How Soon Can We Detect This
One of the main advantages of surgery over radiotherapy for prostate cancer is that following prostate removal, the PSA should be very low , which we can of course detect with blood tests. If metastasis occurs, because the metastatic cells originated in the prostate and therefore make PSA, the PSA level in the blood starts to rise. Once it has reached a given threshold additional or salvage treatment will be discussed.
A PSA level of more than 0.2 ng/ml defines biochemical recurrence. At this stage the cancer is still much too small to be seen on scanning. If it can be seen on a scan it is termed clinical recurrence, which generally does not occur until the PSA level is more than 0.5 ng/ml. Symptoms, such as bone pain, dont usually occur until the PSA is more than 20 ng/ml.
If Your Prostate Cancer Has Spread
If cancer has spread to other parts of your body it cant be cured. This is advanced prostate cancer. Treatment can help to control the cancer and your symptoms. This might be:
- hormone treatment to lower your testosterone levels
- bisphosphonates to help with bone pain
- radiotherapy to particular parts of the skeleton
- radioactive liquid treatment radiotherapy , such as radium-223
If hormone therapy is no longer working for you, you might have:
Prostate Cancer Recurrence After Prostatectomy: Why Does It Happen And How Do We Treat It
Filed in Life After Treatment
The concept of prostate cancer recurrence after prostatectomy puzzles many patients. A frequently asked question is how can the cancer come back if the prostate has been removed? The explanation is that, as with any cancer, if cancerous cells migrate out of the organ in which they arose before the organ is removed , they can settle and grow elsewhere. These migrating cells are called metastases, secondary deposits or secondaries.
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Why Is Radical Prostatectomy Done
Radical prostatectomy is a treatment for prostate cancer that prevents cancer from spreading outside the prostate gland. It may cure prostate cancer by removing it completely.
For patients diagnosed with prostate cancer, additional tests may be needed to determine the how far the cancer has spread. These tests help your provider decide if you are a candidate for radical prostatectomy:
How Your Doctor Monitors You After Treatment
After treatment you have follow up appointments, which usually include regular blood tests to check the levels of a protein called prostate specific antigen . They check to see if your PSA level rises. And they also look at how quickly it rises.
An increase in PSA can mean there are prostate cancer cells in your body. The cells might be in or around the prostate. Or they might have spread to other parts of your body. You might need treatment if it rises.
Prostate cancer that comes back after treatment is called recurrent prostate cancer.
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An Increased Psa Level
A biochemical relapse is when your PSA level rises after having treatment that aims to cure your cancer.
You might not need to start treatment straight away. Your doctor will continue to monitor your PSA levels regularly to see if your PSA rises quickly or stabilises. You might have a scan if your PSA rises quickly.
The choice about whether to have treatment and what treatment to have will depend on:
- the treatment you have already had
- your general health
What Is The Recovery Time After Radical Prostatectomy
You may feel tired for a few weeks after surgery. Light exercise such as walking can help with the healing process. You should avoid heavy lifting for several weeks.
You may have urinary incontinence or leakage for weeks to months after the surgery, although most people recover continence after surgery. Recovery of sexual function is expected to take months. Your doctor may start you on a medication to help with recovery of erections.
Youll need regular follow-ups with your healthcare provider to monitor for evidence of cancer recurrence and manage effects from the surgery. They can work with you to improve any problems with erectile dysfunction or bladder control.
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Why Choose New York Urology Specialists For Treatment Of Enlarged Prostate Problems
- All treatment is performed by a board-certified urologist experienced in treating men with symptoms of frequent urination, urinary urgency, urinary incontinence, and bladder pain using medical therapy, minimally invasive therapies, lasers, and open surgery.
- We are one of the few practices in the region to offer a full range of options for the treatment of urinary problems caused by an enlarged prostate in men.
- We offer treatment options for enlarged prostate, overactive bladder, UTI, and urinary incontinence in our office, which avoids the risks, costs, and recovery from general anesthesia.
- Extensive experience: Thousands of men have been treated successfully using medical therapy, surgery, and minimally invasive procedures such as Urolift procedure, Rezum surgery, Botox for overactive bladder, Interstim for frequent urination, and tibial neuromodulation.
- We also offer laser surgery for BPH , Bipolar TURP, traditional TURP, open suprapubic prostatectomy, robotic suprapubic prostatectomy for BPH.
- We offer diagnostic testing in our office, which avoids hospital costs.
- Confidential and Understanding Care. We understand that most of our patients desire privacy. We see patients with a variety of urological problems. Your reason for visiting us is entirely confidential.
- We are conveniently located within a 30-60 minute commute to men who are seeking BPH treatment in Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, Staten Island, Westchester, Long Island, Bronx, and New Jersey.
Treatment Of Rising Psa
If PSA levels are rising slowly or by a small amount, a person may not need treatment. A doctor usually considers an individuals overall health, medical history, and age when giving advice on treatment.
Doctors often use active surveillance if PSA levels are rising. Active surveillance is a series of regular tests and health checks, with treatment only if necessary. Prostate cancer often progresses very slowly, so it may be many years before a person needs treatment.
