing is changed, the cells start behaving differently than what they are supposed to do. Though it is not necessary that a mutation will definitely trigger cancerous growth, yet if the changes in the sequence instruct the cells to rapidly multiply without the ability to stop, it may lead to malignant neoplasia. All new cells thus produced will be mutated ones and they, too, can grow uncontrollably, thus leading to a quick growth of the tumor.
Smoking Smoking tobacco in any form can lead to cancer. Tobacco contains various complex chemical compounds amongst which atleast 70 chemicals are known to be carcinogenic, i.e., induced cancerous growth in the body. When dried tobacco is burned, the smoke is inhaled by the smoker and those around them, thus allowing the harmful chemicals to enter the body. These carcinogens, then, may affect the genome of the person and trigger neoplasia.
What Are The Stages Of Prostate Cancer
Your healthcare provider uses the Gleason score and Grade Groups to stage prostate cancer based on its projected aggressiveness. To get this information, the pathologist:
- Assigns a grade to each type of cell in your sample. Cells are graded on a scale of three to five . Samples that test in the one to two range are considered normal tissue.
- Adds together the two most common grades to get your Gleason score .
- Uses the Gleason score to place you into a Grade Group ranging from one to five. A Gleason score of six puts you in Grade Group 1 . A score of nine or higher puts you in Grade Group five . Samples with a higher portion of more aggressive cells receive a higher Grade Group.
Recommended Reading: Can Psa Test Detect Prostate Cancer
Stages Of Malignant Neoplasm
Once a malignant neoplasm has been detected, it is important to determine its stage so that proper treatment can be started immediately. Though different staging methods exist, the TNM classification is most commonly and widely used to categorize the level of the malignant tumor. The T value indicates the extent and/or size of the tumor. The N value refers to the level of involvement of the lymph node while the M value shows whether remote metastases are absent or present. Based on the data collected from clinical tests, the staging of neoplasms is done as below:
TX impossible to evaluate the primary tumor
Tis the tumor is non-invasive and in-situ
T1 the neoplasm is small in size and shows minimal invasion at the primary location.
T2 the tumor is large in size and shows comparatively more invasion at the primary location
T3 the tumor is large, and the invasion has gone beyond the perimeters of the primary location
T4 large tumor with extreme invasion and has spread to the nearby organs as well
NX It is impossible to evaluate the regional lymph nodes
N0 the lymph node is not at all involved
N1 the closest lymph node is involved
N2 the regional lymph node is involved
N3 remote lymph nodes are also involved
MX the occurrence of remote metastases cannot be determined
M0 No occurrence of remote metastases
M1- remote metastases are present
Also Read: Pancoast Tumor Cancer
Patient Discussion About Prostate Cancer
Q. breating air that has tetrachloroethene in it how does it affect you if u have prostate cancer the air in my building has been determined to have Tetrachloroethylene in it i have just been diagnosed with prostate cancer
Q. What does treatment for prostate cancer consist of, and does it affect a male’s ability to have sex? A very close friend of ours has been diagnosed with prostate cancer and we were wondering what his treatment options might be.If the prostate gland is removed, does that eliminate the ability to have sex?
Q. Rising PSA to 10 with two negative biospies? Expect cancer? 67 yrs old in good health otherwise.
Read Also: Laser Prostate Surgery For Bph
Biopsy And Gleason Score
A pathologist looks for cell abnormalities and “grades” the tissue sample from 1 to 5. The sum of two Gleason grades is the Gleason score. These scores help determine the chances of the cancer spreading. Gleason grades of 1 and 2 are not usually given in biopsies, so 6 is typically the lowest score for a prostate cancer. Cancer with Gleason scores of 8 to 10 is called high-grade, and can grow and spread more quickly. Gleason scores help guide the type of treatment your doctor will recommend.
Genetic Testing For Prostate Cancer
You may hear a lot about genetics or genomics. Both terms are related to genes and cell DNA, but they are different. These tests are being used to learn more about the DNA of cancer cells, and link DNA mutations with treatments. In the future, genetic testing may be the first step doctors take when diagnosing prostate cancer.
Don’t Miss: What Are The Screening Tests For Prostate Cancer
How Is Malignant Neoplasm Of Prostate Diagnosed
As Malignant Neoplasm of the Prostate is a condition in which the tumors grows very slowly thus in most cases this condition is diagnosed during routine checkup like when doing a rectal examination the physician may identify a hard prostate.
It may also be detected when doing blood work and checking the levels of prostate-specific antigen which will be significantly elevated in cases of Malignant Neoplasm of the Prostate. Advanced imaging studies like MRI and CT scan may be done to further confirm the diagnosis of Malignant Neoplasm of the Prostate.
