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Gleason 4 4 Prostate Cancer

Prostate Cancer Stages And Other Ways To Assess Risk

Gleason 4 4=8 Prostate Cancer Treatments | Ask a Prostate Expert, Mark Scholz, MD

After a man is diagnosed with prostate cancer, doctors will try to figure out if it has spread, and if so, how far. This process is called staging. The stage of a prostate cancer describes how much cancer is in the body. It helps determine how serious the cancer is and how best to treat it. Doctors also use a cancerâs stage when talking about survival statistics.

The stage is based on tests described in Tests to Diagnose and Stage Prostate Cancer, including the blood PSA level and prostate biopsy results.

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Should All Prostate Needle Biopsy Gleason Score 4 + 4 = 8 Prostate Cancers Be High Risk

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  • Gleason Score For Grading Prostate Cancer

    Prostate cancer is also given a grade called a Gleason score. This score is based on how much the cancer looks like healthy tissue when viewed under a microscope. Less aggressive tumors generally look more like healthy tissue. Tumors that are more aggressive are likely to grow and spread to other parts of the body. They look less like healthy tissue.

    The Gleason scoring system is the most common prostate cancer grading system used. The pathologist looks at how the cancer cells are arranged in the prostate and assigns a score on a scale of 3 to 5 from 2 different locations. Cancer cells that look similar to healthy cells receive a low score. Cancer cells that look less like healthy cells or look more aggressive receive a higher score. To assign the numbers, the pathologist determines the main pattern of cell growth, which is the area where the cancer is most obvious, and then looks for another area of growth. The doctor then gives each area a score from 3 to 5. The scores are added together to come up with an overall score between 6 and 10.

    Gleason scores of 5 or lower are not used. The lowest Gleason score is 6, which is a low-grade cancer. A Gleason score of 7 is a medium-grade cancer, and a score of 8, 9, or 10 is a high-grade cancer. A lower-grade cancer grows more slowly and is less likely to spread than a high-grade cancer.

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    Survival Statistics For Prostate Cancer

    Survival statistics for prostate cancer are very general estimates and must be interpreted very carefully. Because these statistics are based on the experience of groups of people, they cannot be used to predict a particular personâs chances of survival. In general, most men diagnosed with prostate cancer do not die from the disease itself and will die from other causes.

    There are many different ways to measure and report cancer survival statistics. Your doctor can explain the statistics for prostate cancer and what they mean to you.

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    The Bogus Gleason 6 Prostate Cancer

    Prostate Cancer Gleason Score

    The very common Gleason 6 type of prostate cancer href=http://www.ascopost.com/issues/june-10-2016/prostate-cancer-opinions-vary-on-gleason-scores-and-surgery/ rel=noopener> fails to behave as a cancer and should NOT be called a cancer. The all-inclusive prostate cancer label is deceitful by implying that all prostate cancers are equal and have the power to kill rapidly. It has been well established fact that the common Gleason 6 type of prostate cancer should not be called a cancer at all.

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    Prostate Cancer Survival Trends Over Time

    As with most cancers, survival for prostate cancer is improving. However, interpretation of prostate cancer survival trends is difficult as the case-mix on which they are based is likely to have changed over time with earlier diagnoses following the advent of TURP and PSA testing. The detection of a greater proportion of latent, earlier, slow-growing tumours in more recent time periods will have the effect of raising survival rates due to lead-time bias . Lead-time bias for prostate cancer is estimated to be between five and 12 years, varying with a mans age at screening. Data from the European Randomized Study of Prostate Cancer estimates that for a single screening test, mean lead times are 12 years at age 55 and six years at age 75. Some of the increase may also be attributed to genuine improvements in survival due to more effective treatment, for both early, aggressive prostate cancers and advanced cases.

    One-year age-standardised net survival for prostate cancer has increased from 66% during 1971-1972 to 94% during 2010-2011 in England and Wales an absolute survival difference of 28 percentage points.

