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What Causes A Man’s Prostate To Enlarge

What Are The Possible Complications

Enlarged Prostate: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Urinary symptoms do not worsen in everyone. Serious complications are unlikely to occur in most men with an enlarged prostate. Complications that sometimes occur include:

  • In some cases, a total blockage of urine occurs so you will no longer be able to pass urine. This is called urinary retention. It can be very uncomfortable and you will need to have a small tube inserted to drain the bladder. It occurs in less than 1 in 100 men with an enlarged prostate each year. See the separate leaflet called Urinary Retention.
  • In some cases, only some of the urine in the bladder is emptied when you pass urine. Some urine remains in the bladder at all times. This ongoing condition is called chronic retention. This may cause repeated urine infections, or incontinence .

Note: the risk of prostate cancer is not increased. Men with a benign prostate enlargement are no more or less likely to develop prostate cancer than those without benign prostate enlargement.

Enlarged Prostate A Common Condition

When the cells of the prostate gland begin to multiply, the prostate grows. The prostate doubles in size in your teens, and then continues to grow for the rest of your life.2

An enlarged prostate is also called benign prostatic hyperplasia . The enlarged prostate presses against the urethra and can restrict the flow of urine. BPH affects 50% of men by age 60.3 By age 85, this number grows to 90%.4

BPH is a benign condition. It does not mean you have prostate cancer. But the constant urination issues can hamper your quality of life.5

Personal And Family Medical History

Taking a personal and family medical history is one of the first things a health care provider may do to help diagnose benign prostatic hyperplasia. A health care provider may ask a man

  • what symptoms are present
  • when the symptoms began and how often they occur
  • whether he has a history of recurrent UTIs
  • what medications he takes, both prescription and over the counter
  • how much liquid he typically drinks each day
  • whether he consumes caffeine and alcohol
  • about his general medical history, including any significant illnesses or surgeries

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Diagnosing Benign Prostate Enlargement

You might have several different tests to find out if you have an enlarged prostate.

A GP may do some of these tests, such as a urine test, but others might need to be done at a hospital.

Some tests may be needed to rule out other conditions that cause similar symptoms to BPE, such as prostate cancer.

Cause Of Urinary Problems As Men Age

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

Many men experience urinary symptoms as they age, which may be caused by inflammation of the prostate gland . In older men, symptoms may be due to a blockage in the tubes due to a benign enlargement of the prostate gland . The most common symptom is difficulty emptying your bladder. Urinary symptoms may become bothersome enough that they require treatment. Not all urinary symptoms are due to changes to the prostate. Also, some men have enlarged prostates and yet experience few, if any, symptoms.

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What Causes The Prostate To Enlarge

  • What causes the prostate to enlarge?
  • Although the exact trigger of BPH is not fully known and may vary from one man to another, there are risk factors that contribute to the condition. Benign prostate enlargement means your prostate grows in size without being cancerous. As the prostate swells and becomes bigger, it presses on your urethra and bladder and may cause a number of urinary and bladder function problems. The known contributing factors to prostate enlargement are age, hormones, stress levels and diet.

    The Path To Better Prostate Health

    Because the PAE procedure does not involve surgery or physical removal of part of the prostate, patients will not see results immediately. The first changes are seen most commonly one to two months after the procedure, with continued improvement until about four months.

    The most common side effects of PAE immediately after the procedure include urethral burning and increased urinary frequency. These side effects usually stop within a week.

    The good news? According to Dr. Isaacson, about 75 to 80 percent of men treated with PAE experience a significant and lasting improvement.

    UNC Medical Center is one of just a few hospitals in the U.S. that offers PAE to patients who are not enrolled in a clinical trial. Appointments for evaluation are available in Chapel Hill, Raleigh, Hillsborough and Siler City. You can make an appointment or .

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    Causes Of Benign Prostate Enlargement

    The exact cause of benign prostate enlargement is unknown, but research suggests that hormones probably play an important role in the condition’s development.

    Hormones are powerful chemicals that can have a wide range of effects on the cells of the body.

    One theory is that as some men and anyone with a prostate gets older, the levels of a type of hormone called dihydrotestosterone increases, which may stimulate the growth of the prostate.

    Another theory suggests that two hormones, testosterone and oestrogen, play a role. Younger men and anyone with a prostate produce high levels of testosterone and much smaller levels of oestrogen. But as they get older, levels of testosterone decrease, which means they then have a higher proportion of oestrogen in their body. It’s been suggested that the relative increase in oestrogen may stimulate prostate growth.

