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How Do You Know If Prostate Cancer Has Spread

How Fast Does Prostate Cancer Spread To The Bones

How to Know If Cancer Has Spread | Prostate Cancer

Early detection can catch prostate cancer even before there are any symptoms. Some types of prostate cancer grow very slowly.

There are four main stages of prostate cancer. Within each stage, the cancer is graded based on factors like the size of tumor, prostate-specific antigen level, and other clinical signs.

If the cancer has spread to the bones, its considered to be the most advanced, or stage 4.

Newer lab tests look at the genes inside cancer cells. This can provide more information on how quickly the prostate cancer may progress.

Theres also a grading system known as the Gleason system, which assigns the cancer into a grade group based on how closely it resembles normal tissue.

During the biopsy to diagnose prostate cancer, the cells are closely examined. The more abnormal cells that are in the biopsy sample, the higher the Gleason score and grade group.

When more abnormal cells are present, the cancer is more likely to spread quickly.

What Happens Without Treatment

Physicians will sometimes talk about a particular diseases natural history or typical progression if it is left untreated indefinitely.

With regard to prostate cancer, most cases of the disease are discovered while the cancer is still confined to the prostate itself. This is called local disease or localized disease.

The disease is easiest to treat while it is confined to the prostate. At this stage, surgery and radiation are most likely to be curative and completely kill or remove whatever cancer cells are present.

If left untreated, however, prostate cancer can proceed on a number of different paths.

Treatments To Help Manage Symptoms

Advanced prostate cancer can cause symptoms, such as bone pain. Speak to your doctor or nurse if you have symptoms there are treatments available to help manage them. The treatments above may help to delay or relieve some symptoms. There are also specific treatments to help manage symptoms you may hear these called palliative treatments. They include:

This is the team of health professionals involved in your care. It is likely to include:

  • a specialist nurse
  • a chemotherapy nurse
  • a urologist
  • an oncologist
  • a diagnostic radiographer
  • a therapeutic radiographer
  • a radiologist
  • other health professionals, such as a dietitian or physiotherapist.

Your MDT will meet to discuss your diagnosis and treatment options. You might not meet all the health professionals straight away.

Your main point of contact might be called your key worker. This is usually your clinical nurse specialist , but might be someone else. The key worker will co-ordinate your care and help you get information and support. You may also have close contact with your GP and the practice nurses at your GP surgery.

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What Causes Prostate Cancer

The exact cause of prostate cancer is not known. The tumor arises from cells with abnormal deoxyribonucleic acid changes in the prostate. These abnormal cells rapidly grow and divide, invading surrounding structures and can spread to other parts of the body .

Risk factors

There are certain factors that can increase the risk of prostate cancer. These include

  • Age: The risk of prostate cancer increases with age and is most commonly seen after the age of 50.
  • Race: African American men have a higher risk of prostate cancer than men of other ethnicities. Cancer in African Americans is also more likely to be aggressive.
  • Family history: If a blood relative has prostate cancer, it increases the risk as well. Having a family history of genes that increase the risk of breast cancer or a very strong family history of breast cancer also increases the risk of developing prostate cancer.
  • Obesity: Obese people have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer, which is also more likely to be aggressive and recurrent despite treatment.

Hormonal Therapy For Aggressive Prostate Cancer: How Long Is Enough

7 things you should know about prostate cancer.
  • By Charlie Schmidt, Editor, Harvard Medical School Annual Report on Prostate Diseases

Men weighing treatment options for intermediate- or high-risk cancer that is still localized to the prostate can face a tricky question. A standard approach in these cases is to give radiation to the prostate along with drugs that block testosterone, a hormone that makes the cancer cells grow faster. For how long should this hormone therapy last? Thats not entirely clear. The drugs have side effects, such as fatigue, impotence, and a loss of muscle mass. But radiation doesnt control prostate cancer effectively without them. Doctors therefore aim to give hormone therapy only for as long as it takes to help their patients, without causing any undue harm.

Now, newly published results from a phase 3 clinical trial are providing some needed guidance.

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Your Cancer Care Team

People with cancer should be cared for by a multidisciplinary team . This is a team of specialists who work together to provide the best care and treatment.

The team often consists of specialist cancer surgeons, oncologists , radiologists, pathologists, radiographers and specialist nurses.

Other members may include physiotherapists, dietitians and occupational therapists. You may also have access to clinical psychology support.

When deciding what treatment is best for you, your doctors will consider:

  • the type and size of the cancer
  • what grade it is
  • whether the cancer has spread to other parts of your body

What Will Happen After Treatment

Youll be glad when treatment is over. But its hard not to worry about cancer coming back. When cancer comes back it is called a recurrence. Even when cancer never comes back, people still worry about it. For years after treatment ends, you will see your cancer doctor. At first, your visits may be every few months. Then, the longer youre cancer-free, the less often the visits are needed.

