Symptoms Of Bowel Cancer
The 3 main symptoms of bowel cancer are:
- persistentblood in your poo that happens for no obvious reason or is associated with a change in bowel habit
- a persistent change in your bowel habit which is usually having to poo more and your poo may also become more runny
- persistent lowerabdominal pain, bloating or discomfort that’s always caused by eating and may be associated with loss of appetite or significant unintentional weight loss
Most people with these symptoms do not have bowel cancer. Other health problems can cause similar symptoms. For example:
- blood in the poo when associated with pain or soreness is more often caused by piles
- a change in bowel habit or abdominal pain is usually caused by something you’ve eaten
- a change in bowel habit to going less often, with harder poo, is not usually caused by any serious condition it may be worth trying laxatives before seeing a GP
These symptoms should be taken more seriously as you get older and when they persist despite simple treatments.
Risk Factors For Prostate Cancer
Some risk factors have been linked to prostate cancer. A risk factor is something that can raise your chance of developing a disease. Having one or more risk factors doesn’t mean that you will get prostate cancer. It just means that your risk of the disease is greater.
- Age. Men who are 50 or older have a higher risk of prostate cancer.
- Race. African-American men have the highest risk of prostate cancerâthe disease tends to start at younger ages and grows faster than in men of other races. After African-American men, prostate cancer is most common among white men, followed by Hispanic and Native American men. Asian-American men have the lowest rates of prostate cancer.
- Family history. Men whose fathers or brothers have had prostate cancer have a 2 to 3 times higher risk of prostate cancer than men who do not have a family history of the disease. A man who has 3 immediate family members with prostate cancer has about 10 times the risk of a man who does not have a family history of prostate cancer. The younger a man’s relatives are when they have prostate cancer, the greater his risk for developing the disease. Prostate cancer risk also appears to be slightly higher for men from families with a history of breast cancer.
- Diet. The risk of prostate cancer may be higher for men who eat high-fat diets.
Is There A Connection Between Colon Cancer And Prostate Cancer
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Talking With Your Doctor
Different kinds of doctors and other health care professionals manage prostate health. They can help you find the best care, answer your questions, and address your concerns. These health care professionals include:
- Family doctors and internists
- Physician assistants and nurse practitioners
- Urologists, who are experts in diseases of the urinary tract system and the male reproductive system
- Urologic oncologists, who are experts in treating cancers of the urinary system and the male reproductive system
- Radiation oncologists, who use radiation therapy to treat cancer
- Medical oncologists, who treat cancer with medications such as hormone treatments and chemotherapy
- Pathologists, who identify diseases by studying cells and tissues under a microscope
View these professionals as your partnersâexpert advisors and helpers in your health care. Talking openly with your doctors can help you learn more about your prostate changes and the tests to expect.
What Is Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer is cancer that many men in the United States get, and it starts when they dont know. There are many types of cancers, but prostate cancer is the most common one in men. In 2018, 164,690 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer, and 29,430 will die from prostate cancer. But some people will find out too late, and then they cant do anything about it.
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Environmental Radiation Exposure Dna Damage And Risk Of Malignancies
The risk of malignancy after radiation varies between different animals and between different strains of the same species, and even tissues vary in their sensitivity to radiation. Suit and colleagues reviewed the data on the effects of radiation in cell cultures, animal studies and in humans exposed to radiation. In cell cultures, a linear increase of transformations was noted as radiation increased from 1 to 7Gy .
Older studies have suggested a long latency period between radiation exposure and the development of clinical cancer although the increased risk is life long. Quilty and Kerr reported the median latency period between the delivery of pelvic radiation and the diagnosis of bladder cancer to be 30 and 16.5 years using low-dose and high-dose radiation, respectively .
However, recent studies have estimated a mean latency period of 5 years from radiation exposure to radiation-induced cancer . Studies on patients who survived the release of radioactivity after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear facility show an increase in DNA damage, DNA damage-repair mechanisms, and urinary bladder lesions .
The same studies have shown that a 73% rate of urothelial carcinoma in a cohort of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia or chronic cystitis, while the rate of bladder dysplasia was 97%, compared with no carcinomas and a 27% rate of dysplasia in unaffected areas . The incidence of bladder cancer increased from 26.2 to 43.3 per 100,000 between 1986 and 2001 .
Does Colonoscopy Check For Prostate Cancer
Discussion: A colonoscopy presents an ideal opportunity for physicians to use a digital rectal examination to assess for prostate cancer. Physicians performing colonoscopies in men 50 to 70 years of age should pay special attention to the prostate while performing a digital rectal examination before colonoscopy.
