Screening And Selection Of Studies
The final list of search findings will be independently screened by two reviewers . The titles and abstracts of the selected studies will initially be screened for inclusion and exclusion in the review. Studies that are selected after the screening of the titles and abstract will undergo full-text reading by the same independent reviewers. The selection for data extraction will be done by a careful comparison of papers that successfully passed the screening stage to the established inclusion and exclusion criteria. Search findings that present disagreements between the independent reviewers , during the screening and selection stages, will be resolved through discussions with the third reviewer . Kappa coefficient of 0.6 or more would be used to establish an agreement between the two independent reviewers during the screening and selection phase . Reference management will be done by EW.
To Screen Or Not To Screen
Due to concerns about over treatment and raising unnecessary anxiety, there has been increased debate over the importance of annual screenings for prostate cancer using the prostate-specific antigen test and a digital rectal exam . This past March the New England Journal of Medicine published two conflicting papers on the value of screening, based on studies conducted in North America and England. Following much analysis, many medical experts agree that the larger study, conducted over a much longer time span supports the idea that early detection and treatment does indeed save lives. The PSA test, even with its limitations, remains an important tool in the diagnosis and the treatment of prostate cancer.
In a follow-up commentary, Patrick C. Walsh, MD, of Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions wrote: What is the take-home message? If you are the kind of person who doesnt wear a seatbelt nor goes regularly to the dentist or your family doctor for a
checkup and are not worried about dying from prostate cancer, do not undergo PSA testing. On the other hand, if you are a healthy man age 55 to 69 who does not want to die from prostate cancer, the European trial provides conclusive evidence that PSA testing can save your life.
What Is The Actual Purpose Of Prostate In Female Body
Many experts believe that prostate in female body use to release some kind of fluid. This fluid appears thick, scanty and has whitish color while containing PSA. Note that, female ejaculation is actually not a part of orgasm and frequency of this has be estimated somewhere around 10 to 54 percent.
During few recent years, medical professionals have taken help from MRIs to detect the presence as well as functionality of female prostate. However, the research should be continued ahead to make ideas more clear but the basic understanding have obtained a boost with this initiative. You might be aware of the fact that prostate gland in males use to store infections inside body. Several studies around the world reveal that Skenes glands also serve the similar kind of function.
Now, it is already clear that skenes glands use to release some fluid during sexual activity and it use to be of watery in appearance. As per one detailed study published in 2007, this fluid that is excreted into the tract from Skene s Duct use to be consistent with the prostate fluid but it is not observed to have consistency with urine.
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How Should I Approach My Doctor
If you feel frightened, anxious, or embarrassed about prostate problems, it is always best to speak to your doctor.
If you have previously visited the doctor but not managed to talk about your symptoms, now is the time to speak up.
It is important to find the words that are right for you. We have listed some potential icebreakers for you below. Why not say them aloud and see which one feels the most natural to you. You may even find rehearsing what you want to say boosts your confidence and comfort level.
- I want to ask you about a mens health issue
- Im having some problems that I want to talk to you about
- I think I might have a prostate problem
- Im having some problems peeing/weeing
- Im having some problems getting/keeping an erection
- My friend/brother/father/uncle has been diagnosed with prostate cancer
- Im worried about prostate cancer
- Ive had blood in my pee/wee/semen
Just remember, your doctor is a healthcare professional. He/she will listen to you and discuss the best way forward.
Can Women Have Prostate Cancer Conclusion
Fact: Women can also develop prostate cancer, but the chances are lower when compared to men. Take note of the causes and preventive measures outlined in this article to ensure you never have to suffer from prostate cancer.
It can be treated by radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and surgery for people who already have prostate cancer.
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What Do Grades Of Cancer Mean
Stages and grades are different. Stages inform your doctor of the size of the tumour and how far the cancer cells have spread. Grades give your doctor an idea of how fast the tumour might grow, and cancer might spread. In general, a lower grade indicates slower-growing cancer, and a higher grade indicates a faster-growing one.
If you have been diagnosed with prostate cancer, your doctor may refer to your Gleason score which is a common way of grading prostate cancer. Your Gleason score will help your doctor plan and discuss your treatment options with you.
Gleason score: The Gleason score is used after a biopsy has been taken and a pathologist has looked at the cells. The score helps your doctor predict how the cancer might behave and the treatment you need.
Your doctor may also refer to an ISUP grade. This is another tool used for grading cancer.
ISUP grade: The International Society of Urological Pathology grade categorises prostate cancer into 5 groups from 1 to 5. The lower the ISP grade, the better your prognosis is.
Quantitative And Qualitative Data Synthesis
The synthesis of quantitative data will be done through a narrative synthesis . This is because the review has no interventional arm and is aimed at investigating the awareness of women about prostate cancer. Hence, a narrative synthesis would be performed on findings that would be extracted from included studies. It is imperative to note that random or fixed effects would not be employed in data synthesis. Also, subgroup or meta-regression analysis would not be performed.