    Prostate Cancer , Age-Standardised One-Year Net Survival, Men , England and Wales, 1971-2011

    Prostate Cancer , Age-Standardised Five-Year Net Survival, Men , England and Wales, 1971-2011

    Prostate Cancer , Age-Standardised Ten-Year Net Survival, Men , England and Wales, 1971-2011

    Prostate Cancer Risk Groups

    In addition to stage, doctors may use other prognostic factors to help plan the best treatment and predict how successful treatment will be. Examples of these include the National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk group categories and the Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment risk score from University of California, San Francisco.

    Information about the cancers stage and other prognostic factors will help the doctor recommend a specific treatment plan. The next section in this guide is Types of Treatment. Use the menu to choose a different section to read in this guide.

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    How We Treat Prostate Cancer

    The prognosis for metastatic prostate cancer can be discouraging, but some treatment centerslike the Johns Hopkins Precision Medicine Center of Excellence for Prostate Cancerspecialize in innovative, individualized therapy with the potential to improve outcomes.

    New Contemporary Prostate Cancer Grading System

    Gleason 4+4=8 & Hormone Therapy | Ask a Prostate Cancer Expert, Mark Scholz, MD

    Discrete Well-formed Glands

    Copyright 2013 – The Johns Hopkins University. All rights reserved. Jonathan Epstein, M.D.

    Gleason Patterns 1-3: from left to right1st Row: Closely packed uniform sized and shaped large glands Large variably sized and shaped glands, some with infolding Uniform medium sized glands Variably sized glands2nd Row: Occasional tangentially sectioned glands amongst well-formed small glands Occasional tangentially sectioned glands amongst well-formed glands with open lumina Back-to-back discrete glands Branching glands

    Cribriform/Poorly-formed/Fused Glands

    Copyright 2013 – The Johns Hopkins University. All rights reserved. Jonathan Epstein, M.D.

    Gleason Pattern 4: from left to right3rd Row: Large irregular cribriform glands with well-formed lumina Irregular cribriform glands with slit-like lumina, glomeruloid structures, and fused glands Irregular cribriform glands with small round lumina Small round cribriform glands4th Row: Poorly-formed glands with peripherally arranged nuclei Small poorly-formed glands Small poorly-formed glands Fused poorly-formed glands

    Sheets/Cords/Single Cells/Solid Nests/Necrosis

    Copyright 2013 – The Johns Hopkins University. All rights reserved. Jonathan Epstein, M.D.

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    What Is The Gleason Grade Or Gleason Score What Do The Numbers In The Gleason Score Mean For Example 3+4=7 Or 3+3=6

    Pathologists grade prostate cancers using numbers from 1 to 5 based on how much the cells in the cancerous tissue look like normal prostate tissue under the microscope. This is called the Gleason system. Grades 1 and 2 are not often used for biopsies most biopsy samples are grade 3 or higher.

    • If the cancerous tissue looks much like normal prostate tissue, a grade of 1 is assigned.
    • If the cancer cells and their growth patterns look very abnormal, a grade of 5 is assigned.
    • Grades 2 through 4 have features in between these extremes.

    Since prostate cancers often have areas with different grades, a grade is assigned to the 2 areas that make up most of the cancer. These 2 grades are added to yield the Gleason score . The highest a Gleason score can be is 10.

    The first number assigned is the grade that is most common in the tumor. For example, if the Gleason score is written as 3+4=7, it means most of the tumor is grade 3 and less is grade 4, and they are added for a Gleason score of 7. Other ways that this Gleason score may be listed in your report are Gleason 7/10, Gleason 7 , or combined Gleason grade of 7.

    If a tumor is all the same grade , then the Gleason score is reported as 3+3=6.

    The higher the Gleason score, the more likely it is that your cancer will grow and spread quickly.

