Diagnosing Stage 3 Prostate Cancer
A diagnosis of stage 3 prostate cancer is normally given after a number of tests have been taken. This tests determine the course or spread of this disease. One or a combination tests are taken which can include imaging studies, surgical specimen and physical examination.
The results from these tests indicate the extent to which the disease has progressed the physician may then use two recognized staging systems, TNM & Whitmore-Jewett, to stage the prostate cancer.
The ‘TNM’ staging system is a popular system used to stage prostate cancer. The initials of this system represent:
- T – primary tumor : the size, spread and location of the tumor
- N – lymph nodes: have the lymph nodes been invaded by cancer?
- M – metastasis: has the cancer ‘metastasized’ and spread to other areas of the body?
Each category of this system, T, N & M, have subcategories used to grade the extent to which that category is affected.
As stage 3 prostate cancer extends through the prostate capsule it is classed as T3 a sub stage category, a or b, can also be applied.
Using the TNM staging system, Stage 3 prostate cancer can be:
T3a – cancer in the prostate has extended through the prostate cover no other areas are affected.
T3b – cancer has extended through the prostate cover and has invaded the seminal vesicles no other areas are affected. ).
Using the Whitmore-Jewett System, Stage 3/Stage C prostate cancer is either:
Very Scared: Gleason 9 Prostate Cancer
I saw my specialist last week and he informed me that I had level 9 Gleason prostate cancer. I am awaiting a CT scan and then a bone scan. I am in no pain whatsoever at the moment and I consider myself quite fit playing golf 4 times a week and walking with my wife and dog the other days. I am 60 years old and am quite scared for my future. I am not scared of the pain, just not being around for my wife and 2 grown up children.
Can anyone give me hope for optimism as all I have seen about level 9 gleason is not great.
What Is The Most Effective Treatment For Prostate Cancer
The choice of treatment for prostate cancer depends on many factors such as the patients prostate cancer risk as calculated from prostate-specific antigen levels, Gleason score, and tumor staging. Patients can discuss the significance of these factors in the choice of treatment with their doctor.
The standard effective treatment choices for men with early-stage prostate cancer are as follows
- Active surveillance: Monitoring the progression/status of the low-risk or early-stage cancer with regular testing and not treating it right away.
- Prostatectomy: Surgical removal of the prostate.
- Radiation therapy: Use of high-energy waves to destroy cancer cells.
Radiation therapy is one of the most effective treatments for many men with early-stage prostate cancer. It is also the best prostate cancer therapy for older men or those with other co-existing diseases. It can be delivered to the patient in any of the two ways
- External beam radiation: Sending/focusing high-energy waves from an external machine into the tumor.
- Brachytherapy: Placing a radioactive dye in the tumor through an implant or hollow tubes.
For metastatic prostate cancer, androgen deprivation therapy is usually the choice of treatment. ADT is also the only option in patients with prostate cancer who are unfit or unwilling to undergo surgery or/and radiation therapy.
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Seven Types Of Standard Treatment Are Used:
Watchful waiting or active surveillance
Watchful waiting and active surveillance are treatments used for older men who do not have signs or symptoms or have other medical conditions and for men whose prostate cancer is found during a screening test.
Active surveillance is closely following a patient’s condition without giving any treatment unless there are changes in test results. It is used to find early signs that the condition is getting worse. In active surveillance, patients are given certain exams and tests, including digital rectal exam, PSA test, transrectal ultrasound, and transrectal needle biopsy, to check if the cancer is growing. When the cancer begins to grow, treatment is given to cure the cancer.
Other terms that are used to describe not giving treatment to cure prostate cancer right after diagnosis are observation, watch and wait, and expectant management.
After Prostate Cancer Has Been Diagnosed Tests Are Done To Find Out If Cancer Cells Have Spread Within The Prostate Or To Other Parts Of The Body
The process used to find out if cancer has spread within theprostate or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. The results of the tests used to diagnoseprostate cancer are often also used to stage the disease. In prostate cancer, staging tests may not be done unless the patient has symptoms or signs that the cancer has spread, such as bone pain, a high PSA level, or a high Gleason score.
