Risk Factors For Prostate Cancer
Factors that can increase your risk of prostate cancer include the following.
- Older age: Your risk of prostate cancer increases as you age.
- Race: Black men have a greater risk of prostate cancer than do men of other races. In black men, prostate cancer is also more likely to be aggressive or advanced. It’s not clear why this is.
- Family history of prostate or breast cancer: If men in your family have had prostate cancer, your risk may be increased. Also, if you have a family history of genes that increase the risk of breast cancer or a very strong family history of breast cancer, your risk of prostate cancer may be higher.
- Obesity: Obese men diagnosed with prostate cancer may be more likely to have advanced disease that’s more difficult to treat.
Not Only Does The Stage Tell You How Serious The Disease Is But It Can Help You And
One in seven men in the united states will receive a prostate cancer diagnosis during his lifetime. The earlier the detection of prostate cancer, the better the patients chance of survival is. Getting a diagnosis of bladder cancer can be a difficult time. Breast cancer is the second most common cancer found in women after skin cancer but that doesnt mean men arent at risk as well. Your doctor will want to discuss treatment options as well as the prognosis for bladder cancer. A diagnosis of lung cancer naturally causes some overwhelming emotions, but you dont have to let those emotions get the best of you. Although the percentage of cases in men is much lower than in women, male breast cancer accounts for a por. When malignant cancer cells form and grow within a persons breast tissue, breast cancer occurs. Although screenings for prostate cancer are one tool for early detecti. Not only does the stage tell you how serious the disease is, but it can help you and. Here are 10 more facts about prostate cancer. Treatment for bladder cancer depends on your overall health, progression of the c. Being armed with information is vital to begin the fight.
What Will Happen After My Treatment
You will have regular check-ups during and after your treatment to check how well it is working. You may hear them called follow-up appointments. Youll have regular PSA blood tests ask the people treating you how often youll have these. If your PSA level goes down, this usually suggests your treatment is working.
Tell your doctor or nurse about any side effects youre getting. There are usually ways to manage side effects.
Make sure you have the details of someone to contact if you have any questions or concerns between check-ups. This might be your specialist nurse or key worker. You can also speak to our Specialist Nurses.
Read more about follow-up after prostate cancer treatments.
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Determining The Stage Of Your Prostate Cancer
Using the results of your tests, your doctor will calculate a score based on four main components. Namely your: 1) PSA level, 2) Gleason score , 3) T-stage and 4) whether the cancer has metastasized. The information below breaks down each component so you have a better understanding of what your results mean and where they land in the spectrum of cancer prognoses.
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Survival For All Stages Of Prostate Cancer
Generally for men with prostate cancer in England:
- more than 95 out of 100 will survive their cancer for 1 year or more
- more than 85 out of 100 will survive their cancer for 5 years or more
- almost 80 out of 100 will survive their cancer for 10 years or more
Survival of prostate cancer is also reported in Scotland and Northern Ireland. But it is difficult to compare survival between these countries because of differences in the way the information is collected.
Cancer survival by stage at diagnosis for England, 2019Office for National Statistics
These statistics are for net survival. Net survival estimates the number of people who survive their cancer rather than calculating the number of people diagnosed with cancer who are still alive. In other words, it is the survival of cancer patients after taking into account the background mortality that they would have experienced if they had not had cancer.
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Survival By Disease Progression
The extent prostate cancer has progressed can influence survival rates.
Prostate-specific antigen is a protein produced by cells of the prostate gland by normal and malignant cells. In men with prostate cancer, blood levels of PSA are often elevated.
Doctors can use PSA as a marker to better understand the progression of prostate cancer and the resulting prognosis.
One way doctors assess the progression of the disease is through PSA doubling time. This refers to the number of months it takes for PSA to double.
One study suggests a short doubling time means a poorer prognosis for patients with stage IV prostate cancer. Median survival was 16.5 months for those with a PSA doubling time lower than 45 days compared with 26 months for patients with a longer PSA doubling time.
Whether or not the cancer has metastasized and spread to other areas of the body outside the prostate can also influence survival. In distant or stage IV prostate cancer, when cancer has spread from the prostate to other organs like the liver or lungs, the five-year survival rate is 31% compared with localized cancer, which has a five-year survival rate of nearly 100%.
Stage 4 Prostate Cancer
In stage 3, cancer has now spread beyond the prostate and may have potentially spread into the nearby seminal vesicles.
- Stage IVA The tumor may have any size and has already spread to the regional lymph nodes but has not spread to other distant areas . There can be any PSA level and any Grade Group.
- Stage IVB The tumor may have any size and presents distant metastasis , without involving the lymph nodes . There can be any PSA level and any Grade Group.
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Stage 1 Prostate Cancer
In stage 1, the cancer is confined to the prostate. Stage 1 prostate cancer cant be detected during a digital rectal exam and is usually expected to be slow-growing. The tumor is one half of one lobe of the prostate or even less . There is no regional lymph node metastasis and no distant metastasis. . The PSA level is below 10ng/ml. The Grade Group is 1.