    What Are The Stages Of Prostate Cancer

    Cancer staging is first described using what is called a TNM system. The T refers to a description of the size or extent of the primary, or original, tumor. N describes the presence or absence of, and extent of spread of cancer to lymph nodes that may be nearby or further from the original tumor. M describes the presence or absence of metastases usually distant areas elsewhere in the body other than regional lymph nodes to which cancer has spread. Cancers with specific TNM characteristics are then grouped into stages, and the stages are then assigned Roman numerals with the numerals used in increasing order as the extent of the cancer being staged increases or the cancer prognosis worsens. Prognosis is finally reflected by considering the patients PSA score at presentation as well as their Gleason score in assigning a final stage designation.

    The American Joint Commission on Cancer system for prostate cancer staging is as follows:

    The primary tumor

    Traditionally, advanced prostate cancer was defined as a disease that had widely metastasized beyond the prostate, the surrounding tissue, and the pelvic lymph nodes and was incurable. However, a more contemporary definition includes patients with the lower-grade disease with an increased risk of progression and/or death from prostate cancer in addition to those with widely metastatic disease.

    CT scan is used for the initial staging in select patients including

    The regional lymph nodes

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    What Does It Mean If My Biopsy Mentions That There Is Perineural Invasion

    Perineural invasion means that cancer cells were seen surrounding or tracking along a nerve fiber within the prostate. When this is found on a biopsy, it means that there is a higher chance that the cancer has spread outside the prostate. Still, perineural invasion doesnt mean that the cancer has spread, and other factors, such as the Gleason score and amount of cancer in the cores, are more important. In some cases, finding perineural invasion may affect treatment, so if your report mentions perineural invasion, you should discuss it with your doctor.

    Prostate Cancer Grading & Prognostic Scoring

    Prostate Cancer Stages

    The Gleason Score is the grading system used to determine the aggressiveness of prostate cancer. This grading system can be used to choose appropriate treatment options. The Gleason Score ranges from 1-5 and describes how much the cancer from a biopsy looks like healthy tissue or abnormal tissue . Most cancers score a grade of 3 or higher.

    Since prostate tumors are often made up of cancerous cells that have different grades, two grades are assigned for each patient. A primary grade is given to describe the cells that make up the largest area of the tumor and a secondary grade is given to describe the cells of the next largest area. For instance, if the Gleason Score is written as 3+4=7, it means most of the tumor is grade 3 and the next largest section of the tumor is grade 4, together they make up the total Gleason Score. If the cancer is almost entirely made up of cells with the same score, the grade for that area is counted twice to calculated the total Gleason Score. Typical Gleason Scores range from 6-10. The higher the Gleason Score, the more likely that the cancer will grow and spread quickly.

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    I Have Adenocarcinoma Gleason 3

    #2Duck23 Part Modality Treatment Completed2/25/19 Robotic Laparoendoscopic Single Site Surgery outpatient Cleveland Clinic, Dr. Kaouk, surgery #41 in US.ART – 7/25/-9/25 2019 .ADT – 5/19- 5/21 Eligard and Casodex.3 Part Modality Treatment Completed2/25/19 Robotic Laparoendoscopic Single Site Surgery outpatient Cleveland Clinic, Dr. Kaouk, surgery #41 in US.ART – 7/25/-9/25 2019 .ADT – 5/19- 5/21 Eligard and Casodex.

    What Does It Mean When There Are Different Core Samples With Different Gleason Scores

    Cores may be samples from different areas of the same tumor or different tumors in the prostate. Because the grade may vary within the same tumor or between different tumors, different samples taken from your prostate may have different Gleason scores. Typically, the highest Gleason score will be the one used by your doctor for predicting your prognosis and deciding on treatment options.

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    What Does It Mean

    A Gleason score of 6 is low grade, 7 is intermediate grade, and a score of 8 to 10 is high grade cancer.

    Get More Information

    Its also important to know whether any cells rated at Gleason grade 5 are present, even in just a small amount, and most pathologists will report this. Having any Gleason grade 5 in your biopsy or prostate puts you at a higher risk of recurrence.

    But because many prostate cancer cases are extremely slow-growing, the Gleason system didnt necessarily do a good job of communicating the risks for these cases. Patients with scores of 6 and 7 didnt have a clear picture of the nature of their particular cancer.

