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What Is Removed During Prostate Surgery

Treatment Options For Prostate Stones

Radical Prostatectomy (Prostate Cancer Surgery)

Most men with prostate stones will not require any treatment, again due to lack of symptoms. Also, sometimes, prostate stones may pass on their own in a mans urine. However, if they do become infected and are causing prostate or urinary tract problems, then they may require antibiotics. In more severe cases, they can be removed surgically. Prostatic calculi can be easily removed with a transurethral electro-resection loop or holmium laser if they cause difficulty in urination or chronic pain.

Any man, having urinary symptoms or pain in the lower pelvic region, needs to see his doctor right away for a thorough examination and diagnosis of what the problem may be.

What Should I Expect When I Get Home

When you are discharged from the ward you will need some baggy trousers or track pants as you may find that your abdomen is uncomfortable and the catheter is easier to manage if your clothing is loose.

There will be some blood, urine, and mucus which passes alongside or through the catheter and is particularly noticeable after passing a bowel motion this is normal. You should wash the area with soap and water to remove this discharge to reduce any irritation. Keeping a high oral fluid intake reduces the risk of catheter blockage.

Following surgery, you will be given a prescription for regular pain medication as well as some laxative medication to keep your bowels regular and thus avoid any straining.

Light walking is encouraged straight after the surgery. After four to six weeks you may resume heavy lifting.

Showering, bathing, and getting the wounds wet is fine the skin has been sealed with glue.

Driving is safe once you are comfortable to do so and feel able to make an emergency stop. This would normally be around 3 weeks following surgery.

Types Of Radical Prostatectomy Surgeries

There are four main types of radical prostatectomy, each of which takes between three and four hours to perform. During the procedure–which is done while the patient is under general or regional anesthesia–a surgeon will remove the prostate gland and sometimes the seminal vesicles . Nearby lymph nodes may also be removed and examined for signs of cancer. The approach chosen depends upon the patient as well as the experience and training of the surgeon.

Read Also: How Does A Urologist Check For Prostate Cancer

Prostatectomy: What To Expect During Surgery And Recovery

If youve been diagnosed withprostate cancer, your doctor will consider many factors before recommending the besttreatment. For many men, that may mean a prostatectomy. In this surgery,doctors remove the entire prostate.

The Johns Hopkins Hospital performs more of these procedures than almostanywhere else in the world. One of the most common questions they hear frompatients: What should I expect after surgery?

Johns Hopkins urologistMohamad Allaf, M.D., explains the surgery and recovery.

Side Effects Of Prostate Surgery

Prostate cancer assessment using MR elastography of fresh prostatectomy ...

The major possible side effects of radical prostatectomy are urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction . These side effects can also occur with other forms of prostate cancer treatment.

Urinary incontinence: You may not be able to control your urine or you may have leakage or dribbling. Being incontinent can affect you not only physically but emotionally and socially as well. These are the major types of incontinence:

  • Men with stress incontinence might leak urine when they cough, laugh, sneeze, or exercise. Stress incontinence is the most common type after prostate surgery. It’s usually caused by problems with the valve that keeps urine in the bladder . Prostate cancer treatments can damage this valve or the nerves that keep the valve working.
  • Men with overflow incontinence have trouble emptying their bladder. They take a long time to urinate and have a dribbling stream with little force. Overflow incontinence is usually caused by blockage or narrowing of the bladder outlet by scar tissue.
  • Men with urge incontinencehave a sudden need to urinate. This happens when the bladder becomes too sensitive to stretching as it fills with urine.
  • Rarely after surgery, men lose all ability to control their urine. This is called continuous incontinence.

After surgery for prostate cancer, normal bladder control usually returns within several weeks or months. This recovery usually occurs slowly over time.