If a person has had a prostatectomy, a doctor may also recommend radiation therapy, which kills cancer cells using high-energy particles.
Radiation therapy is not suitable for everyone who has had a prostatectomy. If a person had radiation therapy before surgery, they cannot usually have this treatment again. Having radiation therapy a second time can cause side effects.
Doctors may also use hormone therapy to shrink a persons tumors. This can make other treatments such as radiation therapy more effective.
It is not always possible to prevent PSA levels from rising. The best way to safeguard health after having a prostatectomy is by undergoing regular medical checks.
- stopping smoking or using tobacco products
- exercising regularly
- eating a healthful diet, with plenty of fruits and vegetables
- limiting alcohol intake to a moderate amount
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Treatment Options After Recurrence
After surgery to remove your prostate
PSA levels are usually extremely low about a month after surgery. You may hear your doctor saying that your PSA level is undetectable . If your PSA level starts to rise, this might mean the cancer has come back.
Your doctor might recommend:
- hormone treatment
After external beam radiotherapy
PSA levels usually get lower slowly over months or years. Defining the limit for cure is complicated and you should ask your cancer specialist. Usually a level of 2 ng/ml above the lowest point after treatment is taken as a sign of recurrence, or 3 increases in a row .
Your treatment options may be:
- surgery to remove your prostate
- hormone treatment
- high frequency ultrasound
After internal beam radiotherapy
PSA can rise temporarily after brachytherapy. This is called PSA bounce. The level then lowers slowly. Usually a level of 2 ng/ml above the lowest point after treatment is taken as a sign of recurrence.
After hormone treatment
If you are given hormone treatment alone, the PSA can rise after you finish hormone treatment. It may then become stable or static. If it rises this may suggest the cancer is becoming resistant to the hormone treatment.
If hormone treatment is no longer controlling your cancer, your doctor may suggest:
Going Home With A Catheter
You will be discharged from the hospital with a catheter in place to drain urine from your bladder into a bag. The doctor will remove this in the office in five to 14 days. Be sure to clean the catheter where it exits your penis twice a day with soap and water and to empty the bag frequently. The bag should always be positioned lower than your bladder.
On occasion, the catheter may irritate the bladder, causing bladder spasms that can be quite uncomfortable. If these occur, your doctor can prescribe medication that can help. Leakage of urine around where the catheter exits the penis also may occur and can be managed by wearing incontinence pads as described in the next section.
It is normal for your urine to look cloudy for a few weeks after surgery. Occasionally, bleeding may occur around the catheter or be noticed within the urine. This also is common. If you see large clots â more than an inch in length â or if the catheter becomes plugged, contact your doctor. No anesthesia is required for catheter removal, and most patients experience only a little discomfort.
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What To Do If My Symptoms Are Not Improved After The Greenlight Pvp Laser Of Prostate
While the urine stream is the first symptom to improve after the Greenlight laser of the prostate, other symptoms may take a few months to improve. In particular, urinary urgency, burning with urination, and frequent urination can take a few months to improve.
Usually, symptoms improve slowly over time. If the symptoms are severe, medical treatment with medications for overactive bladder such as Vesicare, Myrbetriq, oxybutynin, and Detrol is sometimes necessary.
If symptoms do not improve sufficiently as expected within the first 3 months after surgery, cystoscopy, uroflow and bladder ultrasound, as well as urodynamic testing, may be necessary to determine the cause of lack of improvement.
Infrequently, patients may develop urethral stricture or bladder neck contracture. In these situations, the urine stream may become worse a few weeks to a few months after the procedure. If this occurs, re-evaluation is necessary.
Did you know?Dr. Shteynshlyuger has performed over 1,000 surgeries and procedures for enlarged prostate, including Rezum, Urolift, prostate enucleation, laser ablation of the prostate, and TURP. He performs over 100 prostate procedures a year.
Nerve Regeneration After Radical Prostatectomy
Filed in Life After Treatment
Nerve regeneration after radical prostatectomy usually does take some time, assuming that both nerve bundles around the prostate were able to be preserved by the surgeon. This is because the nerves and arteries that control erections need time to recover and heal. This article explains why this is the case, and what can be done to speed up the healing process.
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What Is The Prostate Gland
The prostate gland is about the size of a walnut and surrounds the neck ofa man’s bladder and urethrathe tube that carries urine from the bladder.It’s partly muscular and partly glandular, with ducts opening into theprostatic portion of the urethra. It’s made up of three lobes, a centerlobe with one lobe on each side.
As part of the male reproductive system, the prostate gland’s primaryfunction is to secrete a slightly alkaline fluid that forms part of theseminal fluid , a fluid that carries sperm. During male climax, the muscular glands of the prostate help to propel the prostatefluid, in addition to sperm that was produced in the testicles, into theurethra. The semen then travels through the tip of the penis duringejaculation.
Researchers don’t know all the functions of the prostate gland. However,the prostate gland plays an important role in both sexual and urinaryfunction. It’s common for the prostate gland to become enlarged as a manages, and it’s also likely for a man to encounter some type of prostateproblem in his lifetime.
