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American Cancer Society Prostate Cancer

Spotlight On Acs Research Publications

Dave | Colon Cancer Survivor | American Cancer Society

The American Cancer Society employs a staff of full-time researchers and funds scientists across the United States who relentlessly search for answers to help us better understand cancer, including prostate cancer. Here are some highlights of their work.

2 Potential New Drug Pathways to a Prostate Cancer Target

The protein EZH2 is highly expressed in aggressive forms of prostate cancer, and cancer cells without the EZH2 gene cannot survive. Many pharmaceutical companies are developing drugs that target the enzymatic function of the protein EZH2 to silence certain genes that drive cancer. However, this strategy does not work well in solid tumors, like prostate cancer. My investigations focus on the novel functions of EZH2 in prostate cancers in order to find new insights about developing drugs to target EZH2 protein. Qi Cao, PhD

Study Examines Results After Prostatectomy for Men With 2 Risk FactorsBeing Black and Having Obesity

Study Finds Access to Medicaid Alone Does Not Improve the Diagnosis and Treatment of Prostate Cancer

5 Years After Guidelines Recommend Against Routine Prostate Cancer Screening, Later Stage Cancers Continue to Increasefor Unknown Reasons

We Fund Cancer Researchers Across the US

Who Gets Prostate Cancer

An estimated 268,490 cases of prostate cancer are expected to be diagnosed in the U.S. in 2022. On average, one in eight men will be diagnosed in his lifetime.

Anyone with a prostate, regardless of gender identity, has some risk of prostate cancer. Other main risk factors include:

  • Age: Prostate cancer is rare before age 40. The prostate tends to get bigger as men age, and most diagnoses occur in men who are 65 or older.
  • Race/ethnicity: Black men have a higher risk of aggressive prostate cancer at a younger age.
  • Family history: Men who have one or more close relatives with prostate cancer are at higher risk.
  • Genetics: People with changes in two genes, known as BRCA1 and BRCA2, are more likely to have prostate cancer. They are also more likely to have a more aggressive form of the disease. OHSU offers expert genetic counseling and testing to help patients learn about and manage their risk.

Secondary risk factors may include:

  • Exposure to chemicals used for firefighting or defoliating
  • Having a vasectomy
  • Being diagnosed with an enlarged prostate
  • Having a sexually transmitted disease

Types Of Prostate Cancer

Almost all prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas. These cancers develop from the gland cells .

Other types of cancer that can start in the prostate include:

  • Small cell carcinomas
  • Neuroendocrine tumors
  • Transitional cell carcinomas

These other types of prostate cancer are rare. If you are told you have prostate cancer, it is almost certain to be an adenocarcinoma.

Some prostate cancers grow and spread quickly, but most grow slowly. In fact, autopsy studies show that many older men who died of other causes also had prostate cancer that never affected them during their lives. In many cases, neither they nor their doctors even knew they had it.

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Treatments For Prostate Cancer

If you have prostate cancer, your healthcare team will create a treatment plan just for you. It will be based on your health and specific information about the cancer. When deciding which treatments to offer for prostate cancer, your healthcare team will consider:

  • the type and stage of the cancer
  • the grade or Gleason score
  • prostate-specific antigen levels
  • the risk group
  • possible side effects of treatments
  • your personal preferences
  • your overall health and any existing medical conditions
  • your age and life expectancy
  • whether you have symptoms

Prostate cancer treatments can seriously affect your quality of life and cause side effects such as erectile dysfunction and incontinence . Many prostate cancers grow slowly and cause no symptoms or problems.

Considering Complementary And Alternative Methods

The American Cancer Society: Prostate Cancer, revised edition American ...

You may hear about alternative or complementary methods that your doctor hasnt mentioned to treat your cancer or relieve symptoms. These methods can include vitamins, herbs, and special diets, or other methods such as acupuncture or massage, to name a few.