    What Are The Symptoms Of Prostate Enlargement

    What Causes An Enlarged Prostate? | BPH Explained

    Not every man with an enlarged prostate has symptoms. But when symptoms do occur, they are related to the prostate obstructing the flow of urine through the urethra. This can lead to problems such as:

    • Difficulty in starting or stopping urination
    • Dribbling of urine after urination has stopped
    • A weak urine stream
    • Pain in the area between the scrotum and the anus and
    • A feeling that the bladder is not empty even after urinating.

    Although these symptoms are usually due to an enlarged prostate, they may also be caused by other serious conditions . So men should always see a doctor if they notice changes in the how they urinate, or how often.

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    International Prostate Symptom Score

    You’ll be asked to complete a questionnaire to assess your symptoms. Each question has five possible answers that carry a score, and your overall score is used to assess the severity of your symptoms.

    The checklist includes the following questions.

    Over the past month:

    • How often have you had the sensation of not completely emptying your bladder after urinating?
    • How often have you had to urinate again less than two hours after finishing urinating?
    • How often have you found that you stopped and started again when urinating?
    • How often have you found it difficult to postpone urination?
    • How often have you had a weak stream of urine?
    • How often have you had to push or strain to begin urinating during the course of one night?
    • How often have you had to get up during the night to urinate?

    After your GP has assessed the severity your symptoms, they’ll aim to rule out other conditions with similar symptoms using certain tests.

    Is Treatment Always Necessary

    No. In most cases, an enlarged prostate does not do any damage or cause complications. Whether treatment is needed usually depends on how much bother the symptoms cause. For example, you may be glad for some treatment if you are woken six times a night, every night, with an urgent need to go to the toilet. On the other hand, slight hesitancy when you go to the toilet and getting up once a night to pass urine may cause little problem and not need treatment.

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    Tips For Coping With An Enlarged Prostate

    When a man reaches about age 25, his prostate begins to grow. This natural growth is called benign prostatic hyperplasia and it is the most common cause of prostate enlargement. BPH is a benign condition that does not lead to prostate cancer, though the two problems can coexist.

    Although 50% to 60% of men with BPH may never develop any symptoms, others find that BPH can make life miserable. The symptoms of BPH include:

    • a hesitant, interrupted, weak urine stream
    • urgency, leaking, or dribbling
    • a sense of incomplete emptying
    • more frequent urination, especially at night.

    As a result, many men seek treatment. The good news is that treatments are constantly being improved. Patients and their physicians now have more medications to choose from, so if one doesn’t do the trick, another can be prescribed. And thanks to some refinements, surgical treatments are more effective and have fewer side effects than ever before.

    But there are some things men dealing with BPH can do on their own. When symptoms are not particularly bothersome, watchful waiting may be the best way to proceed. This involves regular monitoring to make sure complications aren’t developing, but no treatment. For more troubling symptoms, most doctors begin by recommending a combination of lifestyle changes and medication. Often this will be enough to relieve the worst symptoms and prevent the need for surgery

    How Can You Prevent Bph

    30 Days Natural Solution For EnLarged Prostate And Frequent Urination ...

    There is no known way to prevent BPH. It is a common part of aging.

    • Men can reduce the need to urinate frequently during the night by not drinking liquids after 6 p.m.
    • Caffeinated beverages, alcohol, and spicy foods can be bladder irritants and make urinary symptoms worse.
    • Drinking more fluid, up to eight glasses of water per day, may help prevent infection. However, for men already suffering from increased urinary frequency, this may only exacerbate the problem. In most cases, drinking a normal amount of fluid based on thirst is all that is necessary.
    • There is evidence that cranberry juice may be helpful in the prevention of urinary tract infections in those who are prone to developing these.
    • Finasteride or dutasteride are prescription medications that can slow down the process of prostatic enlargement and reduce the risk of urinary retention, complications, and the future need for surgery related to BPH.

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    How The Prostate Changes As You Age

    Because the prostate gland tends to grow larger with age, it may squeeze the urethra and cause problems in passing urine. Sometimes men in their 30s and 40s may begin to have these urinary symptoms and need medical attention. For others, symptoms aren’t noticed until much later in life. An infection or a tumor can also make the prostate larger. Be sure to tell your doctor if you have any of the urinary symptoms listed below.

    Tell your doctor if you have these urinary symptoms:

    • Are passing urine more during the day
    • Have an urgent need to pass urine
    • Have less urine flow
    • Feel burning when you pass urine
    • Need to get up many times during the night to pass urine

    Growing older raises your risk of prostate problems. The three most common prostate problems are inflammation , enlarged prostate , and prostate cancer.

