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Prevalence Of Prostate Cancer By Age

Screening For Prostate Cancer

Prostate Cancer Statistics

There are no tests available with sufficient accuracy to screen populations of men for early signs of prostate cancer. However, early detection and treatment can significantly improve prostate cancer survival.

The test most commonly used to aid early detection of prostate cancer is the prostate specific antigen blood test. This is not a diagnostic test as it can only indicate changes in the prostate. If you are concerned about prostate cancer you should talk to your doctor and make an informed choice about whether to have one of the tests designed to find early signs of prostate cancer, in view of the potential risks and benefits.

There are no proven measures to prevent prostate cancer.

Cases Of Aggressive Prostate Cancer On The Rise Research Finds

Cases of aggressive prostate cancer appear to be on the rise, researchers reported Tuesday.

The good news is its still rare for prostate cancer to spread. Just 3 percent of cases have already started spreading when men are diagnosed and prostate cancer overall has not become more common, the team found.

And the American Cancer Society strongly questioned the findings and the methods used to get them.

The researchers — who were looking for evidence to support a return to widespread prostate cancer screening — found that cases of metastatic prostate cancer the type that has started to spread in the body nearly doubled in men aged 55 to 69 since 2004. The reason is not yet clear.

One hypothesis is the disease has become more aggressive, regardless of the change in screening, said Dr. Edward Schaeffer, chair of urology at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine and Northwestern Medicine, who led the study.

The other idea is since screening guidelines have become more lax, when men do get diagnosed, its at a more advanced stage of disease. Probably both are true. We dont know for sure, but this is the focus of our current work, Schaeffer continued.

One hypothesis is the disease has become more aggressive, regardless of the change in screening.”

In 2012, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommended against using a blood test called a prostate-specific antigen test to check most healthy men for prostate cancer.

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Am I At Risk Of Prostate Cancer

In the UK, about 1 in 8 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in their lifetime. We don’t know exactly what causes prostate cancer but there are some things that may mean you are more likely to get it these are called risk factors.

There are three main risk factors for getting prostate cancer, which are things you can’t change. These are:

  • getting older it mainly affects men aged 50 or over
  • being black.

If you have any of these risk factors or if you have any symptoms, speak to your GP. They can talk to you about your risk, and about the tests that are used to diagnose prostate cancer. You can also get in touch with our Specialist Nurses, who can help you understand your risk of prostate cancer.

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Your Risk For Prostate Cancer

The greatest risk factors for developing prostate cancer are increasing age, family history, ethnicity, and diet. Do any of the following describe you?

  • I am older than 50
  • I have a family history of prostate cancer
  • I am African-American

If you answered yes to any of these, then you may be at higher risk of prostate cancer. However, not having any of these risk factors does not mean you are immune. Unfortunately, all men are at risk for prostate cancer. Keep reading to learn more about your risk and what steps you can take.

Incidence And Survival Rates

Prostate cancer incidence and death rates in America by ...

Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide, and the fifth most common cause of cancer death among men. Almost all cases are adenocarcinoma, a glandular malignancy. Around 1.1 million new cases were recorded worldwide in 2012, accounting for 15 per cent of all new cases of cancer in men.

Prostate cancer is more common as men age, in the US 97 per cent of all prostate cancers are diagnosed in men 50 years or older. Incidence rates of prostate cancer vary by more than 25-fold in different parts of the world the highest rates are in Australia and New Zealand, Northern and Western Europe and North America. A proportion of the variation in incidence rates can be explained by differences in screening practices, notably screening for prostate-specific antigen .

Early prostate cancer detected by screening usually has no symptoms. With more advanced disease men may experience weak or interrupted urine flow the inability to urinate or difficulty starting or stopping urine flow the need to urinate frequently, especially at night blood in the urine or pain or burning with urination, but these symptoms may also be due to a common condition called benign prostatic hyperplasia. Prostate cancer that has spread often presents as bone pain. The five- and ten-year survival is high in Europe and North America, but lower in some Asian and African countries.

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Who Dies From This Cancer

Because we have screening for prostate cancer, most of the time it is caught before it spreads to other parts of the body. Men who have prostate cancer that is characterized as localized or regional are not as likely to die as men whose cancer is distant. In general prostate cancer has excellent survival rates, but death rates are higher in African American men, men who have advanced stage cancer, and men who are between the ages of 75 and 84. Prostate cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death in the United States. The death rate was 19.0 per 100,000 men per year based on 20142018, age-adjusted.