The following tests and procedures also may be used in the staging process:
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Not Only Does The Stage Tell You How Serious The Disease Is But It Can Help You And
One in seven men in the united states will receive a prostate cancer diagnosis during his lifetime. The earlier the detection of prostate cancer, the better the patient’s chance of survival is. Getting a diagnosis of bladder cancer can be a difficult time. Breast cancer is the second most common cancer found in women after skin cancer but that doesn’t mean men aren’t at risk as well. Your doctor will want to discuss treatment options as well as the prognosis for bladder cancer. A diagnosis of lung cancer naturally causes some overwhelming emotions, but you don’t have to let those emotions get the best of you. Although the percentage of cases in men is much lower than in women, male breast cancer accounts for a por. When malignant cancer cells form and grow within a person’s breast tissue, breast cancer occurs. Although screenings for prostate cancer are one tool for early detecti. Not only does the stage tell you how serious the disease is, but it can help you and. Here are 10 more facts about prostate cancer. Treatment for bladder cancer depends on your overall health, progression of the c. Being armed with information is vital to begin the fight.
Outlook For Men With Advanced Prostate Cancer
While it isnt possible to cure advanced prostate cancer, treatments can help keep it under control, often for several years. Treatments will also help manage any symptoms, such as pain.
Some men may not respond well to one treatment, but may respond better to another. And when your first treatment stops working, there are other treatments available to help keep the cancer under control for longer.
Stage 2 Prostate Cancer Treatment
Prostate cancer is more advanced than in stage 1 but has not spread outside the prostate. However, the cells have a higher Gleason score and are more likely to grow at a quicker rate. With stage 2 prostate cancer, surgery, hormone therapy and radiation or proton therapy are treatment options to further reduce the risk of cancer spreading or returning. Active surveillance still may be recommended for older men or those with other serious health issues. Similar to local stage prostate cancers, the 5-year survival rate is nearly 100%.
What Can Affect My Outlook
No one can tell you exactly what will happen. How prostate cancer affects you will depend on many things.
- Your stage Whether your cancer is localised, locally advanced, or advanced.
- Your Gleason score or grade group The higher your Gleason score, the more aggressive the cancer, and the more likely it is to spread.
- Your treatment options You may be able to have treatment aimed at getting rid of the cancer. Or you may be able to have treatment to keep the cancer under control. Read more about choosing your treatment.
- Your health If you have other health problems, you may have fewer treatment options. And you may be more likely to die from another condition, such as heart disease.
- Your PSA level After youve been diagnosed, PSA tests are a good way of monitoring your prostate cancer and seeing how youre responding to treatment.
- How successful your treatment is Your treatment may be successful at getting rid of your cancer or keeping it under control. But for some men, treatment may not work as well as expected.
What Does Your Tnm Prostate Cancer Stage Mean
The TNM system for describing prostate cancer uses the letters T, N, and M, which stand for tumor, nodes, and metastasis.
Specifically, stage 3 prostate cancer has extended through the capsule that surrounds the prostate but has not spread to distant sites in the body.
There are two sub-stages of stage 3 prostate cancer.
- T3a: The tumor has only gone through the capsule without invading the seminal vesicles.
- T3b: The tumor has invaded the seminal vesicles.
Understanding Prostate Cancers Progression
To determine the appropriate treatment, doctors need to know how far the cancer has progressed, or its stage. A pathologist, the doctor trained in analyzing cells taken during a prostate biopsy, will provide two starting pointsthe cancers grade and Gleason score.
- Cancer grade: When the pathologist looks at prostate cancer cells, the most common type of cells will get a grade of 3 to 5. The area of cancer cells in the prostate will also be graded. The higher the grade, the more abnormal the cells.
- Gleason score: The two grades will be added together to get a Gleason score. This score tells doctors how likely the cancer is to grow and spread.
After a biopsy confirms prostate cancer, the patient may undergo additional tests to see whether it has spread through the blood or lymph nodes to other parts of the body. These tests are usually imaging studies and may include a bone scan, positron emission tomography scan or computed tomography scan.
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What Is Advanced Prostate Cancer
When prostate cancer spreads beyond the prostate or returns after treatment, it is often called advanced prostate cancer.
Prostate cancer is often grouped into four stages.
- Stages I & II: The tumor has not spread beyond the prostate. This is often called early stage or localized prostate cancer.
- Stage III: Cancer has spread outside the prostate, but only to nearby tissues. This is often called locally advanced prostate cancer.
- Stage IV: Cancer has spread outside the prostate to other parts such as the lymph nodes, bones, liver or lungs. This stage is often called advanced prostate cancer.
When an early stage prostate cancer is found, it may be treated or placed on surveillance . If prostate cancer spreads beyond the prostate or returns after treatment, it is often called advanced prostate cancer. Stage IV prostate cancer is not curable, but there are many ways to control it. Treatment can stop advanced prostate cancer from growing and causing symptoms.
There are several types of advanced prostate cancer, including:
If your Prostate Specific Antigen level has risen after the first treatment but you have no other signs of cancer, you have “biochemical recurrence.”
Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer
Non-Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer
Metastatic Prostate Cancer
- Lymph nodes outside the pelvis
- Other organs
Metastatic Hormone-Sensitive Prostate Cancer
Determining The Stage Of Your Prostate Cancer
Using the results of your tests, your doctor will calculate a score based on four main components. Namely your: 1) PSA level, 2) Gleason score , 3) T-stage and 4) whether the cancer has metastasized. The information below breaks down each component so you have a better understanding of what your results mean and where they land in the spectrum of cancer prognoses.
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Prostate Cancer Is A Disease In Which Malignant Cells Form In The Tissues Of The Prostate
The prostate is agland in the malereproductive system. It lies just below the bladder and in front of the rectum . It is about the size of a walnut and surrounds part of the urethra . The prostate gland makes fluid that is part of the semen.
Signs Of Prostate Cancer Include A Weak Flow Of Urine Or Frequent Urination
- Weak or interrupted flow of urine.
- Sudden urge to urinate.
- Frequent urination .
- Trouble starting the flow of urine.
- Trouble emptying the bladder completely.
- Pain or burning while urinating.
- Blood in the urine or semen.
- A pain in the back, hips, orpelvis that doesn’t go away.
- Shortness of breath, feeling very tired, fast heartbeat, dizziness, or pale skin caused by anemia.
Other conditions may cause the same symptoms. As men age, the prostate may get bigger and block the urethra or bladder. This may cause trouble urinating or sexual problems. The condition is called benign prostatic hyperplasia , and although it is not cancer, surgery may be needed. The symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia or of other problems in the prostate may be like symptoms of prostate cancer.
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Outlook For Men With Localised Prostate Cancer
Most localised prostate cancer is slow-growing and may not need treatment or shorten a mans life. For many men who have treatment for localised prostate cancer, the treatment will get rid of the cancer. For others, treatment may be less successful and the cancer may come back. If this happens, you might need further treatment.
Prostate Cancer Treatment Stages
Success rate for treating prostate cancer will depend on the stage of the cancer and how far the cancer has spread. There is a labeling system of T-1 through T-4 which indicates how far the cancer has spread from it’s original site and the size of the cancer.
Ablatherm® HIFU is an appropriate treatment option for essentially any male who has prostate cancer which can be cured by any other means. The stages of cancer of the prostate are:
T-1 Prostate cancer
This is a cancer which has no signs or symptoms and is totally unsuspected.
The prostate feels normal to the physician on rectal exam. The cancer is detected either by an elevated Prostatic Specific Antigen blood test and subsequent biopsies or by examination of tissue removed during treatment of an enlarged prostate. This tumor can be cured by surgery, radiation, and Ablatherm® HIFU.
T-3 Prostate cancer
This is a tumor that has spread outside the prostate capsule and may have reached the seminal vesicles. This tumor is not curable by surgery, radiation, or HIFU.
T-2 Prostate cancer
This is a tumor which is suspected on rectal exam.
One or both lobes of the prostate have areas of firmness and biopsies reveal the cancer. The PSA is also usually elevated.
This tumor can be cured by surgery, radiation, and Ablatherm® HIFU.
T-4 Prostate cancer
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The Grade Group And Psa Level Are Used To Stage Prostate Cancer
The stage of the cancer is based on the results of the staging and diagnostic tests, including the prostate-specific antigen test and the Grade Group. The tissue samples removed during the biopsy are used to find out the Gleason score. The Gleason score ranges from 2 to 10 and describes how different the cancer cells look from normal cells under a microscope and how likely it is that the tumor will spread. The lower the number, the more cancer cells look like normal cells and are likely to grow and spread slowly.
The Grade Group depends on the Gleason score. See the General Information section for more information about the Gleason score.
- Grade Group 1 is a Gleason score of 6 or less.
- Grade Group 2 or 3 is a Gleason score of 7.
- Grade Group 4 is a Gleason score 8.
- Grade Group 5 is a Gleason score of 9 or 10.
The PSA test measures the level of PSA in the blood. PSA is a substance made by the prostate that may be found in an increased amount in the blood of men who have prostate cancer.
Natural History Of The Disease
Several studies reported in the literature provide insights into the natural history of high-grade prostate cancer in a 70-year-old man. Albertsen and associates6 examined the survival of men 6575 years of age who had clinically localized prostate cancer, comparing those treated with hormonal therapy with aged-matched, untreated controls. The survival expectancy for men with Gleason 810 adenocarcinoma of the prostate treated with hormonal therapy was 68 years less than that for controls. If one assumes that hormonal therapy does not extend survival, then the difference in survival between the hormonally-treated group versus the control group represents the impact of high-grade, clinically localized prostate cancer on survival.
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