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Prostate Cancer Types And Treatment

Prostate Cancer Treatment Health Professional Version

The 4 Types of Prostate Cancer Treatment | Prostate Cancer Staging Guide
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The median age at diagnosis of carcinoma of the prostate is 66 years. Prostate cancer may be cured when localized, and it frequently responds to treatment when widespread. The rate of tumor growth varies from very slow to moderately rapid, and some patients may have prolonged survival even after the cancer has metastasized to distant sites, such as bone. The 5-year relative survival rate for men diagnosed in the United States from 2010 to 2016 with local or regional disease was greater than 99%, and the rate for distant disease was 30% a 98% survival rate was observed for all stages combined. The approach to treatment is influenced by age and coexisting medical problems. Side effects of various forms of treatment should be considered in selecting appropriate management.

Many patientsespecially those with localized tumorsmay die of other illnesses without ever having suffered disability from the cancer, even if managed conservatively without an attempt at curative therapy. In part, these favorable outcomes are likely the result of widespread screening with the prostate-specific antigen test, which can identify patients with asymptomatic tumors that have little or no lethal potential. There is a large number of these clinically indolent tumors, estimated from autopsy series of men dying of causes unrelated to prostate cancer to range from 30% to 70% of men older than 60 years.

Why Choose India For Prostate Cancer Treatment In India

Despite the types of prostate cancer treatment in India in 2021, the success rate was recorded as high as 91%.

Not only do you get access to better and state of the art treatment in India, but the hospitals are also staffed with the most experienced oncologists who can diagnose, identify and then treat the issues in record time.

India also offers easy medical visa approval for medical tourists, ensuring fast-tracking of the treatment procedure, which is ideal for patients suffering from aggressive types of prostate cancers.

Also, the overall cost of treatment is affordable and worthy, given the level of care the patient gets throughout their stay in the country. Despite the alarming situations of Covid, India also offers the best Covid management facilities for streamlined progress.

What If My Biopsy Shows Cancer

If the biopsy shows prostate cancer, your doctor will determine how likely your cancer is to grow quickly and spread. Sometimes, prostate cancer grows slowly over many years. But other times, it grows quickly.

Your doctor can use your PSA level, Gleason score, and tumor score to determine your risk level. The following pages give more information about Gleason score, T-score, and prostate cancer risk levels.

Gleason Score

The Gleason score is a common scale used to determine how fast your prostate cancer is likely to grow. Gleason scores can range from 2 to 10, but most often range from 6 to 10. The higher the Gleason score, the more likely your cancer is to grow and spread.

Tumor Score

The T-score tells how far your prostate cancer has grown.

  • T1: The cancer is too small to be felt during a digital rectal exam or seen in an imaging test . The cancer is found from a biopsy done after a man has a high PSA level or has surgery for problems urinating. The cancer is only in the prostate gland.
  • T2: The cancer can be felt during a digital rectal exam and may be seen in an imaging test. The cancer is still only in the prostate gland.
  • T2a: The cancer is in one-fourth of the prostate gland .
  • T2b: The cancer is in more than one-fourth of the prostate gland , but has not grown into the other side of the prostate gland.
  • T2c: The cancer has grown into both sides of the prostate gland.

Risk Level

Table 1. Determining risk level

Risk Level*
  • Hormone therapy

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Prostate Cancer Symptoms Age Group

So are 60% of cancer survivors. In fact, 60% of people who have cancer are 65 or older. But hearing the words can still be scary. When malignant cancer cells form and grow within a person’s breast tissue, breast cancer occurs. If breast cancer is diagnosed at an early enough stage, it’s treatable.

How Is Prostate Cancer Treated

Prostate Cancer Treatment Options

Through a virtual conversation, Nathan can help you get ready to talk to your doctor about treatment options.