Be sure to go to all follow-up visits. Your doctors will ask about your symptoms, examine you, and might order blood tests and maybe other tests to see if the cancer has come back.

Having cancer and dealing with treatment can be hard, but it can also be a time to look at your life in new ways. You might be thinking about how to improve your health. Call us at 1-800-227-2345 or talk to your doctor to find out what you can do to feel better.

You cant change the fact that you have cancer. What you can change is how you live the rest of your life, making healthy choices and feeling as good as you can.

Also Check: What Is Good To Take For Prostate Health

Treatment For Advanced Prostate Cancer

Although advanced prostate cancer cannot be cured, it can be controlled with treatment, sometimes for several years. Treatments can also help relieve symptoms and improve your quality of life.

A multidisciplinary team will meet to discuss the best possible treatment for you. This will depend on different factors, like your general health. Your cancer doctor will talk to you about the advantages and disadvantages of these treatments.

The main treatments are:

  • Hormonal therapy

    Hormonal therapies reduce the amount of testosterone in the body. This may slow the growth of the cancer or stop it growing for a while.

  • Chemotherapy

    Chemotherapy uses anti-cancer drugs to destroy cancer cells. You may have it with hormonal therapy when you are first diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer. Or, it can be given when hormonal therapy is no longer controlling the cancer.

  • Radiotherapy

    Radiotherapy is most often used to shrink cancer that has spread to the bones. External beam radiotherapy uses high energy rays to destroy cancer cells. Its given using a large machine. Radioisotope therapy is a type of internal radiotherapy given as an injection.

  • Surgery

    Surgery to remove the prostate is not suitable for advanced prostate cancer. Surgery may be used to help control symptoms or to help stabilise a bone that is at risk of breaking.

Your doctor or nurse will usually ask you to sign a form giving your permission for them to give you the treatment. They cannot give treatment without your consent.

What Are Bone Metastases With Prostate Cancer

Where Does Prostate Cancer Spread To?

The ACS describes bone metastases as areas of bone containing cancer cells that have spread from another place in the body. In the case of prostate cancer, the cells have spread beyond the prostate gland. Since the cancer cells originated in the prostate gland, the cancer is referred to as metastatic prostate cancer.

The cancer cells spread to the bones by breaking away from the prostate gland and escaping attack from your immune system as they travel to your bones.

These cancer cells then grow new tumors in your bones. Cancer can spread to any bone in the body, but the spine is most often affected. Other areas cancer cells commonly travel to, according to the ACS, include the pelvis, upper legs and arms, and the ribs.

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Is It Easy To Orgasm This Way

Lets say it may take some practice and patience.

Actual clinical research on prostate-induced orgasms is seriously lacking, so we dont know how common it is or if its possible for everyone with a prostate to have this type of orgasm.

Every body is different, so some experimenting to see what feels good is in order. If you do manage to have one, reproducing it will be easy.

Things To Know About Prostate Cancer

Symptoms of prostate cancer are often absent in the early stages, and when they do appear, they can be confused with signs of other diseases. Luckily, this cancer is frequently slow-growing, making survival rates quite high. Read on to learn about some of the signs of prostate cancer, along with how to diagnose and treat it.

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When Metastatic Cancer Can No Longer Be Controlled

If you have been told your cancer can no longer be controlled, you and your loved ones may want to discuss end-of-life care. Whether or not you choose to continue treatment to shrink the cancer or control its growth, you can always receive palliative care to control the symptoms of cancer and the side effects of treatment. Information on coping with and planning for end-of-life care is available in the Advanced Cancer section of this site.

Bill Turnbull Urges Men To Press Your Gp On Prostate Cancer

What is Prostate Cancer? Prostate Cancer explained

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Prostate cancer has few symptoms, meaning for many men they wont realise there is an issue until the cancer begins to spread. In order to avoid this, heres how to assess your risk for prostate cancer, and when to speak to your doctor.

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Prostate Cancer: What You Need To Know This Movember

Prostate cancer has the potential to grow and spread very quickly. It is important for patients to discuss their various testing options with HSP Group. The number of men being diagnosed with cancer is rising year on year. Men need to be pro-active and educated to recognise the warning signs of prostate cancer and other male cancers. Early detection can save your life. We encourage regular self-examinations and cancer screenings as symptoms dont always present until the cancer has spread.

What is a Prostate?

The prostate is a walnut sized gland that is part of the male reproductive system and located beneath the bladder in front of the rectum.

Why do men have a prostate?

The prostate makes some of the fluid, or juices, that nourishes and protects the sperm, tadpole like, cells in the semen .

How does the prostate grow and remain active?

The activity and growth of the prostate is stimulated by the male hormones called Androgens.

Risk Factors

Although the exact cause of prostate cancer is unknown, there are certain aspects of life that may increase your chance of having prostate cancer.

These include:

Having a risk factor does not mean that you will get Prostate cancer. Most men with any of the above risk factors never develop this disease.

How do I test for Prostate Cancer?

