Questions To Ask The Doctor
- What treatment do you think is best for me?
- Whats the goal of this treatment? Do you think it could cure the cancer?
- Will treatment include surgery? If so, who will do the surgery?
- What will the surgery be like?
- Will I need other types of treatment, too?
- Whats the goal of these treatments?
- What side effects could I have from these treatments?
- What can I do about side effects that I might have?
- Is there a clinical trial that might be right for me?
- What about special vitamins or diets that friends tell me about? How will I know if they are safe?
- How soon do I need to start treatment?
- What should I do to be ready for treatment?
- Is there anything I can do to help the treatment work better?
- Whats the next step?
Drugs To Treat Cancer Spread To Bone
If prostate cancer spreads to other parts of the body, it almost always goes to the bones first. These areas of cancer spread can cause pain and weak bones that might break. Medicines that can help strengthen the bones and lower the chance of fracture are bisphosphonates and denosumab. Sometimes, radiation, radiopharmaceuticals, or pain medicines are given for pain control.
Side effects of bone medicines
A serious side effect of bisphosphonates and denosumab is damage to the jaw, also called osteonecrosis of the jaw . Most people will need to get approval from their dentist before starting one of these drugs.
Prostate Nodule: Causes Changes And Diagnosis Medical News Today
At what age should a man start having regular screening for prostate cancer?
The guidelines for prostate cancer screening have some variability as to the age at which screening should take place. In general, men of average risk should start screening at the age of 50.Those who doctors consider being at higher risk should undergo screening earlier. For instance, black men and those with a family history of prostate cancer should start screening between the ages of 40 and 45.Men who carry the BRCA mutations may warrant screening as early as age 40.
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Looking For More Of An Introduction
If you would like more of an introduction, explore these related items. Please note that these links will take you to other sections on Cancer.Net:
ASCO Answers Fact Sheet:Read a 1-page fact sheet that offers an introduction to prostate cancer. This free fact sheet is available as a PDF, so it is easy to print.
ASCO Answers Guide:Get this free 52-page booklet that helps you better understand the disease and treatment options. The booklet is available as a PDF, so it is easy to print.
Cancer.Net Patient Education Video:View a short video led by an ASCO expert in prostate cancer that provides basic information and areas of research.
Cancer.Net En Español: Read about prostate cancer in Spanish or read a 1-page ASCO Answers Fact Sheet in Spanish. Infórmase sobre cáncer de próstata en español o una hoja informativa de una página, Respuestas sobre el cáncer.
The next section in this guide is Statistics. It helps explain the number of people who are diagnosed with prostate cancer and general survival rates. Use the menu to choose a different section to read in this guide.
Prostate Cancer Treatment Side Effects
If you happen to be diagnosed with intermediate or high risk prostate cancer, ask carefully about treatment side effects such as incontinence and impotence. Your personal preferences with consideration to age and other health factors play an important role when making your final decision about treatment.
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Is Prostate Cancer Curable
Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer among men, second only to skin cancer. Learning that one has any type of cancer isnt easy, but the first question on most patients minds after diagnosis is, is prostate cancer curable?
The short answer is yes, prostate cancer can be cured, when detected and treated early. The vast majority of prostate cancer cases are discovered in the early stages, making the tumors more likely to respond to treatment. Treatment doesnt always have to mean surgery or chemotherapy, either. Non-invasive radiation therapy can effectively treat prostate cancer in the case of Pasadena CyberKnife, radiosurgery treatment generally takes less than a week, and you can typically resume your normal activities the same day you receive treatment.
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The Initial Causes Prostate Nodules Always Cancer
One of the first symptoms of prostate issues is pain or tenderness in the groin or lower back. This can be the result of a noncancerous condition called enlarged prostatic tissue, or it could be an infection of the bladder. In either case, its important to see a doctor as soon as possible. If youre suffering from prostate pain, you may want to consider reducing your caffeine intake.
Another symptom of a potentially enlarged prostate is difficulty starting a stream of urine, leaking, or dribbling. These symptoms are not serious, but theyre still alarming. Most men put up with an enlarged prostate for years before seeking medical attention, but they typically seek treatment as soon as they notice symptoms. Even if you dont have symptoms, its worth getting checked to determine if you have any prostate issues.
If you experience nightly bathroom runs, you may be experiencing an enlarged prostate. You may be having difficulty starting a stream of urine, or you may even be dribbling or leaking during the day. These problems arent life-threatening, but can become a nuisance. You should not ignore these signs and seek treatment as soon as you notice them. If you feel any of these symptoms, you should consult a doctor.