Death Rate per 100,000 Persons by Race/Ethnicity: Prostate Cancer

Males

Effectiveness Of Early Detection

Potential Benefits of Screening

To understand the potential benefits of PSA-based screening for prostate cancer, the USPSTF examined the results of the ERSPC, PLCO, and CAP trials and site-specific reports from 4 ERSPC trial sites. To understand the effectiveness of treatment of screen-detected, early-stage prostate cancer, the USPSTF also examined the results of 3 randomized trials and 9 cohort studies.3

The ERSPC trial randomly assigned a core group of more than 160,000 men aged 55 to 69 years from 7 European countries to PSA-based screening vs usual care.8 Four ERSPC sites reported on the cumulative incidence of metastatic prostate cancer. After a median follow-up of 12 years, the risk of developing metastatic prostate cancer was 30% lower among men randomized to screening compared with usual care . The absolute reduction in long-term risk of metastatic prostate cancer associated with screening was 3.1 cases per 1000 men.11 After a median follow-up of 13 years, the prostate cancer mortality rate among men aged 55 to 69 years was 4.3 deaths per 10,000 person-years in the screening group and 5.4 deaths per 10,000 person-years in the usual care group .8 The ERSPC trial did not find a reduction in all-cause mortality.8

Neither the ERSPC, PLCO, or CAP trials, nor any of the ERSPC site-specific analyses, found an overall all-cause mortality benefit from screening for prostate cancer.

Potential Benefits of Treatment

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Patient Population Under Consideration

This recommendation applies to adult men in the general US population without symptoms or a previous diagnosis of prostate cancer. It also applies to men at increased risk of death from prostate cancer because of race/ethnicity or family history of prostate cancer. The sections below provide more information on how this recommendation applies to African American men and men with a family history of prostate cancer.

About The Canadian Cancer Statistics 2017

Prostate Cancer Statistics

Canadian Cancer Statistics is an annual series that began in 1987. This edition was developed by cancer surveillance experts on the Canadian Cancer Statistics Advisory Committee, who were brought together by the Canadian Cancer Society, the Public Health Agency of Canada and Statistics Canada. The publication is designed to help health professionals, policy-makers and researchers make decisions and identify priority areas.

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What Is The Prevalence Of Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous cancer in males in the United States. It is estimated that about 60-70% of older men on autopsy have some degree of prostate cancer, compared with 15-20% of men diagnosed with prostate cancer during their lifetime and with the 3% lifetime risk of death from prostate cancer. An estimated one in six white men and one in five African-American men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in their lifetime, with the likelihood increasing with age. Prostate cancer is rarely diagnosed in men younger than 40 years, and it is uncommon in men younger than 50 years.

Data Sources And Methods

The sources and methods used in compiling the estimates in GLOBOCAN 2018 are described in detail elsewhere and also are available online at the Global Cancer Observatory . The Global Cancer Observatory website includes facilities for the tabulation and graphical visualization of the GLOBOCAN database for 185 countries and 36 cancers by age and sex.

The profile of cancer, globally and by world region, is built up in GLOBOCAN using the best available sources of cancer incidence and mortality data within a given country therefore, validity of the national estimates depends on the degree of representativeness and the quality of source information. The methods used to compile the 2018 estimates are largely based on those developed previously, with an emphasis on the use of short-term predictions and modeling of incidence-to-mortality ratios, where applicable. The list of cancer sites, however, has been extended to 36 cancer types in GLOBOCAN 2018, with one of the major additions being estimates of the incidence of, and mortality from, nonmelanoma skin cancer . Together with all cancers combined, cancer-specific estimates are provided for 185 countries or territories worldwide by sex and for 18 age groups .

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Prostate Cancer Incidence By Age

Prostate cancer incidence is strongly related to age, with the highest incidence rates being in older men. In the UK in 2016-2018, on average each year around a third of new cases were in males aged 75 and over.

Age-specific incidence rates rise steeply from around age 45-49, peak in the 75-79 age group before dropping slightly and remaining stable in the oldest age groups.The highest rates are in in the 75 to 79 age group.

Prostate cancer , Average Number of New Cases per Year and Age-Specific Incidence Rates per 100,000 Male Population, UK, 2016-2018

For prostate cancer, like most cancer types, incidence increases with age. This largely reflects cell DNA damage accumulating over time. Damage can result from biological processes or from exposure to risk factors. A drop or plateau in incidence in the oldest age groups often indicates reduced diagnostic activity perhaps due to general ill health.

The age distribution of prostate cancer cases probably partly reflects the age groups in which prostate specific antigen testing and transurethral resection of the prostate are carried out.

Economics Cost Of Management Pc

Facts and Statistics

From Europe and USA the costs of management of PC are as follows: in Italy from 6575.31 euro, in UK from 2818 pounds, and in France 12731 euro, and in USA from $12,000., , These costs are very high for low and low middle income countries. There have not been comparable figures from Africa. In Ghana, the head of Urology Unit in KBTH reports individual direct costs for radical prostatectomy or EBRT ranges from GH¢5000 6000 , for Brachytherapy the cost is GH¢30,000 GH¢32,000 i.e. 9000 Euros. For hormonal therapy the cost is from GH¢6400 12400 per year and for Orchidectomy the cost is GH¢2000 .