There are several options for treating erectile dysfunction:

Recommended Reading: Drugs For Metastatic Prostate Cancer

The Initial Causes Is The Prostate Removed During Gender Reassignment Surgery

One of the first symptoms of prostate issues is pain or tenderness in the groin or lower back. This can be the result of a noncancerous condition called enlarged prostatic tissue, or it could be an infection of the bladder. In either case, its important to see a doctor as soon as possible. If youre suffering from prostate pain, you may want to consider reducing your caffeine intake.

Another symptom of a potentially enlarged prostate is difficulty starting a stream of urine, leaking, or dribbling. These symptoms are not serious, but theyre still alarming. Most men put up with an enlarged prostate for years before seeking medical attention, but they typically seek treatment as soon as they notice symptoms. Even if you dont have symptoms, its worth getting checked to determine if you have any prostate issues.

If you experience nightly bathroom runs, you may be experiencing an enlarged prostate. You may be having difficulty starting a stream of urine, or you may even be dribbling or leaking during the day. These problems arent life-threatening, but can become a nuisance. You should not ignore these signs and seek treatment as soon as you notice them. If you feel any of these symptoms, you should consult a doctor.

What Types Of Surgery Are There

Radical prostatectomy involves removing the prostate, part of the urethra and the seminal vesicles. After the prostate is removed, the urethra will be rejoined to the bladder and the vas deferens will be sealed.

Some people are able to have nerve-sparing surgery, which aims to avoid damaging the nerves that control erections. Your doctor will discuss whether this is an option for you. Nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy is more suitable for lower-grade cancers and is only possible if the cancer is not in or close to these nerves. It works best for those who had strong erections before diagnosis. Problems with erections are common even if nerve-sparing surgery is performed.

Cancer cells can spread from the prostate to nearby lymph nodes. For intermediate-risk or high-risk prostate cancer, nearby lymph nodes may also be removed .

Also Check: Castrate Sensitive Metastatic Prostate Cancer

When You Might Have A Radical Prostatectomy

Your doctor might recommend a radical prostatectomy if:

  • your cancer hasn’t spread outside the prostate gland. This is localised prostate cancer
  • your cancer has broken through the covering of the prostate and spread to the area just outside the prostate gland. This is locally advanced prostate cancer
  • you are well enough to have this operation

The aim of a radical prostatectomy operation is to cure prostate cancer.

Surgery To Remove Your Prostate Gland

Robotic Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy | Brigham and Women’s Hospital

You might have surgery to remove your prostate gland if:

  • your cancer hasnt spread outside the prostate gland
  • you are younger and have a fast growing tumour
  • as part of treatment for locally advanced or high risk localised prostate cancer

The aim of a radical prostatectomy operation is to cure prostate cancer. It is major surgery with some possible side effects. If youre an older man with a slow growing prostate cancer, this type of surgery may not be necessary for you. This is because your cancer might grow so slowly that youre more likely to die of old age or other causes than from prostate cancer.

Read Also: Prostate Cancer Incidence By Country

Preparation For Prostatectomy Surgery

During the weeks before the surgery, patients should stop taking anything that prevents blood clotting, including aspirin, ibuprofen, warfarin, vitamin E, and fish oil. Ideally, they should also stop smoking several weeks before surgery so as to help speed recovery.

Patients may also be asked to take a laxative or use an enema on the morning of the surgery to clean out their colon. In addition, the doctor may administer an antibiotic to prevent infection.

What Is The Prostate Gland

The prostate gland is about the size of a walnut and surrounds the neck ofa man’s bladder and urethrathe tube that carries urine from the bladder.It’s partly muscular and partly glandular, with ducts opening into theprostatic portion of the urethra. It’s made up of three lobes, a centerlobe with one lobe on each side.

Researchers don’t know all the functions of the prostate gland. However,the prostate gland plays an important role in both sexual and urinaryfunction. It’s common for the prostate gland to become enlarged as a manages, and it’s also likely for a man to encounter some type of prostateproblem in his lifetime.

Many common problems that don’t require a radical prostatectomy areassociated with the prostate gland. These problems may occur in men of allages and include:

Cancer of the prostate is a common and serious health concern. According tothe American Cancer Society, prostate cancer is the most common form ofcancer in men older than age 50, and the third leading cause of death fromcancer.

