What About Trans People
People assigned male at birth can develop prostate cancer whether they remain male or not.
Trans women who use hormone therapy such as estrogenmay have a lower risk, but the risk is still present.
Anyone assigned male at birth should speak to their doctor about screening for prostate cancer.
Knowing the stage of prostate cancer can help a person understand what to expect, and it will inform decisions about treatment. We list the stages below:
Stage 0: Precancerous cells are present, but they only affect a small area and are slow growing.
Localized : Cancer is only present in the prostate gland. Effective treatment is possible at this stage.
Regional : Cancer has spread to nearby tissues.
Distant : Cancer has spread to other parts of the body, such as the lungs or bones.
If a male has symptoms that may indicate prostate cancer, the doctor will likely:
- ask about symptoms
- ask about personal and medical history
- conduct a blood test to assess PSA levels
- carry out a urine test to look for other biomarkers
- carry out a physical examination, which may include a digital rectal exam
During a DRE, the doctor will check manually for any abnormalities of the prostate with their finger.
Learn more about prostate exams here.
What Are Prostate Cancer Treatment Side Effects
Some prostate cancer treatments can affect the bladder, erectile nerves and sphincter muscle, which controls urination. Potential problems include:
- Incontinence: Some men experience urinary incontinence. You may leak urine when you cough or laugh, or you may feel an urgent need to use the bathroom even when your bladder isnt full. This problem can improve over the first six to 12 months without treatment.
- Erectile dysfunction : Surgery, radiation and other treatments can damage the erectile nerves and affect your ability to get or maintain an erection. Some men regain erectile function within a year or two . In the meantime, medications like sildenafil or tadalafil can help by increasing blood flow to the penis.
- Infertility: Treatments can affect your ability to produce or ejaculate sperm, resulting in male infertility. If you think you might want children in the future, you can preserve sperm in a sperm bank before you start treatments. After treatments, you may undergo sperm extraction. This procedure involves removing sperm directly from testicular tissue and implanting it into a womans uterus.
Help Us Eliminate Cancer
Learn how your comment data is processed. Initial experience with da Vinci single-port robot-assisted radical prostatectomies. Aside from using reputable websites such as drcatalona. Eat plenty of calorie- and protein-rich snacks throughout the day.
In time, does prostate cancer cause weight loss abnormal cells can peostate away and spread metastasize to other parts of the body. Urinary problems can also be caused by an infection or an enlarged prostate. Your doctor may offer you drugs called bisphosphonates. Steroids, such as hydrocortisone or prednisone, control pain and improve appetite. Urinary symptoms also can be caused by an infection of the bladder or other conditions. The lymph nodes are a network of glands that help your body filter fluids and fight infections. Mayo Clinic.
Eat a variety of fruits, vegetables and whole grains.
Frequent sex: Does it protect against prostate cancer? Cancer in the hips will cause bones to become brittle and weak.
If the tumor is pressing on your urethra, you might have trouble passing urine. If you have kidney problems caused by urine retention, you may need a catheter to drain urine from the bladder.
The role of behavioural modification and exercise in the management of cancer-related fatigue to reduce its impact during and after cancer treatment.
Choose a healthy diet full of fruits and vegetables.
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How To Lose Weight And Lower Your Risk
If youâre carrying extra weight, you can lose it by cutting calories and exercising more. If youâre a healthy weight, you can stay healthy by eating well and exercising on most days.
To lose weight and lower your prostate cancer risk, try these tips.
Avoid sugar. Some doctors recommend staying away from simple sugars. Avoiding insulin spikes caused by sugar may help you lose weight.
Try cutting back on foods that have hidden sugars, like pasta, white bread, and white rice. When you snack, reach for a handful of nuts, a fruit, or vegetables instead of a piece of candy or sugary snack.
Follow a low-fat diet. Cutting back on fatty foods like meats, milk, and cheese may help you lose weight and lower your risk of problems.
When you cook, avoid adding extra fat. Opt for lean cuts of meat. Choose low-fat or reduced-fat dairy products instead of full-fat options.
Eat more fruits and vegetables. While it hasnât been proven that any specific nutrients prevent prostate cancer, a diet rich in fruits and vegetables gives you vitamins and nutrients that may reduce your risk.
Fruits and vegetables are also a good substitute for less healthy foods like high-fat dairy or meats. Filling your plate with more of them may help you lose weight.
Exercise. Being active is good for your overall health. Some studies also link exercise with lower prostate cancer risk. Try exercising for 30 minutes on most days.
Why Does Cancer Sometimes Cause Weight Loss
According to the American Cancer Society, unexplained weight loss is often the first noticeable symptom of cancers of the esophagus, pancreas, stomach, and lung.
Other cancers, such as ovarian cancer, are more likely to cause weight loss when a tumor grows large enough to press on the stomach. This can make you feel full faster.