What Are The Stages Of Prostate Cancer
Cancer staging is first described using what is called a TNM system. The “T” refers to a description of the size or extent of the primary, or original, tumor. “N” describes the presence or absence of, and extent of spread of cancer to lymph nodes that may be nearby or further from the original tumor. “M” describes the presence or absence of metastases — usually distant areas elsewhere in the body other than regional lymph nodes to which cancer has spread. Cancers with specific TNM characteristics are then grouped into stages, and the stages are then assigned Roman numerals with the numerals used in increasing order as the extent of the cancer being staged increases or the cancer prognosis worsens. Prognosis is finally reflected by considering the patient’s PSA score at presentation as well as their Gleason score in assigning a final stage designation.
The American Joint Commission on Cancer system for prostate cancer staging is as follows:
The primary tumor
Traditionally, advanced prostate cancer was defined as a disease that had widely metastasized beyond the prostate, the surrounding tissue, and the pelvic lymph nodes and was incurable. However, a more contemporary definition includes patients with the lower-grade disease with an increased risk of progression and/or death from prostate cancer in addition to those with widely metastatic disease.
CT scan is used for the initial staging in select patients including
The regional lymph nodes
The distant metastasis
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How To Understand The Gleason Score
For instance, if the Gleason Score is written 4+3=7, this means 4 is the grade assigned to the most cancerous cells, while 3 is the grade of the next largest section of the tumor. Together they make up the total Gleason Score, in this instance 7.
A Gleason Score of 6 is considered low-grade. It describes cancer cells that resemble the normal cells and, therefore, the cancer is slow-growing.
A Gleason Score of 7 is considered an intermediate grade, with a medium risk of aggressive cancer. In this case, it is very important to know what is the primary grade . If the primary grade is 3 and the secondary grade is 4, the cancer is not that likely to spread so quickly or cause important problems while a Gleason Score of 7, with the primary grade of 4 and the secondary grade of 3 is more likely to be more aggressive and high-risk.
Consider asking about your primary Gleason Grade, especially when your Gleason Score is 7 and the Gleason Grades are not specified.
A Gleason score of 8-10 is considered to be high-risk. Cancers are likely to spread more quickly and be more aggressive.
For a better understanding of your particular situation, do not hesitate to contact a urologist!
General Prostate Cancer Survival Rate
According to the American Cancer Society:
- The relative 5-year survival rate is nearly 100%
- The relative 10-year survival rate is 98%
- The 15-year relative survival rate is 91%
Note: Relative survival rate means the percentage of patients who live amount of years after their initial diagnosis.
Keep in mind, however, that because the compiled list figures are of cancers diagnosed up to 15 years ago, you may have an even greater chance of survival than these indicate due to advances in prostate cancer treatment technology
Prostate Cancer Survival By Age
Five-year survival for prostate cancer shows an unusual pattern with age: survival gradually increases from 91% in men aged 15-49 and peaks at 94% in 60-69 year olds survival falls thereafter, reaching its lowest point of 66% in 80-99 year olds patients diagnosed with prostate cancer in England during 2009-2013. The higher survival in men in their sixties is likely to be associated with higher rates of PSA testing in this age group.
Prostate Cancer , Five-Year Net Survival by Age, Men, England, 2009-2013
Data Acquisition And Definitions
RPs were conducted by several surgeons using open, laparoscopic, or robotic modality. All pathological specimens were evaluated by a staff pathologist with genitourinary expertise. The following variables were compared between the categorical groups: age body mass index pre-biopsy prostate-specific antigen level pathologic Gleason score pathologic characteristics including extracapsular extension , positive surgical margin , and lymph node invasion radiologic findings, including ECE and lymph node enlargement and BCR. BCR was defined as two consecutive rises in PSA, with the last PSA 0.2ng/ml or higher after the RP.
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Increased Survival Rate In Prostate Cancer Patients With Addition Of Hormone Therapy Treatments
Prostate cancer is the leading cause of cancer in men worldwide, and radiotherapy is one of the common forms of treatment. In a first-of-its kind meta-analysis, published today in The Lancet Oncology, researchers from University Hospitals and Case Western Reserve University show that there is consistent improvement in overall survival in men with intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer with the addition of hormone therapy to radiotherapy treatments.
Throughout the past 40 years, randomized trials have been conducted on the impact of adding hormone therapy to prostate cancer treatments. While these trials individually show the benefit of hormone therapy, there are inconsistencies in timing and duration of treatment recommendations.
In this analysis, the team made three key discoveries:
1) Men with intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer have an increased survival rate from the addition of hormone therapy to radiotherapy. This was seen in both younger and older men, and in men treated with lower and higher doses of radiotherapy.
3) The prolongation of neoadjuvant hormone therapy before radiotherapy did not benefit men in any outcome measured. This is an important finding, because some countries routinely give extended durations of hormone therapy before radiotherapy. The team showed that this method isn’t advantageous over shorter durations.