The findings from the pool of qualitative data will undergo meta-synthesis through findings assembly and categorization based on shared meanings . These categorized findings will undergo further analysis in an attempt to generate a wealth of evidence that will be easy to comprehend and will also be a true reflection of the awareness of women on prostate cancer concerning the underpinned review objectives .
In the event of the inability to perform a textual pooling, a narrative will be generated . The synthesis by narrative will be performed according to the following approach the findings obtained from the selected studies will undergo preliminary synthesis, the compiled data will be explored for linkages and the synthesizing process will be assessed for robustness .
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How Does Having A Prostate Affect Sex In Trans Women
Some trans women who have had vaginoplasty report self-lubrication of the vagina this may be fluid from the prostate. Not all trans women who have had vaginoplasty experience this. Stimulation of the prostate during vaginal sex can be another source of sexual pleasure.
The prostate gland is sensitive. Stimulation of the prostate gland can be enjoyable for cis men, trans women and non-binary people, for example through anal sex or using fingers or sex toys.
What We Dont Know
While research is promising, thereâs still a lot scientists need to learn. Some things to consider:
- Thereâs no proof that ejaculating more actually causes lower chances of prostate cancer. For now, doctors just know theyâre connected. It may be that men who do it more tend to have other healthy habits that are lowering their odds.
- Ejaculation doesnât seem to protect against the most deadly or advanced types of prostate cancer. Experts donât know why.
- Scientists donât know if ejaculation during sex vs. masturbation has the same benefits. Some research has found that the makeup of semen is different for each. For example, semen during sex has higher levels of sperm and some chemicals. Itâs possible that these could make a difference in a manâs odds of having prostate cancer.
- Not all studies have found a benefit. The 2016 study got attention because of its size and length . But some smaller studies have not shown the same good results. A few even found that some men, specifically younger men, who masturbated more had slightly higher chances of prostate cancer. Some researchers wonder if a manâs age may affect whether more ejaculation helps.
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Ladies: Check Your Prostates
Okayyou may not have one physically, but if you are married to a man or care about other males in your life, you might as well resign yourself to becoming an advocate for this small and mysterious part of the male anatomy. Men are often their own worst enemy when it comes to their healthcare, making a strong dose of feminine persistence just what the doctor ordered. Heres an introduction to the number one mens health issue that might be affecting someone you love.
Bph Or Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
Is the man in your life making frequent trips to the bathroom during the night?
Is he enjoying social activities less because he always has to be near a bathroom?
Has he complained about weak urine flow or difficulty in starting urination?
If your partner is over the age of 50, these symptoms may indicate that he has a non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate known as benign prostate hyperplasia . Although BPH is easily treatable, many men are unaware that treatment is available.
When your partner complains of urinary difficulties or if you notice changes in urinary patterns, encourage him to make an appointment with a healthcare provider. Medications are available which, in some cases, could begin to relieve the uncomfortable symptoms of prostate enlargement within four to eight hours.
The good news is that, in general, BPH does not cause erectile dysfunction and does not diminish your partners sex drive. The reality may also be that the uncomfortable and embarrassing symptoms of an enlarged prostate may not put your partner in a romantic mood. Having the sudden, urgent need to urinate can be a distraction.
Things Every Woman Should Know about BPH
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How Common Is Prostate Cancer
With the exception of skin cancer, prostate is the most common cancer occurring in men. According to the National Cancer Institute , there are close to 3 million men living with prostate cancer in the United States. An additional 180,000 new cases of prostate cancer will be identified in 2016, and approximately 26,000 deaths will be associated with the disease.1
The good news is that most forms of prostate cancer are relatively indolent, or slow growing. As a result, the five-year survival rate following a diagnosis of prostate cancer is 98.9 percent. The NCI further states that while an estimated 16 percent of men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in their lifetimeonly 3 percent will die of it.1
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Being armed with information is vital to begin the fight. It may grow slowly and it’s typically treatable. If you have been diagnosed with adenocarcinoma cancer, you have a cancer that developed in one of the glands that lines the inside of your organs. The pancreas is a bodily organ that few people think about. Whether you or someone y.
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What Happens If The Cancer Comes Back
It can be extremely difficult to find out that your cancer has come back. All of the thoughts and feelings you had when you were first diagnosed can come back too. These feelings and fears may even be stronger than before. Some men find that using the same coping mechanisms they did during their first cancer diagnosis helps them deal with another cancer diagnosis.
For many men, even when the cancer comes back after treatment, it may still be slow-growing, and they continue to live long and active lives. Your doctor will discuss your treatment options with you.
If your cancer has come back, you may hear it called recurrence, as well as other terms like local, locally-advanced, regional, distant, or metastasis. These terms can feel very overwhelming.