Other types of cancer can also cause symptoms that make eating difficult, such as:
- lack of appetite
- difficulty chewing or swallowing
Cancer also increases inflammation. Inflammation is part of your bodys immune response to a tumor, which produces pro-inflammatory cytokines and alters your bodys metabolism. This disrupts the hormones that regulate your appetite. It also promotes the breakdown of fat and muscle.
Finally, a growing tumor uses a significant amount of your bodys energy, which may increase your resting energy expenditure . REE is how much energy your body burns at rest.
Not all cancers cause symptoms in their early stages. And those that do often cause vague symptoms that are commonly caused by less serious conditions.
Cancers known to cause unintended weight loss early on will likely also cause other symptoms.
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Early Stage Prostate Cancer
If the cancer is small and localized, a doctor may recommend:
Watchful waiting or monitoring
The doctor may check PSA blood levels regularly but take no immediate action.
Prostate cancer grows slowly, and the risk of side effects may outweigh the need for immediate treatment.
A surgeon may carry out a prostatectomy. They can remove the prostate gland using either laparoscopic or open surgery.
Brachytherapy: A doctor will implant radioactive seeds into the prostate to deliver targeted radiation treatment.
Conformal radiation therapy: This targets a specific area, minimizing the risk to healthy tissue. Another type, called intensity modulated radiation therapy, uses beams with variable intensity.
Treatment will depend on various factors. A doctor will discuss the best option for the individual.
You Have A Sore Lower Back
Many people might assume their sore lower back means they overdid it at the gym or slept poorly, but the Prostate Cancer Foundation advises that pain or stiffness is actually one symptom of prostate cancer.
Pain associated with prostate cancer is usuallydull and deep, according to WebMD. This might help you distinguish it from a strained muscle or exercise injury.
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What Are The Signs That Prostate Cancer Has Spread
Approximately one in nine men will get prostate cancer in their lifetime. This is why screening is so important, especially if youre over the age of 50.
Unfortunately, many times symptoms of prostate cancer dont appear during the early stages. Some men dont notice the warning signs until its metastasized. Late detection is one of the reasons why only a very few men consider getting treatment, and survive prostate cancer.
If youre asking yourself, What are the signs that prostate cancer has spread, keep reading. Aside from using reputable websites such as drcatalona.com, this article will provide information over some late-stage symptoms.
Connecting The Dots Between Weight Loss And Prostate Cancer
Obesity and prostate cancer are two of the most common medical issues facing older men today. These health concerns are particularly prevalent among U.S. veterans.
That is why Dr. Jonathan L. Wright, a urologic oncologist at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and the University of Washington, has teamed up with colleagues at Fred Hutch, UW and investigators at VA Puget Sound Health Care System to lead a study in overweight men with low-grade, slow-growing prostate cancer who have decided to take an âactive-surveillanceâ approach to closely monitor their prostate cancer as opposed treating it with surgery or radiation.
The Fred Hutchâbased Prostate Cancer Active Lifestyle Study, or PALS for short, aims to determine whether weight loss achieved through a structured diet and exercise regimen will improve the short- and long-term health of men such as study participant Allan âGeneâ Asay, a 75-year-old Vietnam veteran from Bellingham, Washington.
While his long-term outcome has yet to be revealed, Asay is delighted with his initial results since joining the study in May.
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Screening For Prostate Cancer
There are no tests available with sufficient accuracy to screen populations of men for early signs of prostate cancer. However, early detection and treatment can significantly improve prostate cancer survival.
The test most commonly used to aid early detection of prostate cancer is the prostate specific antigen blood test. This is not a diagnostic test as it can only indicate changes in the prostate. If you are concerned about prostate cancer you should talk to your doctor and make an informed choice about whether to have one of the tests designed to find early signs of prostate cancer, in view of the potential risks and benefits.
There are no proven measures to prevent prostate cancer.
Prostate Cancer Caregiver Podcast Series
We are proud to announce a new podcast series geared toward helping give support, hope and guidance to prostate cancer caregivers. The goal of this Prostate Cancer Caregiver Podcast Series is to help others connect with a diverse group of people who have felt the impact of prostate cancer in their lives and empower them on their journey.
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Does Prostate Cancer Have Any Symptoms
Most men with early prostate cancer dont have any signs or symptoms.
One reason for this is the way the cancer grows. Youll usually only get early symptoms if the cancer grows near the tube you urinate through and presses against it, changing the way you urinate . But because prostate cancer usually starts to grow in a different part of the prostate, early prostate cancer doesnt often press on the urethra and cause symptoms.
If you do notice changes in the way you urinate, this is more likely to be a sign of a very common non-cancerous problem called an enlarged prostate, or another health problem. But its still a good idea to get it checked out. Possible changes include:
- difficulty starting to urinate or emptying your bladder
- a weak flow when you urinate
- a feeling that your bladder hasnt emptied properly
- dribbling urine after you finish urinating
- needing to urinate more often than usual, especially at night
- a sudden need to urinate you may sometimes leak urine before you get to the toilet.