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    What Is The Gleason Score

    What Does Gleason 7 Mean? | Ask A Prostate Expert, Mark Scholz, MD

    The Gleason grading system estimates the aggressiveness of the cancer by assigning a pattern to the cancer cells depending on their appearance under the microscope. A number from 1 to 5 is used as a measure of how aggressive the cancer looks under the microscope.

    • If the cancerous tissue looks much like normal prostate tissue, a grade of 1 is assigned.
    • If the cancer cells and their growth patterns look very abnormal, a grade of 5 is assigned.
    • Grades 2 through 4 have features in between these extremes.

    The most common type of prostate biopsy is a core needle biopsy. For this procedure, the doctor inserts a thin, hollow needle into the prostate gland. When the needle is pulled out it removes a small cylinder of prostate tissue called a core. This is typically repeated several times to sample different areas of the prostate.

    Since multiple core biopsy samples are evaluated and prostate cancers in a single patient often have areas with different grades the pathologist assigns two grades to the examined prostate tissue. The first grade is the most common pattern seen after review of all the biopsy specimens and the 2nd grade is assigned to the next most common pattern.

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    Active Surveillance And Focal Therapy For Low

    Laurence Klotz

    Division of Urology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Canada

    Correspondence to:

    Keywords: Active surveillance focal therapy low risk prostate cancer minimally invasive conservative management biomarkers

    Submitted Jun 01, 2015. Accepted for publication Jun 05, 2015.

    doi: 10.3978/j.issn.2223-4683.2015.06.03

    What Happens When Prostate Cancer Is Left Untreated

    While most men undergo some form of treatment for their prostate cancer, some men today choose to not be treated for their prostate cancer. Instead, they may choose to have their healthcare providers monitor their cancer.

    Known as active surveillance, it is common when the cancer is expected to grow slowly based on biopsy results, confined to the prostate, not causing any symptoms, and/or small. In active surveillance, healthcare providers will initiate cancer treatment only if cancer starts growing.

    Others men may choose to not undergo cancer treatment because of a short life expectancy or other serious medical problems. They may feel that the risks or side effects of cancer treatment outweigh their potential benefits.

    This option is certainly OK and reasonable in the right circumstancesrequiring a careful and thoughtful discussion with your healthcare provider and family.

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    The Tnm System For Prostate Cancer Stages

    As they do for most cancers, doctors use the TNM system to describe prostate cancer stages. The system uses three different aspects of tumor growth and spread:

    • Tumor. Whatâs the size of the main area of prostate cancer?
    • Nodes. Has it spread to any lymph nodes? If so, how far and how many?
    • Metastasis. How far has the prostate cancer spread?

    What Is Advanced Prostate Cancer

    Pathology Outlines

    When prostate cancer spreads beyond the prostate or returns after treatment, it is often called advanced prostate cancer.

    Prostate cancer is often grouped into four stages, with stages III and IV being more advanced prostate cancer.

    • Early Stage | Stages I & II: The tumor has not spread beyond the prostate.
    • Locally Advanced | Stage III: Cancer has spread outside the prostate but only to nearby tissues.
    • Advanced | Stage IV: Cancer has spread outside the prostate to other parts such as the lymph nodes, bones, liver or lungs.

    When an early stage prostate cancer is found, it may be treated or placed on surveillance . Advanced prostate cancer is not curable, but there are many ways to treat it. Treatment can help slow advanced prostate cancer progression.

    There are several types of advanced prostate cancer, including:

    Biochemical Recurrence

    With biochemical recurrence, the prostate-specific antigen level has risen after treatment using surgery or radiation, with no other sign of cancer.

    Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    Non-Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    Prostate cancer that no longer responds to hormone treatment and is only found in the prostate. This is found by a rise in the PSA level, while the testosterone level stays low. Imaging tests do not show signs the cancer has spread.

    Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    • Other organs, such as liver or lungs

    Metastatic Hormone-Sensitive Prostate Cancer

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