Different types of treatment are available for prostate cancer. You and your doctor will decide which treatment is right for you. Some common treatments are

  • Expectant management. If your doctor thinks your prostate cancer is unlikely to grow quickly, he or she may recommend that you dont treat the cancer right away. Instead, you can choose to wait and see if you get symptoms in one of two ways:
  • Active surveillance. Closely monitoring the prostate cancer by performing prostate specific antigen tests and prostate biopsies regularly, and treating the cancer only if it grows or causes symptoms.
  • Watchful waiting. No tests are done. Your doctor treats any symptoms when they develop. This is usually recommended for men who are expected to live for 10 more years or less.
  • Surgery. A prostatectomy is an operation where doctors remove the prostate. Radical prostatectomy removes the prostate as well as the surrounding tissue.
  • Radiation therapy. Using high-energy rays to kill the cancer. There are two types of radiation therapy
  • External radiation therapy. A machine outside the body directs radiation at the cancer cells.
  • Internal radiation therapy . Radioactive seeds or pellets are surgically placed into or near the cancer to destroy the cancer cells.
  • Other therapies used in the treatment of prostate cancer that are still under investigation include

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    About The Prostate And Prostate Cancer

    The prostate gland is part of the male reproductive system and produces fluid that mixes with semen during ejaculation to help sperm travel. The prostate is a walnut-sized, rubbery organ that surrounds the urethrathe urinary duct that carries urine from the bladder out of the bodyand sits directly below the bladder.

    The prostate gland, which grows during puberty, is considered an organ and is made up of several dozen lobules or saclike glands, held together with connective prostate tissue and muscle between them. The glands are called exocrine glands, because they secrete liquid to outside the body.

    An enlarged prostate, called benign prostatic hyperplasia , is common in men over the age of 40 and may obstruct the urinary tract. The abnormal prostate cell growth in BPH is not cancerous and doesnt increase your risk of getting prostate cancer. However, symptoms for BPH and prostate cancer can be similar.

    A condition called prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia , where prostate gland cells look abnormal when examined under a microscope, may be connected to an increased risk of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is often caught by a doctor performing a digital rectal exam , through a prostate-specific antigen blood test, through a prostate biopsy or with a CT scan.

    Another condition, prostatitis, is the inflammation of the prostate. While not cancerous, it may cause higher PSA levels in the blood.

    Active Surveillance Or Watchful Waiting

    Because prostate cancer usually grows slowly, doctors may recommend some patients not be treated. These patients are typically older and/or have a very low-risk form of prostate cancer.

    Instead, these patients can be put on active surveillance, or watchful waiting.

    This approach involves closely monitoring the cancer without treatment. Prostate biopsy procedures and PSA tests are repeated at set intervals. Treatment may be recommended if the tests show the disease is progressing.

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    Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials

    As one of the worlds leading cancer centers, MD Anderson is home to many clinical trials for prostate cancer patients. Your care team may discuss clinical trials with you if they believe they offer you a better outcome than standard treatments.

    Trials are designed to improve prostate cancer survival rates, minimize treatment side effects and support a higher quality of life for patients. They may include new drugs or drug combinations, new approaches to prostate cancer surgery, different forms of radiation therapy, or some combination of all three. Learn more about clinical trials.

    Possible Risks And Side Effects Of Brachytherapy

    Weigh the risks of prostate cancer treatment

    Radiation precautions: If you get permanent brachytherapy, the seeds will give off small amounts of radiation for several weeks or months. Even though the radiation doesnt travel far, your doctor may advise you to stay away from pregnant women and small children during this time. If you plan on traveling, you might want to get a doctors note regarding your treatment, as low levels of radiation can sometimes be picked up by detection systems at airports.

    There’s also a small risk that some of the seeds might move . You may be asked to strain your urine for the first week or so to catch any seeds that might come out. You may be asked to take other precautions as well, such as wearing a condom during sex. Be sure to follow any instructions your doctor gives you. There have also been reports of the seeds moving through the bloodstream to other parts of the body, such as the lungs. As far as doctors can tell, this is uncommon and doesnt seem to cause any ill effects.

