Risks For Prostate Cancer
Certain behaviours, substances or conditions can affect your risk, or chance, of developing cancer. Some things increase your risk and some things decrease it. Most cancers are the result of many risks. But sometimes cancer develops in people who don’t have any risks.
The risk for prostate cancer increases as men get older. The chance of being diagnosed with prostate cancer is greater after age 50. Prostate cancer is most often diagnosed in men in their 60s.
Prostate cancer occurs in Black men of African or Caribbean ancestry more often than in men of other ethnicities. Black men are also more likely to have more aggressive prostate tumours and die from prostate cancer when compared to other men. The reason for this is not clear.
The following can increase your risk for prostate cancer. Most of these risks cannot be changed.
Do Women Have Prostates
Have you ever wondered, do women have prostates? In short, the answer is no. The primary function of the male prostate is to secrete prostate fluid, an important component of semen. However, there is a functional part of your own reproductive system thats very similar.
Small glands, located on either side of your urethra and arising from the urogenital sinus, are called Skene glands. They create a link between your urethra and vagina that actually closes up during gestation. Now, lets take a closer look at the female prostate gland and what it does.
What Is Prostate Cancer
The prostate is a small gland located underneath the bladder in men and is part of the reproductive system. Some men develop prostate cancer, usually later in life. If cancer develops on your prostate gland, it will likely grow slowly. In rare cases, the cancer cells may be more aggressive, grow quickly, and spread to other areas of your body. The earlier your doctor finds and treats the tumor, the higher the chances are of finding curative treatment.
According to the Urology Care Foundation, prostate cancer is the second most common cause of all cancer-related deaths among American men. About 1 in 7 men will be diagnosed with the disease in their lifetime. Approximately 1 in 39 men will die from it. Most of these deaths occur among older men.
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So What Does This All Mean
If theres anything to take away from all of this, its that theres still a lot we dont know about the g-spot .
Nonetheless, lots of people talk about g-spot orgasmsusually meaning non-clitoral orgasms. There are some things to keep in mind about that to make your journey achieving this female prostate or g-spot orgasm easier.
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Can Anything Be Done For Erectile Dysfunction Caused By Prostate Cancer Treatment
Yes, there are things you can try if you have erectile dysfunction after your prostate cancer treatment. You should keep in mind that the following things will affect your ability to have an erection after your prostate cancer treatment:
- How good your erections were before your treatment
- Other medical conditions you have like high blood pressure or diabetes
- Some types of medicines you may take such as medicines for high blood pressure or antidepressants
- Things you do in your life such as drinking or smoking
- Your age
- The type of prostate cancer treatment you had
It is important that you and your partner speak with your doctor or healthcare team about what you can do. Your doctor or healthcare team will speak with you about what might work best for you if you have erectile dysfunction. It is important that you speak with them since some treatments for erectile dysfunction can affect other medical problems you may have.
Types of treatment for erectile dysfunction include:
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Risk Factors You Cant Control
Age: The risk of developing prostate cancer increases with age. One in 10,000 men younger than 40 will be diagnosed with prostate cancer, but one in 15 men in their 60s will be diagnosed with the disease.
Family history: Being born with a gene mutation is one of the unavoidable risks of prostate cancer. Two of them include the BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations. BRCA and other inherited mutations, including HOXB13 and DNA mismatch repair genes, may explain why prostate cancer runs in families. Having a father or brother with prostate cancer may double a mans risk, especially if that relative was diagnosed before age 55.
Hormones: The level of male sex hormones, called androgens, may be higher in some men than others. Higher levels of androgensmainly testosteronehave been linked to a higher risk of prostate cancer. Men who use testosterone therapy are at a higher risk of developing prostate cancer, as an increase in testosterone stimulates the growth of the prostate gland.
Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia : This condition may be associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. PIN is a condition in which prostate gland cells look abnormal when examined with a microscope. Its not necessarily linked with any symptoms. Nearly half of men will be diagnosed with PIN before age 50.
Race: Studies show that African-American men are about 70 percent more likely to develop prostate cancer in their lifetime than Caucasian or Hispanic men.
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While previous research has looked at associations between specific plant foods, such as tomatoes, and prostate cancer, this latest study examined what impact an overall plant-rich eating pattern might have.
We were very interested to look at dietary patterns, these previous findings and the fact that people consume an overall diet, not just one food, Dr. Stacy Loeb, MD, PhD, who co-authored the study, said in an interview this week with Urology Times.
When Loeb and her team of researchers compared the dietary habits and prostate cancer risk among HPFS participants, they found that those who ate more plant-based foods were significantly less likely to develop fatal prostate cancer. Additionally, they found that younger men who ate more healthful plant-based foods were less likely to develop aggressive forms of the disease.