What Causes Prostate Cancer
Experts arent sure why some cells in the prostate gland become cancerous . Genetics appear to play a role. For example:
- Youre two to three times more likely to get prostate cancer if your father, brother or son has the disease.
- Inherited mutated breast cancer genes and other gene mutations contribute to a small number of prostate cancers.
Recommended Reading: How To Lower Risk Of Prostate Cancer
Cancer May Spread From Where It Began To Other Parts Of The Body
When cancer spreads to another part of the body, it is called metastasis. Cancer cells break away from where they began and travel through the lymph system or blood.
- Lymph system. The cancer gets into the lymph system, travels through the lymph vessels, and forms a tumor in another part of the body.
- Blood. The cancer gets into the blood, travels through the blood vessels, and forms a tumor in another part of the body.
The metastatic tumor is the same type of cancer as the primary tumor. For example, if prostate cancer spreads to the bone, the cancer cells in the bone are actually prostate cancer cells. The disease is metastatic prostate cancer, not bone cancer.
Denosumab, a monoclonal antibody, may be used to preventbone metastases.
Prostate Cancer Survival Rates
The good news about prostate cancer is that it usually grows slowly, and 9 out of 10 cases are found in the early stages. Overall, the 5-year relative survival rate is 100% for men with disease confined to the prostate or nearby tissues. Many men live much longer. When the disease has spread to distant areas, that figure drops to 31%. But these numbers are based on men diagnosed at least 5 years ago. The outlook may be better for men diagnosed and treated today.
Don’t Miss: What Causes The Prostate Gland To Become Enlarged
Living With Prostate Cancer
As prostate cancer usually progresses very slowly, you can live for decades without symptoms or needing treatment.
Nevertheless, it can affect your life. As well as the possible side effects of treatment, a diagnosis of prostate cancer can understandably make you feel anxious or depressed.
You may find it beneficial to talk about the condition with your family, friends, a family doctor and other men with prostate cancer.
Financial support is also available if prostate cancer reduces your ability to work.
Risks Of Over Treatment Of Prostate Cancer
Over diagnosis is the detection of a cancer that would otherwise not have been diagnosed in the lifetime of the host if the detection test had not been performed. Treatment of men who would otherwise not have known about their cancer in the absence of PSA testing and biopsy are over treated. Over treatment exacts a cost to the health care system and potential harm to a patient , with no benefit. Over treatment is most likely to occur when a low grade is detected, especially in an older man. Data from various sources suggest that in the PSA range where many men are undergoing prostate biopsy today , 15-25% will have prostate cancer detected, and 80-90% will be low grade.
The rate of in the U.S. is similar to the rate of over diagnosis since the majority of men undergo curative intervention after receiving a prostate cancer diagnosis. A range of estimates of over diagnosis between 23% and 42% have been reported based on U.S. incidence. Depending upon the age at diagnosis, and the disease characteristics, the likelihood that a screen detected cancer has been over diagnosed can vary from below 5% to more than 75%.
Recommended Reading: How Is Prostate Laser Surgery Performed
Prostate Cancer And Bph
Prostatic hyperplasia is frequently seen in association with prostatic adenocarcinoma and there are a number of compelling similarities, including increasing incidence and prevalence with age, concordant natural history, and hormonal requirements for growth and development, but no causal relationship has been established or seriously suggested.334
Signs and symptoms
Prostatic adenocarcinoma has no specific presenting symptoms and is usually clinically silent, although it may cause urinary obstructive symptoms mimicking nodular hyperplasia. As a consequence, cancer is occasionally initially manifest in metastatic sites such as cervical lymph nodes and bone. The diagnosis may be made in the following clinical instances:
If, in routine surveillance for prostatic adenocarcinoma in men over 40 years of age, digital rectal examination shows a nodular or diffusely enlarged prostate serum PSA level is greater than 2.5 or 4 ng/mL or transrectal ultrasound and biopsies are positive for malignancy .
Liang Cheng, … Rodolfo Montironi, in, 2010
What Is Malignant Neoplasm Of Prostate
The prostate gland is a small gland found in males that is located between the urethra and the bladder. It is basically a male reproductive organ which secretes and propels semen ejaculated during sexual intercourse. Malignant Neoplasm of the Prostate which is commonly known as prostate cancer is a type of cancer usually found in the elderly population and one of the most common type of cancer found in men.
Malignant Neoplasm of the Prostate usually is found in people above the age of 70 although there have been cases of people getting it much before as well. People below the age of 40 rarely get this condition. Malignant Neoplasm of the Prostate is found more in African-Americans that Native Americans. An individual with a family history of Malignant Neoplasm of the Prostate is more likely to get this condition than others.