Complementary methods refer to treatments that are used along with your regular medical care. Alternative treatments are used instead of a doctors medical treatment. Although some of these methods might be helpful in relieving symptoms or helping you feel better, many have not been proven to work. Some might even be harmful.

Be sure to talk to your cancer care team about any method you are thinking about using. They can help you learn what is known about the method, which can help you make an informed decision.

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Choosing To Stop Treatment Or Choosing No Treatment At All

For some people, when treatments have been tried and are no longer controlling the cancer, it could be time to weigh the benefits and risks of continuing to try new treatments. Whether or not you continue treatment, there are still things you can do to help maintain or improve your quality of life.

Some people, especially if the cancer is advanced, might not want to be treated at all. There are many reasons you might decide not to get cancer treatment, but its important to talk to your doctors and you make that decision. Remember that even if you choose not to treat the cancer, you can still get supportive care to help with pain or other symptoms.

Expert Review And References

  • American Cancer Society. Treating Prostate Cancer. 2019: .
  • American Society of Clinical Oncology. Prostate Cancer. 2020: .
  • Tracy, CR. Prostate Cancer. eMedicine/Medscape 2020: .
  • PDQ® Adult Treatment Editorial Board. Prostate Cancer Treatment Patient Version. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute 2020: .
  • PDQ® Adult Treatment Editorial Board. Prostate Cancer Treatment Health Professional Version. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute 2020: .
  • National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Prostate Cancer . 2020: .
  • Zelefsky MJ, Morris MJ, Eastham JA. Cancer of the prostate. DeVita VT Jr., Lawrence TS, Rosenberg SA, eds.. DeVita, Hellman, and Rosenberg’s Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer 2019: 70: 1087-1136.
  • Parker C, Castro E, Fizazi K et al . Prostate cancer: ESMO clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, treatmentand follow-up. Annals of Oncology. 2020: 31: 1119-1134. .

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Survival Rates For Prostate Cancer

Survival rates can give you an idea of what percentage of people with the same type and stage of cancer are still alive a certain amount of time after they were diagnosed. These rates cant tell you how long you will live, but they may help give you a better understanding of how likely it is that your treatment will be successful.

Keep in mind that survival rates are estimates and are often based on previous outcomes of large numbers of people who had a specific cancer, but they cant predict what will happen in any particular persons case. These statistics can be confusing and may lead you to have more questions. Ask your doctor, who is familiar with your situation, how these numbers may apply to you.

Comparison Between The Three Drugs

Prostate Cancer Video for Clinicians

A match-adjusted indirect comparison of safety outcomes of darolutamide compared with apalutamide and enzalutamide in high-risk nmCRPC was conducted . It confirmed that darolutamide had statistically significant lower absolute risks compared with apalutamide after matching for falls, rash, and fractures by a risk difference of 6%, 16%, and 6%, respectively. Darolutamide also had a statistically significant lower risk of falls, dizziness, mental impairment, fatigue, and severe fatigue compared to enzalutamide. Although head-to-head trials are the gold standard for comparative clinical assessment, these results are instructive for shared decision making between patient and clinician .

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Thinking About Taking Part In A Clinical Trial

Clinical trials are carefully controlled research studies that are done to get a closer look at promising new treatments or procedures. Clinical trials are one way to get state-of-the art cancer treatment. In some cases they may be the only way to get access to newer treatments. They are also the best way for doctors to learn better methods to treat cancer. Still, they’re not right for everyone.

If you would like to learn more about clinical trials that might be right for you, start by asking your doctor if your clinic or hospital conducts clinical trials.

Help Getting Through Cancer Treatment

People with cancer need support and information, no matter what stage of illness they may be in. Knowing all of your options and finding the resources you need will help you make informed decisions about your care.

Whether you are thinking about treatment, getting treatment, or not being treated at all, you can still get supportive care to help with pain or other symptoms. Communicating with your cancer care team is important so you understand your diagnosis, what treatment is recommended, and ways to maintain or improve your quality of life.