There are different ways to achieve the goal of removing the prostate glandwhen there’s cancer. Methods of performing prostatectomy include:

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Immediately After A Prostatectomy

  • You will stay in hospital for two to five days.
  • Nurses will monitor your vital signs.
  • Your pain will be managed with medication.
  • You may be given antibiotics to reduce the risk of infection.
  • You may have a drip inserted into your arm or hand for a few days.
  • You will most likely have a drain tube out of your abdomen that will be removed in the first day or two after the surgery.
  • In most cases, you will have to go home still wearing the catheter. You will be taught how to care for it.

Radical Prostatectomy Perineal Approach

Surgical Techniques to Optimize Early Urinary Continence Recovery Post ...
  • You’ll be placed in a supine position in which the hips and knees will be fully bent with the legs spread apart and elevated with the feet resting on straps. Stirrups will be placed under your legs for support.

  • An upside-down, U-shaped incision will be made in the perineal area .

  • The doctor will try to minimize any trauma to the nerve bundles in the prostate area.

  • The prostate gland and any abnormal-looking tissue in the surrounding area will be removed.

  • The seminal vesicles may be removed if there’s concern about abnormal tissue in the vesicles.

  • Read Also: How To Lower Risk Of Prostate Cancer

    Radical Prostatectomy Retropubic Or Suprapubic Approach

  • You’ll be positioned on the operating table, lying on your back.

  • An incision will be made from below the navel to the pubic region.

  • The doctor will usually perform a lymph node dissection first. The nerve bundles will be released carefully from the prostate gland and the urethra will be identified. The seminal vesicles may also be removed if necessary.

  • The prostate gland will be removed.

  • A drain will be inserted, usually in the right lower area of the incision.

  • Dealing With Prostate Cancer

    Being diagnosed and living with prostate cancer can change how you feel about life. If you or your loved one is dealing with prostate cancer you may feel scared, stressed or even angry. There is no right way to feel and everyone reacts differently.

    Visit our wellbeing hub for information to help support you in looking after your emotional, mental, and physical wellbeing. If you are close to someone with prostate cancer, find out more about how you can support someone with prostate cancer and where to get more information.

    Also Check: What Causes Prostate To Swell

    Urinary Problems After Surgery

    Leaking urine

    Most men cant control their bladder properly when their catheter is first removed. This is because surgery can damage the muscles and nerves that control when you urinate.You might just leak a few drops if you exercise, cough or sneeze . Or you might leak more and need to wear absorbent pads, especially in the weeks after your surgery.Leaking urine usually improves with time. Most men start to see an improvement one to six months after surgery. Some men leak urine for a year or more and others never fully recover, but there are things that can help and ways you can manage it.

    Difficulty urinating

    A few men may find it difficult to urinate after surgery . This can be caused by scarring around the opening of the bladder or the urethra .Some men find they suddenly and painfully cant urinate. This is called acute urine retention and it needs treating quickly to prevent further problems. If this happens, call your doctor or nurse, or go to your nearest accident and emergency department.

    Watch Pauls story for one mans experience of managing urinary problems after surgery below.

    Sexual problems after surgery

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    Prostate Removal Side Effects

    Will lymph nodes be removed during robotic radical prostatectomy?

    Urinary incontinence

    It is a common but temporary effect of prostate surgery. Usually, the symptoms improve within a year after the prostate removal.

    Sexual dysfunctions

    Erectile dysfunction is one of the most common prostate removal side effects. About 40% of men lose some erectile function after radical prostatectomy, but they see gradual improvements within 2-3 years.

    Infertility

    Other side effects of prostate removal

    In rare cases, bowel function is affected and dry orgasms appear.