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What Is Cancer Recurrence
If cancer is found after treatment, and after a period of time when the cancer couldnt be detected, its called a cancer recurrence.
The recurrent cancer might come back in the same place it first started, or it might come back somewhere else in the body. When cancer spreads to a new part of the body, its still named after the part of the body where it started. For instance, prostate cancer might come back in the area of the prostate gland , or it might come back in the bones. In either case its a prostate cancer recurrence. It may be called recurrent prostate cancer. The cancer in the bones is treated like prostate cancer.
If cancer is found after you have been treated for one type of cancer, tests will be done to see if the cancer is the same type you had before or a new type.
Its not possible to predict how likely a cancer is to recur, but cancer is harder to treat and more likely to come back if its:
- More advanced or widespread
Most types of cancer recur in a typical pattern your cancer care team can tell you more about this if its something youd like to know.
How Is Each Condition Diagnosed
Youll see a specialist called a urologist to diagnose BPH or prostate cancer. Doctors use many of the same tests to diagnose both of these conditions.
- Prostate-specific antigen test:This blood test detects PSA, a protein your prostate gland makes. When your prostate grows, it produces more of this protein. A high PSA level can only tell your doctor that your prostate has grown. It cant tell for sure that you have BPH or prostate cancer. Youll need more tests to confirm the diagnosis.
- Digital rectal exam : Your doctor will insert a gloved, lubricated finger into your rectum. This test can show if your prostate is enlarged or abnormally shaped. Youll need more tests to find out if you have BPH or prostate cancer.
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Cancer Treatment Strategies Differ
When rectal cancer is identified before symptoms develop, the treatment priority is lowering the risk of local growth and spread. A rectal cancer is considered locally advanced when an ultrasound or MRI confirms it has grown through the bowel wall into the tissue around the rectum, or there is evidence of nearby lymph node involvement.
At this stage, the strategy is to begin with chemotherapy or targeted radiation to shrink the tumor, Hardiman says. An expert surgeon can then remove the radiated part of the rectum and often reconnect the adjacent parts of the bowel. This approach has been shown to be the best for maintaining surrounding organ function.
Tumors located farther up in the colon pose less risk to nearby organs, so with a different diagnosis, we typically start with surgery. Patients may also need chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells, says Hardiman. Thats why its important to choose a center with advanced imaging technologies and expertise to guide diagnosis and stagingand surgeons with the specialized training to perform rectal surgery, which is far more delicate and complex than colon surgery.
What Is Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
Benign prostatic hyperplasia is very common in men above the age of 40 and can cause the urinary tract to be obstructed. Unlike prostate cancer, BPH is not cancerous nor is it fatal. As you age, your testosterone levels increase, which, in turn, causes your prostate to grow in size or become enlarged.
During a physical exam, if you have BPH, your healthcare provider will notice your prostate feels larger than it should be. Your PSA tests will also come back elevated. Whereas in prostate cancer, the sides of the prostate are usually affected, in BPH the central portion of the prostate is usually affected. Also, unlike cancer, BPH cannot spread.
The most common symptoms of BPH include urinary symptoms such as frequency of urination, hesitancy, dribbling, and frequent nighttime urination. Depending on the severity of your symptoms, treatment can range from nothing to medication to shrink the prostate, or surgery to remove the central part of the prostate to allow better flow of urine.
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Surgery Is Used For Both Colon And Rectal Cancers
Surgery is the most common treatment for both colon and rectal cancer, although each type has specific techniques and risks. Patients may still need chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy to kill remaining cancer cells, even when surgery is the primary treatment.
Colon Cancer Surgery
A partial colectomy is usually the first surgical treatment for colon cancer, which involves removing only a section of the colon. Surgeons can typically reconnect the separated portions of the colon, allowing you to have normal bowel movements. In some cases where it cant be reconnected right away, you may need a colostomy.
A colostomy is a procedure that involves creating a hole, or ostomy, in your abdomen and attaching the end of your colon to the ostomy. A bag connected to the outside of the ostomy then collects the bowel movements. This is not always a permanent condition. For some patients, after some healing of the colon, the two parts can be reconnected and the ostomy closed.
Rectal Cancer Surgery
Prostate Cancer Patients Are At Increased Risk Of Precancerous Colon Polyps
- University at Buffalo
- Men with prostate cancer should be especially diligent about having routine screening colonoscopies, results of a new study by gastroenterologists indicate.
Men with prostate cancer should be especially diligent about having routine screening colonoscopies, results of a new study by gastroenterologists at the University at Buffalo indicate.
Their findings show that persons diagnosed with prostate cancer had significantly more abnormal colon polyps, known as adenomas, and advanced adenomas than men without prostate cancer.