Different types of programs and support services may be helpful, and can be an important part of your care. These might include nursing or social work services, financial aid, nutritional advice, rehab, or spiritual help.

The American Cancer Society also has programs and services including rides to treatment, lodging, and more to help you get through treatment. Call our National Cancer Information Center at 1-800-227-2345 and speak with one of our trained specialists.

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When To Start The Conversation

According to the American Cancer Society, age recommendations for men to initiate a discussion with their doctor about PSA screening are as follows:

  • Age 50 for men who are at average risk of prostate cancer and are expected to live at least 10 more years.
  • Age 45 for men at high risk of developing prostate cancer. This includes African Americans and men who have a first-degree relative diagnosed with prostate cancer at an early age .
  • Age 40 for men at even higher risk .
  • Men without symptoms of prostate cancer who do not have a 10-year life expectancy should not be offered testing since they are not likely to benefit.

If there is sufficient concern, a prostate biopsy can be performed in the doctors office. This is a 10-15 minute procedure done with local anesthesia. If a diagnosis of prostate cancer is made, follow-up discussions determine whether the cancer needs to be treated , and if so what type of treatment would be appropriate .

To find a prostate cancer specialist, call 877-697-9355 or visit To learn more about how NewYork-Presbyterian treats prostate cancer, visit

Efficacy And Safety In Older Patients With Mcrpc Receiving Cabazitaxel Versus Abiraterone Or Enzalutamide Was Evaluated In The Card Study

» Prostate Cancer by the Numbers: American Cancer Society Facts and Figures

It was a phase III trial that prospectively compared cabazitaxel for the first time with new hormone therapy or enzalutamide until disease progression, in patients with mCRPC previously treated with docetaxel and NHT with a duration of response to NHT < 1 year. The study showed superiority of cabazitaxel in terms of OS and progression-free survival. Although cabazitaxel is generally better tolerated than docetaxel, this chemotherapy is sometimes poorly tolerated, particularly in elderly patients, leading clinicians to sometimes prefer the administration of a NHT with a generally better safety profile.

The authors therefore studied the subgroup of 135 elderly patients who had been included in CARD study, and compared them to patients aged < 70 years this subgroup analysis had been planned in the original design to study rPFS.

With regard to efficacy, the results remained in favour of cabazitaxel with an rPFS of 8.2 months on cabazitaxel versus 4.5 months on NHT . In contrast, side effects were more frequent in patients > 70 years of age. Nevertheless, the percentage of side effects was relatively close between cabazitaxel and NHT with different tolerance profiles. The most frequent Grade 3 effects on cabazitaxel were asthenia, diarrhea, and febrile neutropenia. The most frequent Grade 3 effects under NHT were kidney problems and heart problems .

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Prostate Cancer Risk Factors

A risk factor is anything that raises your risk of getting a disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. Some risk factors, like smoking, can be changed. Others, like a persons age or family history, cant be changed.

But having a risk factor, or even several, does not mean that you will get the disease. Many people with one or more risk factors never get cancer, while others who get cancer may have had few or no known risk factors.

Researchers have found several factors that might affect a mans risk of getting prostate cancer.

What Is A 5

A relative survival rate compares people with the same type and stage of cancer to people in the overall population. For example, if the 5-year relative survival rate for a specific stage of prostate cancer is 90%, it means that men who have that cancer are, on average, about 90% as likely as men who dont have that cancer to live for at least 5 years after being diagnosed.

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Deaths From Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in American men, behind only lung cancer. About 1 man in 41 will die of prostate cancer.

Prostate cancer can be a serious disease, but most men diagnosed with prostate cancer do not die from it. In fact, more than 3.1 million men in the United States who have been diagnosed with prostate cancer at some point are still alive today.

Our team is made up of doctors and oncology certified nurses with deep knowledge of cancer care as well as journalists, editors, and translators with extensive experience in medical writing.

American Cancer Society. Facts & Figures 2022. American Cancer Society. Atlanta, Ga. 2022.