PSA testing can be done by means of a basic finger prick test and if a positive result is found, a PSA blood test will then be recommended to determine the actual level of the PSA.

  • An enlarged prostate

What Are My Treatment Options With Advanced Prostate Cancer

The treatments your doctor recommends will depend on factors specific to you, from your overall health to how advanced your cancer was when it was first diagnosed.

Many men receive ADT, a type of hormone therapy, which deprives the body of the male hormones that the cancer needs to keep growing.

For most men, however, hormone therapy stops working at some point. Alternatives to hormone therapy were approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2018, and Tagawa often starts men on these therapies as soon as theyre diagnosed with bone metastases. Other treatment options may be available through clinical trials.

In addition, chemotherapy, surgery, and immunotherapy as well as radiation treatments, like external beam radiation, which directly target bone problems may be considered. Major cancer centers, such as Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York City and MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, have teams of prostate cancer specialists, as well as sophisticated radiation and other treatment equipment consolidated in one place, which can help with the coordination of care.

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What Kind Of Treatment Will I Need

There are many ways to treat prostate cancer. The main kinds of treatment are observation, active surveillance, surgery, radiation, hormone therapy, and chemo. Sometimes more than one kind of treatment is used.

The treatment thats best for you will depend on:

  • Your age
  • Any other health problems you might have
  • The stage and grade of the cancer
  • Your feelings about the need to treat the cancer
  • The chance that treatment will cure the cancer or help in some way
  • Your feelings about the side effects that might come with treatment

Receiving Treatment For Prostate Cancer That Has Spread

How Prostate Cancer Spreads

At Moffitt Cancer Center, the experts within our Urologic Oncology Program treat patients with all stages of prostate cancer, including advanced-stage cancers that have metastasized to other areas of the body. Our multispecialty team collaborates as a tumor board, ensuring each patient receives a treatment plan tailored to his unique needs. For individuals with metastatic prostate cancer, treatment plans aim to alleviate symptoms, slow the rate of cancer growth and shrink tumors to help improve quality of life.

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How To Reduce Prostate Size

This article was medically reviewed by . Dr. Litza is a board certified Family Medicine Physician in Wisconsin. She is a practicing Physician and taught as a Clinical Professor for 13 years, after receiving her MD from the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health in 1998.There are 13 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been viewed 65,131 times.

The prostate gland is a part of the male reproductive system that can enlarge with age, putting uncomfortable pressure on the urethra. This can cause urinary difficulties, urinary tract infections , and even bladder stones. By making lifestyle changes and using medication, most men can reduce their urinary troubles. A few men, though, may need to consider minimally invasive or traditional surgery options to feel their best.

A Genetic Biomarker Test For Newly Diagnosed Prostate Cancer

Results from a study of a different genetic biomarker test suggest that it could one day help inform treatment decisions for men newly diagnosed with localized prostate cancer.

According to findings published February 24 in JCO Precision Oncology, a biomarker test called the Oncotype DX Genomic Prostate Score accurately predicted the long-term risk of metastasis and death from prostate cancer in men with localized disease. The test needs to be validated in larger forward-looking studies before it can be used to guide treatment, the study researchers noted.

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The Top 7 Signs Of Advanced Prostate Cancer

In the early stages, you may not notice any symptoms related to prostate cancer. This is why screenings are important. Symptoms can sometimes be noticed for the first time when the cancer advances.

Advanced prostate cancer, also called metastatic cancer, means the cancer has spread to other areas of your body beyond your prostate gland. The most common areas for prostate cancer to spread are your bladder, rectum, and bones. It can also spread to your lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and other body tissues.

Whether youve just been diagnosed or youre in treatment, its also important to know the signs of advanced cancer. Cancer can behave differently depending on your genetics, so not every person will experience the same symptoms in the same way.

Read on to learn more about the seven top symptoms of advanced prostate cancer and how to spot them.

Impact Of Age On Treatment

Prostate Cancer Progression

The rising number of men diagnosed with prostate cancer is a result of increasing life expectancy as well as the current practice of screening by prostate-specific antigen blood tests. Besides PSA and Gleason score, age is considered a key prognostic factor in treatment decision making. Although organ-confined disease can be cured by radical prostatectomy and full-dose local radiation therapy, treatment options for advanced- stage disease remain palliative. They include active surveillance, or watchful waiting, early versus delayed hormonal therapy to control disease progression, and continuous or intermittent androgen deprivation. Observational studies of older men with early stage disease have suggested conservative management as a viable option.,

Chodak and associates evaluated 828 men who were managed expectantly in a series of nonrandomized trials. Median follow-up was approximately 6.5 years. Patients with poorly differentiated cancers had a 10-fold increased risk of death from prostate cancer as compared with men showing highly differentiated prostate cancer. A 5-year disease-specific survival of only 34% was found in men with poorly differentiated prostate cancer. In contrast a 5-year disease-specific survival of 87% was described in men with well-or moderately differentiated cancers.

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