The authors put forth a few possible explanations for the associations, citing the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory components of fruits and vegetables. They also note that milk and other dairy products have been shown to increase levels of insulin-like growth factor 1, a hormone that has been linked to multiple forms of cancer.
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About Dr Dan Sperling
Dan Sperling, MD, DABR, is a board certified radiologist who is globally recognized as a leader in multiparametric MRI for the detection and diagnosis of a range of disease conditions. As Medical Director of the Sperling Prostate Center, Sperling Medical Group and Sperling Neurosurgery Associates, he and his team are on the leading edge of significant change in medical practice. He is the co-author of the new patient book Redefining Prostate Cancer, and is a contributing author on over 25 published studies. For more information, contact the Sperling Prostate Center.
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What To Expect During The Exam
You can get a prostate exam easily and quickly at your doctors office. Generally, for cancer screenings, your doctor will take a simple blood test.
Your doctor might also choose to perform a DRE. Before performing this exam, your doctor will ask you to change into a gown, removing your clothing from the waist down.
During a DRE, your doctor will ask you to bend over at the waist or lie on the exam table in a fetal position, with your knees to your chest. They will then insert a gloved, lubricated finger into your rectum.
Your doctor will feel for anything abnormal, such as bumps or hard or soft areas that might indicate a problem. Your doctor may also be able to feel if your prostate is enlarged.
A digital rectal exam can be uncomfortable, especially if you have hemorrhoids, but isnt overly painful. It will last only a couple of minutes.
A DRE is one of your doctors tools that can help them detect several prostate and rectal problems, including:
- prostate cancer
- abnormal masses in your rectum and anus
Your doctor will be able to tell immediately if there are any areas of concern that may warrant further testing.
The results of a DRE exam are either normal or abnormal, but doctors typically rely on several different tests to help them make a prostate cancer diagnosis.
If your doctor feels something abnormal during the DRE, they will probably recommend getting a PSA blood test, if you havent done so already.
- transrectal ultrasound
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Talking With Your Doctor
Different kinds of doctors and other health care professionals manage prostate health. They can help you find the best care, answer your questions, and address your concerns. These health care professionals include:
- Family doctors and internists
- Physician assistants and nurse practitioners
- Urologists, who are experts in diseases of the urinary tract system and the male reproductive system
- Urologic oncologists, who are experts in treating cancers of the urinary system and the male reproductive system
- Radiation oncologists, who use radiation therapy to treat cancer
- Medical oncologists, who treat cancer with medications such as hormone treatments and chemotherapy
- Pathologists, who identify diseases by studying cells and tissues under a microscope
View these professionals as your partnersâexpert advisors and helpers in your health care. Talking openly with your doctors can help you learn more about your prostate changes and the tests to expect.
Black Men And Their Doctors Should Be More Cautious About Active Surveillance
Active surveillance is an approach in which low-risk prostate cancer is not treated with surgery or radiation therapy. Instead, it is monitored very closely for any signs of change over months or years. Active surveillance is increasingly the treatment option of choice for low-risk prostate cancer. Many men embrace this approach because the side effects of treatment, usually surgery or radiation therapy, can be significant.
Black men, however, are more likely to develop more-aggressive prostate cancer. Because of that, Dr. Kantoff maintains that active surveillance may be less appropriate for many Black men. As with screening guidelines, there is little evidence to provide guidance one way or the other. Blacks have been underrepresented in active surveillance studies as well.
Having said that, I think some Black men could benefit from active surveillance, Dr. Kantoff says. This question needs to be studied more before we can come to firm recommendations.
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Family History And Genetics
Your family history is information about any health problems that have affected your family. Families have many common factors, such as their genes, environment and lifestyle. Together, these factors can help suggest if you are more likely to get some health conditions.
Inside every cell in our body is a set of instructions called genes. These are passed down from our parents. Genes control how the body grows, works and what it looks like. If something goes wrong with one or more genes , it can sometimes cause cancer.
Is prostate cancer hereditary?
If people in your family have prostate cancer or breast cancer, it might increase your own risk of getting prostate cancer. This is because you may have inherited the same faulty genes.
My father had prostate cancer. What are my risks?
- You are two and a half times more likely to get prostate cancer if your father or brother has had it, compared to a man who has no relatives with prostate cancer.
- Your chance of getting prostate cancer may be even greater if your father or brother was under 60 when he was diagnosed, or if you have more than one close relative with prostate cancer.
- Your risk of getting prostate cancer may also be higher if your mother or sister has had breast cancer.
Do you have a family history of prostate cancer?