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Surgery For Prostate Cancer
There are many types of surgery for prostate cancer. Some are done to try to cure the cancer others are done to control the cancer or make symptoms better. Talk to the doctor about the kind of surgery planned and what you can expect.
Side effects of surgery
Any type of surgery can have risks and side effects. Be sure to ask the doctor what you can expect. If you have problems, let your doctors know so they can help you.
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An enlarged prostate can also be the cause of other problems. If the enlarged prostate is causing symptoms, the best treatment would be a natural remedy. In the meantime, there are treatments for a wide range of conditions that cause a man to experience pain. A common surgical procedure involves an electric loop, laser, or electro-stimulation. The procedure is a safe and effective option for treating enlarged or symptomatic BPH.
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What Is The Prostate
The prostate is a small gland in the pelvis and is part of the male reproductive system.
About the size of a walnut, it’s located between the penis and the bladder, and surrounds the urethra.
The main function of the prostate is to produce a thick white fluid that creates semen when mixed with the sperm produced by the testicles.
What Causes A Prostate Nodule
A nodule is a lump or area of hardness under the surface of the prostate. In some cases, a prostate stone, which is similar to a kidney stone, can be felt under the surface. It may seem like a nodule, but its really a tiny formation of calcified minerals. A stone is usually harmless. A true prostate nodule is an abnormal growth of cells that may or may not be cancerous.
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How Is Prostate Cancer Diagnosed
Medical interview and physical examination:
A proper medical interview eliciting a thorough medical history and a physical examination are essential in the diagnostic workup of any man in whom prostate cancer is suspected. He may be referred to a physician who specializes in urinary tract diseases or in urinary tract cancers . A man will be asked questions about his medical and surgical history, lifestyle and habits, and any medications he takes. Risk factors including family history of prostate cancer will be assessed .
Digital rectal examination is part of the physical examination: All men with firm swelling, asymmetry, or palpable, discrete, firm areas or nodules in the prostate gland require further diagnostic studies to rule out prostate cancer, particularly if they are over the age of 45 or have other risk factors for the disease .
Because urological symptoms can indicate a variety of conditions, a man may undergo further testing to pinpoint their cause. Initial screening tests include blood testing for PSA and urine testing for blood or signs of infection.
Prostate specific antigen :
PSA is an enzyme produced by both normal and abnormal prostate tissues. It may be elevated in noncancerous conditions, such as prostatitis and benign prostatic hypertrophy , as well as in cancer of the prostate. Therefore, confirmation of an elevated serum PSA is advisable prior to proceed to prostate biopsy.
The following standards have been set for PSA levels:
What Does It Mean If My Biopsy Report Mentions The Word Core
The most common type of prostate biopsy is a core needle biopsy. For this procedure, the doctor puts a thin, hollow needle into the prostate gland. When the needle is pulled out it removes a small cylinder of prostate tissue called a core. This is often repeated several times to sample different areas of the prostate.
Your pathology report will list each core separately by a number assigned to it by the pathologist, with each core having its own diagnosis. If cancer or some other problem is found, it is often not in every core, so you need to look at the diagnoses for all of the cores to know whats going on with you.
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To Treat Or Not To Treat
Up until now, with a few notable exceptions, doctors have myopically focused on treating prostate cancer, says Adami. They are willing to spend tens of thousands of dollars on chemotherapy that has minimal effects on cancer mortality, often with substantial side effects. But we ignore entirely the fact that large groups of prostate cancer patients die from other causes that actually are preventable.
Among older patients especially, that activity can take the form of vigorous walking. Recently, Mucci has spearheaded an intervention with Adami and other colleagues in Sweden, Iceland, and Ireland in which men walk in groups with a nurse three times a week. In a pilot study, researchers found improvements in just 12 weeks in body weight, blood pressure, sleep, urinary function, and mental health.
Scientists at HSPH are also searching for genetic and lifestyle markers that help predict how aggressive a patients prostate cancer will be. For example, an ongoing project led by Mucci and Adami draws on detailed cancer registries in Nordic countries, including an analysis of 300,000 twins, to tease out the relative contribution of different genes to prostate cancer incidence and survival.
is a Boston-based journalist and author of The Coke Machine: The Dirty Truth Behind the Worlds Favorite Soft Drink.
Staging: The Tnm System
Staging is done as part of the diagnosis process to determine how extensive your cancer is within your prostate and whether it has spread to lymph nodes or other organs.
Prostate cancer is typically staged using the TNM system, which is based on:
- The extent of the primary tumor
- Whether the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes
- The presence or absence of distant metastasis
- Your PSA level at the time of diagnosis
- Your Gleason score and the amount of cancer
Using this information, prostate cancer is then grouped into stages I through IV, with stage I being the least advanced and stage IV being the most advanced.