People involved in smoking and alcohol abuse are at increased risk for developing Malignant Neoplasm of the Prostate. Overweight men and people who eat a lot of animal fat are also at an increased risk for Malignant Neoplasm of the Prostate.
People who are exposed to Agent Orange and cadmium are also at risk for developing Malignant Neoplasm of the Prostate. In some rare cases sexually transmitted diseases have also shown to increase the risk for Malignant Neoplasm of the Prostate.
Read Also: Vitamins And Supplements For Prostate Health
Faqs Malignant Neoplasm Cancer
Can you Smoke Cigar instead of a Cigarette?
In short, no! The tobacco present in cigar undergoes a long aging process, thereby increasing the concentration of nitrogenous compounds like nitrites and nitrates which emit some of the most active carcinogens known to mankind.
Can you use Tobacco Products that do not Emit Smoke?
Though tobacco, when chewed or taken as snuff, doesnt produce the harmful smoke, yet this doesnt eliminate the intake of harmful carcinogens as they contain TSNAs, PAHs, radioactive substances, etc. which are directly absorbed and can lead to different types of cancer.
Can you use e-cigs?
Though e-cigs brands claim that e-cigarettes can be used instead of actual cigarettes or cigars without any harm, yet the reality is quite different. The liquid used in the e-cigs contain synthetic flavors, addictive nicotine and several other chemical compounds that are classified as carcinogens.
Can Losing Body Weight help Lower Cancer Risk?
Though there are indications that maintaining an optimal body weight helps in curbing cancer menace in certain cases, yet there isnt enough proof to establish this as a fact. However, cutting down excess body weight does bring about certain changes in the body functionality that may have a direct impact on susceptibility to cancer.
Why is Remission Different from a Cure?
Are Seniors Prone to Cancer?
History Of Prostate Cancer In The Era Of Prostate
based screening for prostate cancer led to earlier detection of prostate cancer , and thus altered the course of the disease in the absence of treatment . Identifying the incidence and prevalence of prostate cancer increased with widespread prostate-specific antigen testing, as did the length of time that men live with their disease, as compared to the pre prostate-specific antigen era. The stage migration that occurred, with application of curative intervention at an earlier stage, undoubtedly led to a reduction inprostate cancer mortality. However, the extent to which this reduction was due to prostate-specific antigen based screening is debatable. Further, because prostate cancer progresses slowly and is found most often in older men with competing risks of mortality, the extent to which these changes in natural history have resulted in benefit and harm are also debatable.
You May Like: Is Surgery The Best Option For Prostate Cancer
Prognosis: Disease Course Often Hard To Predict
In the United States, improved cancer screening and treatment have reduced the number of people who die from certain cancers, such as colon cancer. However, your chances of survival are generally decreased if a cancer has spread beyond its primary location.
Malignant tumors can vary in their aggressiveness, so it is difficult to predict how rapidly they will grow. A medical oncologist can recommend appropriate testing and treatment to give you the best chance of survival.
Malignant And Benign Neoplasm
A malignant, or cancerous, tumor, on the other hand, is innately dangerous because its cells can divide uncontrollably and produce virtually immortal daughter cells. Malignant tumor cells can penetrate and destroy adjacent tissue, and can metastasize, or travel through the circulation to distant parts of the body and form new tumors. If the cells are not cancerous, the tumor is benign. It wont invade nearby tissues or spread to other areas of the body . A benign tumor is less worrisome unless it is pressing on nearby tissues, nerves, or blood vessels and causing damage. Fibroids in the uterus or lipomas are examples of benign tumors.
You May Like: Can Zytiga Cure Prostate Cancer
Don’t Miss: Aggressive Prostate Cancer Survivor Stories
Talk With Your Doctor
Prostate cancer is a risk for all men as they age, but if its caught and treated early, the outlook is generally very good. So as you get older, be sure to have open conversations with your doctor about your risk.
If you have any symptoms you think might be prostate cancer, talk to your doctor right away. And even if you dont have symptoms, consider adopting a healthy lifestyle to decrease your risk.
How Common Is Prostate Cancer
About one in nine men will receive a prostate cancer diagnosis during his lifetime. Prostate cancer is second only to skin cancer as the most common cancer affecting males. Close to 200,000 American men receive a diagnosis of prostate cancer every year. There are many successful treatments and some men dont need treatment at all. Still, approximately 33,000 men die from the disease every year.
Don’t Miss: Are There Any Signs Of Prostate Cancer