    These precautions arent needed after HDR brachytherapy, because the radiation doesnt stay in the body after treatment.

    Bowel problems: Brachytherapy can sometimes irritate the rectum and cause a condition called radiation proctitis. Bowel problems such as rectal pain, burning, and/or diarrhea can occur, but serious long-term problems are uncommon.

    To learn more, see the Radiation Therapy section of our website.

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    Considering Complementary And Alternative Methods

    You may hear about alternative or complementary methods that your doctor hasnt mentioned to treat your cancer or relieve symptoms. These methods can include vitamins, herbs, and special diets, or other methods such as acupuncture or massage, to name a few.

    Complementary methods refer to treatments that are used along with your regular medical care. Alternative treatments are used instead of a doctors medical treatment. Although some of these methods might be helpful in relieving symptoms or helping you feel better, many have not been proven to work. Some might even be harmful.

    Be sure to talk to your cancer care team about any method you are thinking about using. They can help you learn what is known about the method, which can help you make an informed decision.

    One In Seven Men In The United States Will Receive A Prostate Cancer Diagnosis During His Lifetime

    Here are 10 more facts about prostate cancer. Although it is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in american women, breast cancer can impact people of all genders. If breast cancer is diagnosed at an early enough stage, it’s treatable. Whether you or someone y. Breast cancer is the second most common cancer found in women after skin cancer but that doesn’t mean men aren’t at risk as well. One in seven men in the united states will receive a prostate cancer diagnosis during his lifetime. However, as with other types of cancer,. The pancreas is a bodily organ that few people think about. Your doctor will want to discuss treatment options as well as the prognosis for bladder cancer. Although the percentage of cases in men is much lower than in women, male breast cancer accounts for a por. Treatment for bladder cancer depends on your overall health, progression of the c. Of course, your specialist is the main person whose advice you should follow but it doesn’t do anyone harm. Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer diagnosed in men.

    There are a number of different treatments doctors recommend. Getting a diagnosis of bladder cancer can be a difficult time. Breast cancer is the second most common cancer found in women after skin cancer but that doesn’t mean men aren’t at risk as well.

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    Watchful Waiting Or Active Surveillance/active Monitoring

    Asymptomatic patients of advanced age or with concomitant illness may warrantconsideration of careful observation without immediate active treatment. Watch and wait, observation, expectant management, and active surveillance/active monitoring are terms indicating a strategy that does not employ immediate therapy with curative intent.

    Watchful waiting and active surveillance/active monitoring are the most commonly used terms, and the literature does not always clearly distinguish them, making the interpretation of results difficult. The general concept of watchful waiting is patient follow-up with the application of palliative care as needed to alleviate symptoms of tumor progression. There is no planned attempt at curative therapy at any point in follow-up. For example, transurethral resection of the prostate or hormonal therapy may be used to alleviate tumor-related urethral obstruction should there be local tumor growth hormonal therapy or bone radiation might be used to alleviate pain from metastases. Radical prostatectomy has been compared with watchful waiting or active surveillance/active monitoring in men with early-stage disease .

    • Regular patient visits.
    • Transrectal ultrasound .
    • Transrectal needle biopsies .

    Patient selection, testing intervals, and specific tests, as well as criteria for intervention, are arbitrary and not established in controlled trials.

    Treatments For Prostate Cancer

    Prostate Cancer

    If you have prostate cancer, your healthcare team willcreate a treatment plan just for you. It will be based on your health andspecific information about the cancer. When deciding which treatments to offerfor prostate cancer, your healthcare team will consider:

    • the type and stage of the cancer
    • the grade or Gleason score
    • prostate-specific antigen levels
    • the risk group
    • possible side effects of treatments
    • your personal preferences
    • your overall healthand any existing medical conditions
    • your age and life expectancy
    • whether you have symptoms

    Prostate cancer treatments can seriously affect your qualityof life and cause side effects such as erectile dysfunction and incontinence . Manyprostate cancers grow slowly and cause no symptoms or problems.