- Stage I: Cancer is confined to your prostate. Gleason score is 6 or below. PSA level is less than 10.
- Stage II: The tumor is more advanced but does not extend beyond your prostate.
- Stage III: The tumor extends beyond your prostate and may be in a seminal vesicle. Cancer has not spread to lymph nodes.
- Stage IV: The tumor has spread to another part of your body, such as your bladder, rectum, lymph nodes or bones.
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Another type of prostate issue is chronic prostatitis, or chronic pelvic pain syndrome. This condition causes pain in the lower back and groin area, and may cause urinary retention. Symptoms include leaking and discomfort. In severe cases, a catheter may be required to relieve the symptoms. If the problem is unresponsive to other treatments, your doctor may suggest a surgical procedure. If these do not work, your symptoms could progress and become chronic.
An acute bacterial infection can cause a burning sensation. Inflammation of the prostate can affect the bladder and result in discomfort and other symptoms. This is the most common urinary tract problem in men under 50, and the third most common in men over 65. The symptoms of acute bacterial prostatitis are similar to those of CPPS. Patients may experience a fever or chills as a result of the infection.
A bacterial infection can also lead to prostate issues. Acute bacterial infections can be hard to treat. Some men with a bacterial infection may need to take antibiotics to prevent or treat symptoms. Symptoms of the disease include fever and chills, pain in the lower back and the tip of the penis. Some men may have blood in the urine, frequent urination, and blood in the urine. If you suffer from acute bacterial prostatitis, a medical professional should be able to prescribe you the appropriate treatments to prevent the disease.
What Are The 4 Stages Of Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer stages range from 1 through 4.
- Stage 1 means the cancer is on one side of the prostate.
- Stage 2 means the cancer remains confined to the prostate gland.
- Stage 3 means the cancer is locally advanced.
- Stage 4 means the cancer has spread to lymph nodes or to other parts of the body.
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What Do You Do Once Diagnosed With Prostate Cancer
If the biopsy shows the presence of prostate cancer, the next step is to determine how much cancer is present and to make sure that it has not spread. Our prostate cancer experts will expertly review your PSA blood tests, physical exam findings, and biopsy results. Some simple and painless tests such as a CT scan, bone scan, MRI,and possibly a PET scan can help make sure there is no cancer that has spread outside the prostate.
Using the above information, we can then calculate the likelihood of the cancer being completely confined to the prostate, having spread beyond the confines of the prostate, or having spread some distance to the lymph glands in the pelvis.
This information, as well as an evaluation of your overall medical condition and well-being, is critical in determining which treatment options will offer you the best chance for a cure.
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What Are The Symptoms Of Bph And Prostate Cancer
BPH and prostate cancer have similar symptoms, so its sometimes hard to tell the two conditions apart. As the prostate grows for any reason, it squeezes the urethra. This pressure prevents urine from getting down your urethra and out of your body. Prostate cancer symptoms often dont start until the cancer has grown large enough to put pressure on the urethra.
Symptoms of both BPH and prostate cancer include:
- an urgent need to urinate
- feeling the urge to urinate many times during the day and night
- trouble starting to urinate or having to push to release urine
- weak or dribbling urine stream
- urine flow that stops and starts
- feeling like your bladder is never fully empty
If you have prostate cancer, you might also notice these symptoms:
- painful or burning urination
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What Are The Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer
Early-stage prostate cancer rarely causes symptoms. These problems may occur as the disease progresses:
- Frequent, sometimes urgent, need to urinate, especially at night.
- Weak urine flow or flow that starts and stops.
- Painful urination .
Is Hard Spot On Prostate Always Cancer
A benign or noncancerous prostate nodule could form because of an infection or as a reaction to inflammation in the body. It may also be a sign of benign prostatic hyperplasia , which is an enlarged prostate. BPH does not increase your risk of cancer. A malignant or cancerous nodule is a sign of prostate cancer.
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What Is Hormone Therapy For Prostate Cancer
Prostate cells are physiologically dependent on male hormones called androgens. Androgens cause hormonal stimulation of the prostate cancer cells causing them to grow, function, and proliferate. Testosterone, although not directly carcinogenic, is essential for the growth and perpetuation of tumor cells. The tests are the source of most androgens. The goal of hormonal therapy is to lower levels of testosterone or to stop testosterone from working. This can be achieved with surgery or with drug treatment. Often, the initial response is good, but cancer may progress over time.
Androgen deprivation therapy: This therapy is likely to be used in cases in which the cancer has spread to distant regions. Therefore, it is not currently used among the standard options for men with localized prostate disease. It may be added to surgery and radiation in cases at high risk for relapse due to high Gleason score and/or positive surgical margins.