Results of the research were presented Oct. 19 at a 10:30 a.m. session at the American College of Gastroenterology meeting being held Oct. 15-20 in San Antonio, Texas.
While most adenomas are benign and dont become cancerous, there is evidence that most colon cancers begin as adenomas. Advanced adenomas carry an even higher colorectal cancer risk.
Colon cancer and prostate cancer are two of the most common cancers in males, says Ognian Pomakov, MD, an author on the study. However there are no published clinical studies to date that determined the prevalence of colorectal neoplasms in people with prostate cancer.
Our study is the first to show that men with prostate cancer are at increased risk of developing colon cancer, and that it is especially important for these men not skip their routine colonoscopies.
Colon And Rectal Cancer Symptoms And Signs
Whatever your age, the following symptoms should prompt a visit to the doctor:
- A change in bowel habits such as diarrhea, constipation, or narrowing of the stool that lasts for more than a few days
- A feeling that you need to have a bowel movement thats not relieved by having one
- Weakness and fatigue
- Unintended weight loss
Although people with colorectal cancer may not have rectal bleeding or blood in the stool, these are, for many people, the most identifiable signs of the disease.
These symptoms occur when cancer bleeds into the digestive tract. This may occur very slowly over years, and as such, it may not even be noticeable that there is blood in the stool.
Over a period of time, this continuous blood loss can lead to a low red blood cell count, a condition calledanemia.
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Tests Used To Check The Prostate
This first step lets your doctor hear and understand the “story” of your prostate concerns. You’ll be asked whether you have symptoms, how long you’ve had them, and how much they affect your lifestyle. Your personal medical history also includes any risk factors, pain, fever, or trouble passing urine. You may be asked to give a urine sample for testing.
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The Surveillance Epidemiology And End Results Program
NCIs Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program collects and publishes cancer incidence and survival data from population-based cancer registries that cover approximately 35% of the US population. The SEER program website has more detailed cancer statistics, including population statistics for common types of cancer, customizable graphs and tables, and interactive tools.
The Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer provides an annual update of cancer incidence, mortality, and trends in the United States. This report is jointly authored by experts from NCI, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, American Cancer Society, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries.
What Is Colon Cancer
Cancer that starts in the large intestine is called colon cancer. The large intestine is the last part of your digestive tract.
People usually get colon cancer when they are old. Colon cancer can happen at any age, though, and it starts when there is a small noncancerous clump of cells called polyps. Over time some of these polyps can become colon cancers.
If you get colon cancer, there are many treatments. You can have surgery or radiation therapy. You can also take medicine like chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy.
Colon cancer is sometimes called colorectal cancer. This means it is a colon and rectal cancer. It starts in the rectum.
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Difference Between Colon Cancer And Prostate Cancer
Colon Cancer vs Prostate Cancer
Colon and prostate cancers are two types of common cancers detected in the elderly individuals. Both cancers are very invasive. These two cancers types are very different from each other, which are discussed below in detail, highlighting the clinical features, symptoms, causes, investigation and diagnosis, prognosis, and the course of treatment of colon and prostate cancers.
Large bowel is medically known as the colon. The colon consists of the caecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon and sigmoid colon. The sigmoid colon is continuous with the rectum. Cancers can manifest themselves at any site, but lower colon and rectum are more frequently affected compared to the upper colon. Colon cancers present with bleeding via rectum, feeling of incomplete evacuation, alternative constipation and diarrhea. There may be associated systemic features such as lethargy, wasting, loss of appetite, and loss of weight.
There are many risk factors for colon cancers. Inflammatory bowel diseases lead to cancer due to a high rate of cell division and repair. Genetics play a key role in carcinogenesis because with rapid cell division the chance of cancer gene activation is high. First degree relatives with colon cancers suggest a significantly higher chance of getting colon cancers. There are genescalled proto-oncogenes, which result in malignancies if a genetic abnormality transforms them into oncogenes.
Discussing Symptoms With Your Doctor
Once you describe symptoms to your doctor, they will likely give you a medical exam to ascertain the cause.
The doctor will likely question you about your medical history and ask if any of your family members have colorectal cancer, especially parents, siblings, or children.
While most people who develop colorectal cancer have no family history of the disease, 1 in 5 do.
In rare cases, genetic mutations passed down through families, such as Lynch syndrome, can make a person extremely vulnerable to colorectal cancer.
Your doctor will want to know whether you have any other health conditions, particularly those concerning the colon and rectum, that can increase colorectal cancer risk.
Theres also an association between type 2 diabetes and colorectal cancer.
Other risk factors include obesity or excess weight, a low level of physical activity, heavy alcohol use, and smoking.
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