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Recent Trends In Prostate Cancer Incidence By Age Cancer Stage And Grade The United States 20012007

1Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC, 4770 Buford Hwy, MS K55, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA

2Department of Urology and Winship Cancer Institute, School of Medicine, Emory University, 1365C Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA

Academic Editor:

Abstract

1. Introduction

Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed non-skin cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death among American men. Each year, approximately 220,000 men are diagnosed with prostate cancer and 29,000 die from it . With the introduction of the prostate-specific antigen testing in the mid-1980s, prostate cancer incidence rate increased drastically, at about 12% per year, and peaked in 1992 . The rate subsequently declined, at about 10% per year for the following three years and then appeared to stabilize from 1995 to 2005 . In 2011, Kohler et al. reported a stable trend of prostate cancer incidence from 1998 to 2007 however, demographic and clinical factors were not examined in this study . With the widespread use of the PSA test, the mean age at diagnosis dropped substantially, from 72.2 years between 1988-1989 to 67.2 years between 2004 and 2005 . Studies using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program data have shown that the distribution of prostate cancer stage and grade has also dramatically changed, with localized and moderately differentiated tumors becoming predominant .

2. Patients and Methods

Count1

Incidence And Prevalence Of Prostate Cancer

Somnath Pal, BS , MBA, PhDProfessor of Pharmacy AdministrationCollege of Pharmacy & Allied Health ProfessionsSt. John’s UniversityJamaica, New York

US Pharm. 2009 34:10.

Among men, prostate cancer is the second most common type of cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death, according to the National Cancer Institute. Annually, PC is the diagnosis in one of every three men found to have cancer. PC affects 234,000 U.S. men each year, with death occurring in 27,000. The Prostate Cancer Foundation reported that one new case of PC occurs every 2.5 minutes and one death from it occurs every 19 minutes. One in six males born between 2004 and 2006 will be diagnosed with PC during his lifetime, with 8% developing it between 50 and 70 years of age.

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Screening For Prostate Cancer In African American Men

Burden

In the United States, African American men are more likely to develop prostate cancer than white men . African American men are also more than twice as likely as white men to die of prostate cancer .1 The higher death rate is attributable in part to an earlier age at cancer onset, more advanced cancer stage at diagnosis, and higher rates of more aggressive cancer . These differences in death from prostate cancer may also reflect that African American men have lower rates of receiving high-quality care.

Available Evidence

The USPSTF searched for evidence about the potential benefits and harms of PSA-based screening for prostate cancer in African American men.

Potential Benefits

The PLCO trial enrolled 4% African American men, which is not enough to determine whether the overall trial results differed for African American men.17 The ERSPC trial did not record or report any race-specific subgroup information. The low proportion of persons of African descent in European countries during the study period makes it likely that these groups were not well represented.

Potential Harms

An analysis from the PLCO trial found that African American men were significantly more likely to have major infections after prostate biopsy than white men .13 Evidence is insufficient to compare the risk of false-positive results, potential for overdiagnosis, and magnitude of harms from prostate cancer treatment in African American vs other men.

Advising African American Men

Deaths From Prostate Cancer

Prostate Cancer Awareness & Treatment

Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in American men, behind only lung cancer. About 1 man in 41 will die of prostate cancer.

Prostate cancer can be a serious disease, but most men diagnosed with prostate cancer do not die from it. In fact, more than 3.1 million men in the United States who have been diagnosed with prostate cancer at some point are still alive today.

Our team is made up of doctors and oncology certified nurses with deep knowledge of cancer care as well as journalists, editors, and translators with extensive experience in medical writing.

American Cancer Society. Facts & Figures 2021. American Cancer Society. Atlanta, Ga. 2021.

National Cancer Institute. SEER Cancer Stat Facts: Prostate Cancer. Accessed at https://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/prost.html on March 15, 2019.

Noone AM, Howlader N, Krapcho M, Miller D, Brest A, Yu M, Ruhl J, Tatalovich Z, Mariotto A, Lewis DR, Chen HS, Feuer EJ, Cronin KA . SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2015, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, https://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2015/, based on November 2017 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, April 2018.

American Cancer Society. Facts & Figures 2021. American Cancer Society. Atlanta, Ga. 2021.

National Cancer Institute. SEER Cancer Stat Facts: Prostate Cancer. Accessed at https://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/prost.html on March 15, 2019.

Last Revised: January 12, 2021

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Us Cancer Statistics Data Visualizations Tool

The Data Visualizations tool makes it easy for anyone to explore and use the latest official federal government cancer data from United States Cancer Statistics. It includes the latest cancer data covering the U.S. population.

See how the rates of new prostate cancers or prostate cancer deaths changed over time for the entire United States and individual states.Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website.

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