    Read Also: Etapas Del Cancer De Prostata

    When To Call Your Doctor Or Nurse

    Its important to tell your doctor or nurse if:

    • your bladder feels full or your catheter isnt draining urine
    • your catheter leaks or falls out
    • your urine contains blood clots, turns cloudy, dark or red, or has a strong smell
    • you have a fever
    • you feel sick or vomit
    • you get cramps in your stomach area that will not go away
    • you get pain or swelling in the muscles in your lower legs.

    Your doctor or nurse will let you know if you should go to the hospital.

    Day Before Your Surgery

    Follow a light diet

    Follow a light diet, such as a small sandwich, eggs, toast, crackers, or soup. Limit the amount of dairy products you eat and drink, and avoid fried foods and foods with a lot of seasoning.

    Note the Time of Your Surgery

    A staff member from the Admitting Office will call you after 2 p.m. the day before your surgery. If your surgery is scheduled for a Monday, theyll call you the Friday before. If you do not get a call by 7 p.m., call .

    The staff member will tell you what time to arrive at the hospital for your surgery. Theyll also remind you where to go.

    Do your bowel preparation

    The night before your surgery, use a saline enema as instructed on the box.

    Shower With a 4% CHG Solution Antiseptic Skin Cleanser

    The night before your surgery, shower with a 4% CHG solution antiseptic skin cleanser.

  • Wash your hair with your usual shampoo and conditioner. Rinse your head well.
  • Wash your face and genital area with your usual soap. Rinse your body well with warm water.
  • Open the 4% CHG solution bottle. Pour some into your hand or a clean washcloth.
  • Move away from the shower stream. Rub the 4% CHG solution gently over your body from your neck to your feet. Do not put it on your face or genital area.
  • Move back into the shower stream to rinse off the 4% CHG solution. Use warm water.
  • Dry yourself off with a clean towel.
  • Do not use any lotion, cream, deodorant, makeup, powder, perfume, or cologne after your shower.

    Sleep

    Go to bed early and get a full nights sleep.

    Recommended Reading: Can Prostate Cancer Be Transmitted Sexually

    What Changes Do I Need To Make To My Diet

    Discuss your post-surgery diet with your doctor as you will probably want to avoid or at least minimize issues such as constipation. The lack of exercise, the medication, even the stress, might affect your bowel functions. Your diet will be focused on eating more vegetables, fruits, grains and avoiding meat, especially the red one, pasta, alcohol, fast-food, sugar and processed desserts.

    How Is Urinary Incontinence After Prostate Surgery Treated

    TURP (Transurethral resection of the prostate)

    If you find youre having issues with mild to moderate leakage after surgery, your healthcare provider might suggest starting with noninvasive therapies like medications or physical therapy exercises for the pelvic floor muscles. These treatments may also cut down on the number of times that you have to get up each night to pee.

    These methods can sometimes help men who have mild to moderate leakage. Men who have persistent leakage or a more severe problem may need surgery if they do not want to continue to use pads.

    Read Also: Mayo Clinic Jacksonville Prostate Cancer

    Percentage Of Men Obtaining Full Erections 2 Years After Open Prostatectomy

    15% 13%

    As one can see, the chance of regaining potency diminishes with age and with the number of nerves damaged. Even though it is usually technically possible to spare the nerves, sometimes the nerves themselves are cancerous and must be removed since the primary goal of the surgeon is to remove the prostate cancer. If the cancer has not reached the nerves controlling erection, the da Vinci Robot has the visual capabilities and the precision necessary to spare these nerves in most cases, thus it is possible that using the robot may add to the chances of being potent after surgery. However, there is no way to guarantee this due to variability in patient anatomy and condition. It is important to realize that some men never regain the ability to maintain an erection after robotic prostatectomy.

    As mentioned above, medical therapy may aid in return to erections, but this has not as of yet been fully substantiated. Usage of sildenafil and newer erectile medications may potentially increase the potency percentages in the table above but this has not been proven. A recently presented study found that daily doses of 50mg or 100mg sildenafil for 9 months increased full erections by 7 fold when compared with a group who did not receive any medication.

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