Local recurrenceThe new tumour is in the prostate again. The cancer has not spread to other parts of the body. If you have local recurrence, you might be offered further treatment to get rid of the cancer again.
Regional or locally-advanced recurrenceThe cancer has spread to the area just outside the prostate, but it has not spread to other parts of the body. You might be offered further treatment to get rid of the cancer again.
Distant or metastatic recurrenceThe cancer has spread, or metastasised, to other parts of your body. There may also be cancer cells in your blood or bones. Treatment can no longer cure the cancer.
This information was produced by the European Association of Urology and updated in May 2021.
Assessment Of Methodological Quality
The quality assessment of the review will adopt and adapt a quality appraisal tool employed in a review conducted by Mensah et al., Additional file : Appendix 3 . The tool has 5 general quality assessment criteria and 3 specific quality assessment criteria to be scored over 100%. The design of the tool will permit the comparison of scores obtained by individual literature to the scoring benchmark of weak , moderate , and strong . This quality appraisal stage will be done independently by two authors . It is recommended that a minimum of two reviewers be involved in the appraisal of the quality of studies to be considered for data extraction and subsequent synthesis . Hence, the need for EW and KBM to independently conduct a quality assessment of search findings that passed the screening and selection stage of the review. The results obtained from the quality assessment stage will be employed in determining the final inclusion or exclusion of a research paper in the review. Studies with weak methodological quality scores will be excluded. Disagreements arising from the results of EW and KBM will be addressed through discussions with ABBM.
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What Are The Common Health Issues Associated With Skenes Glands
Skenes glands may become infected, which can also affect the urethra. On the flipside, an infection of the urethra could also infect your Skenes glands. Cysts may develop in the gland, but cancer is rare.
Below is a breakdown of some of the most common issues with the Skenes glands and what symptoms you need to look out for:
Is Female Prostate Cancer Possible
The question is that if the females skenes glands and male prostate glands share similarities, can female also develop prostate cancer or any other similar cancer?
Cancer of the female prostate that is of skene s gland is rare. According to a study, cancer of the Skenes glands accounts for 0.003 percent of cancers in the female genital-urinary tract. There is a possibility of the cancer of a nearby organ, such as urethra, can extend to the Skenes glands. The cancer of female prostate is also called adenocarcinoma of Skenes gland.
Sometimes, cysts, inflammation and infections can occur in these glands and may be misdiagnosed as other urinary condition or disease. If a woman notices unexplained symptoms such as frequent urge of urination, painful urination, pain in the lower urinary tract, sexual dysfunction etc, she should meet her health care provider for a diagnosis and know if these glands are responsible for the problem.
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However As With Other Types Of Cancer
The american cancer society provides detailed information on prostate cancer and its treatment. The pancreas is an organ that releases enzymes involved with digestion, and hormones to regular blood sugar levels. Being armed with information is vital to begin the fight. Whether you or someone y. One in seven men in the united states will receive a prostate cancer diagnosis during his lifetime. If breast cancer is diagnosed at an early enough stage, it’s treatable. Of course, your specialist is the main person whose advice you should follow but it doesn’t do anyone harm. The pancreas is located behind the stomach, so having pancreatic cancer doesn’t involve a palpable mass that you can feel. Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer diagnosed in men. Find the information you need today. Prostate cancer is a common type of cancer in men, according to the mayo clinic. But hearing the words can still be scary. Although the percentage of cases in men is much lower than in women, male breast cancer accounts for a por.
Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer diagnosed in men. Despite this, pancreatic cancer is among the deadliest types of cancer, which is why it’s extremely important to know and recogni. Prostate cancer is a common type of cancer in men, according to the mayo clinic. It may grow slowly and it’s typically treatable. If breast cancer is diagnosed at an early enough stage, it’s treatable.
Information Sources And Search Strategy
A comprehensive search strategy will be developed by the primary author to identify various publications related to the study. The following databases will be searched MEDLINE , CINAHL , PsycINFO , Web of Science, and EMBASE . The searched period will be from January 1999 to December 2019.
A triple stage approach to searching published literature will be adopted in developing the preliminary search strategy . Firstly, MEDLINE will be searched for articles relevant to this review. Subject terms and free text terms will be employed in the development of the preliminary search strategy. The details of the search terms can be found as a supplementary document at . The preliminary search strategy, using MEDLINE , has been affixed . Secondly, the preliminary search strategy will be adopted in the search for relevant studies from CINAHL , PsycINFO , Web of Science, and EMBASE , respectively. The citation list of the selected studies for the review will be scanned for additional studies. Search findings, which will be in the English language, will be compiled independently by two authors .
The total search findings of EW and KBM will be compiled and duplicate papers, removed with the help of the EndNote X8 software, to generate a final list of search findings for the review.
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