If prostate cancer breaks out of the prostate or spreads to other parts of the body , it can cause other symptoms, including:
- back pain, hip pain or pelvis pain
- problems getting or keeping an erection
- blood in the urine or semen
- unexplained weight loss.
These symptoms can all be caused by other health problems. But its still a good idea to tell your GP about any symptoms so they can find out whats causing them and make sure you get the right treatment, if you need it.
What Are The Side Effects Of Hormone Therapy For Prostate Cancer
Because androgens affect many other organs besides the prostate, ADT can have a wide range of side effects , including:
- loss of interest in sex
Studer UE, Whelan P, Albrecht W, et al. Immediate or deferred androgen deprivation for patients with prostate cancer not suitable for local treatment with curative intent: European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Trial 30891. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2006 24:18681876.
Zelefsky MJ, Eastham JA, Sartor AO. Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. In: Vincent T. DeVita J, Lawrence TS, Rosenberg SA, eds. DeVita, Hellman, and Rosenberg’s Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 9e. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 2011.
Smith MR, Saad F, Chowdhury S, et al. Apalutamide and overall survival in prostate cancer. European Urology 2021 79:150158.
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After Treatment Be Prepared For Change
The end of treatment brings pivotal changes, both mental and physical, for cancer survivors, including a recommended switch back to a mostly plant-based diet to manage their weight. Just like other healthy people, survivors should follow the MyPlate recommendations to fill half their plates with fruits and vegetables and split the remaining half between grains and protein.
For survivors, its still very important to make sure their weight is a healthy weight, Ms. Gerdes says, explaining that this group may be at higher risk for other health conditions, including type 2 diabetes and heart disease. We want to make sure that once theyve gotten over the hump of treatment that they continue forward with a healthy diet, at a healthy weight, with a healthy lifestyle.
Ms. Stella adds: Recommendations about weight management are patient specific, and there is no meal plan thats right for everyone. Patients undergoing active treatment will always be instructed to maintain or gain weight, while some survivors may be instructed to lose weight. Its always best to check with your primary doctor to determine if weight loss, gain, or maintenance is best.
Its Never Too Late To Lose Weight Or Stop Smoking If You Quit Now Or Lose Weight Now It Will Benefit You Now And In The Future
For More Help:
Its hard to quit smoking, and its hard to lose weight. The good news is that there has never been more help available for both of these challenges.
For smoking: You can call 1-800-QUIT NOW for help this is a state quit line, and the services offered here are free. Under the Affordable Care Act, insurance plans must cover some services to help people quit smoking. Depending on your insurance, you may be able to get help for free. A couple of links you might want to check out are: Smokefree.gov. and
For weight loss: Here, too, under the Affordable Care Act, insurance plans must cover screening and counseling for obesity, and depending on your insurance plan, you might be able to get help for free. Heres a link to the governments website . It helps to talk to somebody, and dont worry: Theyre not going to judge you they are there to help you. Just about every medical center has some type of weight management center. They wouldnt have these centers if there werent millions of people who need to lose weight. Intensive weight loss counseling has been shown to be effective, says Platz.
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Advanced Prostate Cancer: Managing Symptoms
And discuss with your doctor your concerns about any sexual problems. This requires medical treatment, and your cancer team might talk to you about a plan ahead of time. Medically reviewed by Angelica Balingit, MD. When should you call your doctor?
The cancer first spreads to the rectum, which is the part of your bowel closest to the prostate gland. Chemotherapy may be helpful when men s weight loss transformations tumblr wallpaper cancer no longer prostare to hormone therapy. In some cases, men will have radiation therapy after a prostatectomy, especially if the tumor could not be completely removed by surgery. The changes tell the cells to grow and divide more rapidly than normal cells do. For example, hormone therapy can reduce your desire for sex your libido and affect your ability to get or keep an erection.
If You Want To Try To Stop Losing Weight
- Be sure to drink enough water and other liquids. Drink liquids between meals not during, so you wont fill up.
- Choose snacks that are high in calories and protein such as nuts, trail mix, dried fruit, granola, peanut butter, hard-boiled eggs, or cheese.
- Drink smoothies, milkshakes, and nutritional supplements or bars to put more calories and protein in your diet.
- Eat your favorite food any time of the day: Eat breakfast foods for dinner dinner foods for lunch
- Try adding high-calorie foods such as whipped cream, sour cream, cream cheese, butter, or gravy to what you eat to avoid further weight loss.
- Ask about meeting with a dietitian.
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Where Does Prostate Cancer Spread
The most common place for prostate cancer to spread to is the bones. It can also spread to the lymph nodes, liver and lungs and other organs.
A large tumour in the prostate gland can spread into or press on areas around the prostate, such as the back passage or urethra. The urethra is the tube which carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body.