Many common problems that don’t require a radical prostatectomy areassociated with the prostate gland. These problems may occur in men of allages and include:
Cancer of the prostate is a common and serious health concern. According tothe American Cancer Society, prostate cancer is the most common form ofcancer in men older than age 50, and the third leading cause of death fromcancer.
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Read Real Stories Of Men Who Underwent Treatment Of Enlarged Prostate At New York Urology Specialists
We offer treatment for prostate problems, including slow urine stream, frequent urination at night, difficulty emptying the bladder, and other problems to patients within driving distance to our offices as well as from other states and countries. Our patients come from New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, and over 70 countries worldwide.
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Risks Of The Procedure
As with any surgical procedure, certain complications can occur. Somepossible complications of both the retropubic and perineal approaches to RPmay include:
Some risks associated with surgery and anesthesia in general include:
Reactions to medications, such as anesthesia
Difficulty with breathing
One risk associated with the retropubic approach is the potential forrectal injury, causing fecal incontinence or urgency.
There may be other risks depending on your specific medical condition. Besure to discuss any concerns with your doctor prior to the procedure.
Following Up After Surgery
Because surgery for benign prostatic hyperplasia leaves behind most of the prostate gland, it is still possible for prostate problemsincluding prostate cancer or benign prostatic hyperplasiato develop or return.
After your surgery, it is important to continue having a rectal exam once a year and to have any symptoms checked by your doctor.
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Scheduling Appointments For Enlarged Prostate Treatment At New York Urology Specialists
We offer affordable appointment prices with or without insurance. We offer weekday, weekend, and evening office hours.
Dr. Alex Shteynshlyuger is a board-certified urologist and specialist in the treatment of urinary problems in men. He is one of the few urologists who offers a full range of treatment options for BPH . He specializes in all aspects of care for men with an enlarged prostate and urinary problems, including frequent urination at night, difficulty emptying the bladder, urinary urgency, and incontinence. He has successfully treated thousands of men with urinary problems, including urinary retention, painful urination, and frequent urination.
Benign Enlarged Prostate: What Are The Pros And Cons Of Surgery
Surgery can very effectively reduce the problems associated with a benign enlarged prostate. It is considered if other treatments don’t provide enough relief, or if the enlarged prostate keeps causing medical problems such as urinary tract infections. But surgery often has side effects.
Most men who have a benign enlarged prostate aren’t in urgent need of surgery. They can take their time to carefully consider the pros and cons. There are various possible reasons for deciding to have surgery. For instance:
- The prostate-related problems may be very distressing, and other treatments may not have led to a big enough improvement.
- The enlarged prostate may frequently cause other medical problems, such as recurring urinary tract infections or bladder stones.
- Treatment with medication may not be possible for medical reasons.
The decision will also greatly depend on how the man feels about the potential benefits and harms of a procedure. Although surgery is very effective, it can lead to complications such as ejaculation problems.
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Why Is A Simple Prostatectomy Performed
There are varying degrees of prostate enlargement.
If your prostate grows only slightly, many minimally-invasive surgeries can remove part of the gland, such as transurethral resection of the prostate .
However, if your prostate becomes very large , your surgeon will need to perform a simple prostatectomy. This involves removing the inner core of your prostate gland. Most men who undergo this type of surgery are age 60 or older.
Special diets, changes in drinking habits, and medications are often tried before surgery is recommended.
Your doctor may recommend a simple prostatectomy if your prostate is very large and you are suffering from:
- extremely slow urination
How Is A Recurrence Detected
After prostate cancer treatment, you will go for medical check-ups every few months as determined by your doctor. At each follow-up appointment, your doctor will order a blood test to measure PSA levels. This test helps your doctor detect a cancer recurrence. You will also be examined. New symptoms should be reported to the doctor, as these may prompt other testing.
When PSA test results suggest that the cancer has come back or continued to spread, X-rays or other imaging tests may be done, depending on your situation and symptoms. Your doctor may use a radioactive tracer called Axumin with a PET scan to help detect and localize any recurrent cancer so that it could be biopsied or treated.
Your doctor may also use a new drug called Ga 68 PSMA-11 in the scan which binds to PSMA-positive prostate cancer lesions in the tissues of the body so they can be targeted for treatment.
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What Factors Increase The Chance Of Cancer Recurrence
The likelihood of metastasis occurring increases with higher grade and stage of the cancer as the more aggressive and developed the cancer is, the higher the chance of it breaking out of the prostate. More specifically:
- High Gleason grades
- High clinical stages
- Positive surgical margins .
However, most prostate cancers are cured with surgery. As an example, using my results from operations performed on over 2,300 men with a variety of stages and grades, 96.3% of operations resulted in full cancer cure. Some combinations of minor prostate cancer had a 100% cancer cure rate, but the higher you go, the lower the full cancer cure rate.
The commonest sites of recurrence of prostate cancer following surgery are:
- the prostate bed 80% of recurrence cases
- lymph nodes 15% of cases
- bones 5% of cases.