    One change does not lead to another. For example, having prostatitis or an enlarged prostate does not increase your risk of prostate cancer. It is also possible for you to have more than one condition at the same time.

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    Possible Cancer Protection From Prostate Drugs

    Early research suggested that 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors , a class of drugs used to treat prostate enlargement, might increase the risk of developing more aggressive prostate cancer. However, newer studies have found that not only do the drugs appear to pose no extra risk, they may even protect against prostate cancer.

    For instance, research from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial study in 2013 showed that taking the 5-ARI finasteride for seven years could lower the chance of getting low-grade prostate cancer by 25% among men ages 55 and older. A follow-up study of almost 9,500 men, published in the Nov. 1, 2018, issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, also showed that finasteride lowered the risk by a similar amount , and found the protective effect lasted for at least 16 years.

    How To Prevent Bph

    Enlarged Prostate Signs & Symptoms (& Why They Occur)

    The role your hormones play in BPH depends mainly on genetics. Of course, you cant stop the aging process, which ultimately causes an enlarged prostate.

    It might seem like theres no way to avert the onset of this condition, but you might be able to postpone it or at least reduce the symptoms if you follow these lifestyle suggestions.

    • Maintain a healthy weight
    • Keep a healthy blood pressure
    • Exercise regularly
    • Limit caffeine intake
    • Limit alcohol consumption

    When you live a healthy lifestyle, it notably affects your hormone production and balance in positive ways, making it a critical factor in prostate health and offsetting BPH.

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    How Might An Enlarged Prostate Affect My Life

    Having an enlarged prostate affects men in different ways. Some men can manage mild symptoms and dont need treatment. Other men find they need to stay near a toilet. This can make it difficult to work, drive, be outdoors and attend social events. If you need the toilet a lot during the night, this can affect your sleep and make you feel more tired during the day.

    Some men with an enlarged prostate find their symptoms improve over time without treatment. But for most, the symptoms will stay the same or slowly start to cause more problems over time unless they have treatment.

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    Prostate Cancer And Sexual Health

    A prostate cancer diagnosis can leave you feeling anxious, frustrated, and depressed.

    It may also leave you wondering about your ability to have sex. You may also be questioning how prostate cancer treatment can affect your sex life.

    Prostate cancer rarely causes problems with sex, but the treatments for prostate cancer often affect penile function and reproduction.

    Prostate surgery and radiation are the two most common treatments for prostate cancer. Both of these can affect the nerves in your penis and could cause sexual problems like erectile dysfunction .

    Cryotherapy and ultrasound therapy can also cause ED. Your doctor may recommend hormone therapy or radiation therapy, as well. This therapy can lower your sex drive.

    Radical prostatectomy is the most effective nerve-sparing surgery for prostate cancer. It can substantially limit the duration of post-surgical ED but requires a surgeon to be highly skilled and trained in the process.

    In this type of procedure, the surgeon takes care not to damage the erectile nerves that surround the prostate as it is removed.

    However, if cancer has infiltrated these nerves, it may not be possible to save them.

    Preventing injury to these nerves dramatically improves the chances of a man recovering erectile function within two years of the surgery.

    In addition to ED, you may also find that your orgasms are different after undergoing treatment for prostate cancer.

    They may not feel as strong, and you will not see as much ejaculate.

    What Role Does Choline Play

    Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia / BPH / Enlarged Prostate Overview ...

    Choline is an essential nutrient found in eggs that helps cells repair and rebuild every time they divide.

    Eggs are the most abundant source of choline, with about 683 mg choline per 100 grams of yolk.

    The problem is that choline is also found in prostate cancer cells. As such, there are fears about whether or not choline can increase your risk of developing prostate cancer.

    Another factor is that dietary choline is transformed into trimethylamine in the gut.

    Research has suggested that the trimethylamine produced from high levels of dietary choline intake may increase inflammation, which in turn, could promote prostate cancer progression to lethal disease.

    A study looking at the relationship between choline intake and aggressive prostate cancer was published in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition .

    There were 47896 men involved in the study. Their diet was assessed 6 times over 22 years.

    Men who consumed the highest amount of choline had a 70% increase in developing aggressive prostate cancer compared to men with the lowest intake of choline.

    However, this finding is confined to a small population in America. Studies in other countries are required to determine if choline is truly linked to prostate cancer .

    One of the issues with the theory that choline in eggs increases prostate cancer risk is that there are more prominent contributors to choline in the American diet, such as wheat germ .

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