If you’re over 45 and your father or brother has had prostate cancer, you may want to talk to your GP. Our Specialist Nurses can also help you understand your hereditary risk of prostate cancer.
What You Can Do: Screening And Prevention
The American Cancer Society recommends one of the following testing options for all people beginning at age 50:
Tests that find polyps and cancer
- Colonoscopy every 10 years, or
- Flexible sigmoidoscopy every 5 years*, or
- Double-contrast barium enema every 5 years*, or
- CT colonography every 5 years*
Tests that primarily find cancer
- Yearly fecal occult blood test **, or
- Yearly fecal immunochemical test **, or
- Stool DNA test , interval uncertain**
* If the test is positive, a colonoscopy should be done.** The multiple stool take-home test should be used. One test done by the doctor is not adequate for testing. A colonoscopy should be done if the test is positive.
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C Laboratory Tests To Monitor Response To And Adjustments In Management
No laboratory tests are recommended for prostate cancer and the acute response to therapy. During active surveillance or after surgery or radiation, serum PSA is monitored every 6-12 months and DRE every year to monitor remission and recurrence. If rising PSA is noted, a CT of the abdomen/pelvis should be obtained. If patient has new bone pain a bone scan should be performed.
In the setting of malignant hypercalcemia, serial calcium levels should be obtained to monitor adequate response to therapy.
Benefits At Any Stage
The second-most common cancer in men, prostate cancer has a five-year survival rate of 99 percent when caught early. Most men with localized prostate cancer die not of the disease but of other, preventable causes, such as cardiovascular diseasea point that Loeb emphasized in her interview with Urology Times. At every stage, its very important that we focus on healthful lifestyle behaviors, because we can improve overall survival and cardiovascular health, Loeb said. And some of these changes may also be beneficial in terms of prostate cancer, too.
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Can Trans Women Get Prostate Cancer
Yes, trans women and non-binary people assigned male at birth can get prostate cancer.
There arent many studies of prostate cancer in trans women but they suggest that there is a lower risk than in cis men.
Ive always known that people born male have a prostate. Its something that I have to live with. No health professional raised the risk of prostate problems with me, but I was aware that I was at risk. A personal experience
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What Tests Check For Prostate Cancer
Common tests to check for prostate cancer include:
- Digital rectal exam: Your doctor inserts a finger into your rectum and touches your prostate gland. The doctor feels the shape of the prostate gland and checks for any hard spots.
- PSA blood test: This blood test tells how much PSA is in your blood. Many men with prostate cancer have PSA levels that are higher than normal or that have gotten higher over time.
- A high PSA level does not always mean a man has prostate cancer. As men get older, their prostate gland may grow larger over time. This growth, and other health conditions, can cause a high PSA level in men who do not have prostate cancer.
If the test results are not normal, your doctor may recommend more tests, such as a biopsy. During a biopsy, the doctor uses a needle to take out a tiny piece or pieces of the prostate gland. An ultrasound probe may be used to guide the needle. Another doctor called a pathologist looks at the tissue under a microscope to check for cancer cells.
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What Is The Outlook For Prostate Cancer
The good news is, rates of prostate cancer have dropped considerably in the United States. The National Cancer Institute reports that in 1992 there were 234 new cases for every 100,000 Americans now that figure is under 100 per 100,000. Overall, the American Cancer Society projects 164,690 new cases of prostate cancer in 2018 and 29,430 deaths. From a male US population of 161 million, thats a tiny .02 percent chance of dying from prostate cancer in a given year. Of course, the figures change as you narrow the population based on factors like age, and risk factors like smoking, being overweight and not getting proper exercise. The ACS estimates that 1 in 9 American males will be diagnosed in their lifetime with prostate cancer, and 1 in 41 will die of the disease.
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What Are Prostate Cancer Treatment Side Effects
Some prostate cancer treatments can affect the bladder, erectile nerves and sphincter muscle, which controls urination. Potential problems include:
- Incontinence: Some men experience urinary incontinence. You may leak urine when you cough or laugh, or you may feel an urgent need to use the bathroom even when your bladder isnt full. This problem can improve over the first six to 12 months without treatment.
- Erectile dysfunction : Surgery, radiation and other treatments can damage the erectile nerves and affect your ability to get or maintain an erection. Some men regain erectile function within a year or two . In the meantime, medications like sildenafil or tadalafil can help by increasing blood flow to the penis.
- Infertility: Treatments can affect your ability to produce or ejaculate sperm, resulting in male infertility. If you think you might want children in the future, you can preserve sperm in a sperm bank before you start treatments. After treatments, you may undergo sperm extraction. This procedure involves removing sperm directly from testicular tissue and implanting it into a womans uterus.
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