    Also Check: Psa In Bph And Prostate Cancer

    Prostate Cancer Caregiver Podcast Series

    We are proud to announce a new podcast series geared toward helping give support, hope and guidance to prostate cancer caregivers. The goal of this Prostate Cancer Caregiver Podcast Series is to help others connect with a diverse group of people who have felt the impact of prostate cancer in their lives and empower them on their journey.

    Quality Of Life After Treatment In India

    A new study has found that the quality of life after prostate cancer treatment in India was independent of the type of treatment the patient undergoes.

    Only surgical interventions require a prolonged recovery timeline, especially because it involves the recovery of the incision as well. Some patients have reported experiencing urinary incontinence and issues with sexual functions after their surgery, however the same isnt standard complications and are subjective to the patients body and recovery.

    During your recovery, you must follow every piece of advice given by your surgeon or oncologist, depending on the treatment you are undergoing. Maintain a healthy diet and an active lifestyle to keep your immune functions optimal as well.

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    Expert Review And References

    • American Cancer Society. Prostate Cancer. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society 2015: .
    • American Society of Clinical Oncology. Prostate Cancer. 2014: .
    • Garnick MB . Harvard Medical School 2015 Annual Report on Prostate Diseases. 2015.
    • National Cancer Institute. Prostate Cancer Treatment . 2015: .
    • National Cancer Institute. Prostate Cancer Treatment for Health Professionals . 2015: .
    • National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Prostate Cancer . .
    • Princess Margaret Cancer Centre. Princess Margaret Cancer Centre Clinical Practice Guidelines: Prostate Cancer. 2015: .
    • Saad F, Chi KN, Finelli A, Hotte SJ, Izawa J, Kapoor A, et al. The 2015 CUA-CUOG Guidelines for the management of castration-resistant prostate cancer . Canadian Urological Association Journal. 2015: .

    Cancer May Spread From Where It Began To Other Parts Of The Body

    Understanding Advanced Prostate Cancer

    When cancer spreads to another part of the body, it is called metastasis. Cancer cells break away from where they began and travel through the lymph system or blood.

    • Lymph system. The cancer gets into the lymph system, travels through the lymph vessels, and forms a tumor in another part of the body.
    • Blood. The cancer gets into the blood, travels through the blood vessels, and forms a tumor in another part of the body.

    The metastatic tumor is the same type of cancer as the primary tumor. For example, if prostate cancer spreads to the bone, the cancer cells in the bone are actually prostate cancer cells. The disease is metastatic prostate cancer, not bone cancer.

    Denosumab, a monoclonal antibody, may be used to preventbone metastases.

    Read Also: Digital Examination Of The Prostate

    Diagnosis Of Prostate Cancer

    The diagnosis for prostate cancer treatment is pretty extensive and starts when you report to your doctor with symptoms like blood in the urine, erectile dysfunction, trouble and pain while urinating or witnessing blood in the semen discharge.

    If you are experiencing any kinds of symptoms that are wrongly impacting your health, you must consult your doctor immediately. Depending on the symptoms, the doctor will suggest undergoing two primary screenings:

    Digital Rectal Exam This is a form of internal anal examination where the doctor inserts a gloved finger inside your rectum to assess the prostate. If the doctor feels enlarged size or tumorous growths, they will prescribe further examination.

    Prostate-specific antigen test This is a blood test to analyze the levels of PSA in the blood. If the PSA levels are excessive in the bloodstream, it is an alarming sign of developing prostate cancer.

    If the initial reports from the screenings seem abnormal, the doctor will then suggest a few other diagnostic examinations. You might have to undergo:

    Ultrasound a transrectal ultrasound is done to assess the condition of the prostate.

    MRI this helps the doctors get a clearer picture of the prostate and the severity of the cancerous spread inside or around the gland.

    Prostate biopsy a sample of the tissue is collected from the prostate gland to check in the lab for the possible presence of cancerous cells.


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