Staging Spread And Survival Rates
As with all cancers, doctors use the term stage to describe the characteristics of the primary tumor itself, such as its size and how far prostate cancer has spread when it is found.
Staging systems are complicated. The staging system for most cancers, including prostate cancer, uses three different aspects of tumor growth and spread. It’s called the TNM system, for tumor, nodes, and metastasis:
- T, for tumor describes the size of the main area of prostate cancer.
- N, for nodes, describes whether prostate cancer has spread to any lymph nodes, and how many and in what locations.
- M, for metastasis, means distant spread of prostate cancer, for example, to the bones or liver.
Using the TNM system, each man’s prostate cancer can be described in detail and compared to other men’s prostate cancer. Doctors use this information for studies and to decide on treatments.
As far as survival rates for prostate cancer go, however, the staging system is pretty simple. As we’ve mentioned, in terms of survival rates, men with prostate cancer can be divided into two groups:
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Good Prostate Cancer Care
Your MDT will be able to recommend what they feel are the best treatment options, but ultimately the decision is yours.
You should be able to talk with a named specialist nurse about treatment options and possible side effects to help you make a decision.
You should also be told about any clinical trials you may be eligible for.
If you have side effects from treatment, you should be referred to specialist services to help stop or ease these side effects.
Outlook For Men With Localised Prostate Cancer
Most localised prostate cancer is slow-growing and may not need treatment or shorten a mans life. For many men who have treatment for localised prostate cancer, the treatment will get rid of the cancer. For others, treatment may be less successful and the cancer may come back. If this happens, you might need further treatment.
What Is My Outlook
Many men will want to know how successful their treatment is likely to be. This is sometimes called your outlook or prognosis. No one can tell you exactly what will happen, as it will depend on many things, such as the stage of your cancer and how quickly it might grow, your age, and any other health problems.
Many men with locally advanced prostate cancer have treatment that aims to get rid of their cancer. For some men, treatment may be successful and they may live for many years without their cancer coming back or causing them any problems. For others, treatment may be less successful and the cancer may come back. If this happens, you might need further treatment.
Some men with locally advanced prostate cancer will have treatment that aims to help keep their cancer under control rather than get rid of it completely. For example, if you have hormone therapy on its own, it can help to keep the cancer under control. And there are other treatments available if your hormone therapy stops working so well.
For more information about the outlook for men with prostate cancer, visit Cancer Research UK. The figures they provide are a general guide and they cannot tell you exactly what will happen to you. Speak to your doctor or nurse about your own situation.
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Surgical procedures to remove the diseased prostate are usually necessary. Surgical procedures are not always necessary. If the disease is caused by bacterial infections, a doctor can treat the symptoms using alpha-blockers or surgery. Physical therapy, relaxation exercises, and warm baths are all recommended. A physician may also prescribe antibiotics to cure the infection. A bacterial infection can also cause a recurrence of the condition.
An enlarged prostate can be uncomfortable for both men and women. Some of the symptoms of an enlarged male reproductive organ include a weakened urine stream, urgent need to urinate, and urinary tract infections. BPH can also cause damage to the kidneys. A sudden inability to urinate can be life-threatening, as it can lead to bladder and kidney damage. Unfortunately, most men with enlarged prostrates put up with the symptoms for years before they seek treatment. However, many of the men with symptoms finally decide to go to a doctor for proper gynecological evaluation and to begin enlarged prostatic therapy.
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What Is A 5
A relative survival rate compares people with the same type and stage of cancer to people in the overall population. For example, if the 5-year relative survival rate for a specific stage of prostate cancer is 90%, it means that men who have that cancer are, on average, about 90% as likely as men who dont have that cancer to live for at least 5 years after being diagnosed.
Prostate Cancer Survival Rates Are Favorable Overall
Thinking about survival rates for prostate cancer takes a little mental stretching. Keep in mind that most men are around 70 when diagnosed with prostate cancer. Over, say, five years, many of these men will die from other medical problems unrelated to prostate cancer.
To determine the prostate cancer survival rate, these men are subtracted out of the calculations. Counting only the men who are left provides what’s called the relative survival rate for prostate cancer.
Taking that into consideration, the relative survival rates for most kinds of prostate cancer are actually pretty good. Remember, we’re not counting men with prostate cancer who die of other causes:
- 92% of all prostate cancers are found when they are in the early stage, called local or regional. Almost 100% of men who have local or regional prostate cancer will survive more than five years after diagnosis.
- Fewer men have more advanced prostate cancer at the time of diagnosis. Once prostate cancer has spread beyond the prostate, survival rates fall. For men with distant spread of prostate cancer, about one-third will survive for five years after diagnosis.
Many men with prostate cancer actually will live much longer than five years after diagnosis. What about longer-term survival rates? According to the American Society of Clinical Oncology, for men with local or regional prostate cancer:
- the relative 10-year survival rate is 98%
- the relative 15-year survival rate is 95%
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