National Cancer Institute. SEER Cancer Stat Facts: Prostate Cancer. Accessed at on March 15, 2019.

Noone AM, Howlader N, Krapcho M, Miller D, Brest A, Yu M, Ruhl J, Tatalovich Z, Mariotto A, Lewis DR, Chen HS, Feuer EJ, Cronin KA . SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2015, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD,, based on November 2017 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, April 2018.

American Cancer Society. Facts & Figures 2022. American Cancer Society. Atlanta, Ga. 2022.

National Cancer Institute. SEER Cancer Stat Facts: Prostate Cancer. Accessed at on March 15, 2019.

Last Revised: January 12, 2022

Pcf Announces The Acquisition Of Urotodaycom And Digital Science Press

Behind the Science: Colon Cancer Awareness

PCF acquired Digital Science Press, Inc., digital publisher of and a global leader in providing evidence-based clinical content and educational resources within the fields of urology and genitourinary oncology. With the acquisition, DSP founder and CEO Gina Carithers joins PCF as chief communications officer .

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Where Do These Numbers Come From

The American Cancer Society relies on information from the SEER database, maintained by the National Cancer Institute , to provide survival statistics for different types of cancer.

The SEER database tracks 5-year relative survival rates for prostate cancer in the United States, based on how far the cancer has spread. The SEER database, however, does not group cancers by AJCC TNM stages . Instead it groups cancers into localized, regional, and distant stages.

  • Localized: There is no sign that the cancer has spread outside the prostate.
  • Regional: The cancer has spread outside the prostate to nearby structures or lymph nodes.
  • Distant: The cancer has spread to parts of the body farther from the prostate, such as the lungs, liver, or bones.

Spotlight On Prostate Cancer Survivorship: Clinical Follow

Access a free 1-hour online module describing long-term and late effects of prostate cancer and its treatment and how to care for prostate cancer survivors as outlined in the American Cancer Society Prostate Cancer Survivorship Care Guidelines. Free CE credits are available to physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and nurses.

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American Cancer Society Resources

Suggested Text:

  • All it takes to change the stats is a conversation. Talk to a doctor to make an informed decision about whether to be screened for prostate cancer. #ProstateCancer #ProstateCancerAwarenessMonth
  • African American men should discuss prostate screening with a doctor beginning at age 45, which is five years earlier than other ethnic groups. Want to know more? Find guidance at #ProstateCancer, #ProstateCancerAwarenessMonth
  • Many people face barriers to getting the care they need. But prostate cancer doesnt wait. Neither should you. Discuss screening with a doctor. #ProstateCancer #ProstateCancerAwarenessMonth
  • Good news: Prostate cancer screening can catch cancer early, so effective treatment options can be identified. Talk to a doctor to make an informed decision about whether to be screened. #ProstateCancer #ProstateCancerAwarenessMonth

Rep Johnson Joins Men Of Cbc American Cancer Society For Prostate Cancer Awareness Campaign


WASHINGTON, D.C. Today, the Male members of the Congressional Black Caucus released the following statement announcing a partnership with the American Cancer Society for a month-long campaign to raise awareness for Prostate Cancer in Black men.

Black men are nearly two times more likely to be diagnosed withand more than twice as likely to die from prostate cancer than white men. As a Black man and Member of the Congressional Black Caucus, Im proud to work alongside the American Cancer Society to raise awareness of this deadly disease and its disproportionate impact, said Congressman Hank Johnson

Black men are 1.8 times more likely to be diagnosed withand 2.2 times more likely to die fromProstate Cancer than white men. Black men are also slightly more likely than white men to be diagnosed with advanced disease. In fact, one in seven Black men will develop Prostate Cancer in their lifetime. Black men may also be harmed by racial bias in preventive care, as they are less likely than white men to be offered the option of having a PSA test, and are more likely than white men to be told that the benefits of the PSA test are uncertain. Additionally, a recent study found that Black men diagnosed with early-stage Prostate Cancer were less likely than white men to receive any type of treatment for that cancer.

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