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What Causes Prostate Cancer In Young Males

What You Should Know About Prostate Cancer

10 Warning Signs of Prostate Cancer

Prostate Cancer is the second most common cancer in men.

The cancer begins when cells in the prostate, a gland found below the bladder and in front of the rectum, begin to grow uncontrollably.

When a male is young, the prostate gland is around the size of a walnut. However, the size of the prostate increases with age.

Most prostate cancer cases grow slowly, allowing for successful treatment options and a low mortality rate. More than two million men in the United States are prostate cancer survivors.

However, the danger comes when men do not recognize their symptoms or delay seeing a doctor.

How Is Prostate Cancer Diagnosed

Screenings are the most effective way to catch prostate cancer early. If you are at average cancer risk, youll probably have your first prostate screening at age 55. Your healthcare provider may start testing earlier if you have a family history of the disease or are Black. Screening is generally stopped after age 70, but may be continued in certain circumstances.

Screening tests for prostate cancer include:

  • Digital rectal exam: Your provider inserts a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum and feels the prostate gland, which sits in front of the rectum. Bumps or hard areas could indicate cancer.
  • Prostate-specific antigen blood test: The prostate gland makes a protein called protein-specific antigen . Elevated PSA levels may indicate cancer. Levels also rise if you have BPH or prostatitis.
  • Biopsy: A needle biopsy to sample tissue for cancer cells is the only sure way to diagnose prostate cancer. During an MRI-guided prostate biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging technology provides detailed images of the prostate.

What Is Prostate Cancer

The prostate is a small gland located underneath the bladder in men and is part of the reproductive system. Some men develop prostate cancer, usually later in life. If cancer develops on your prostate gland, it will likely grow slowly. In rare cases, the cancer cells may be more aggressive, grow quickly, and spread to other areas of your body. The earlier your doctor finds and treats the tumor, the higher the chances are of finding curative treatment.

According to the Urology Care Foundation, prostate cancer is the second most common cause of all cancer-related deaths among American men. About 1 in 7 men will be diagnosed with the disease in their lifetime. Approximately 1 in 39 men will die from it. Most of these deaths occur among older men.

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You Can Take Action Now To Reduce Your Risk Of Prostate Cancer Later On

You cant control your genes or what the future may hold. But you can take steps to reduce your risk of prostate cancer through lifestyle choices. For starters:

  • Maintain a healthy diet. A diet full of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins and healthy fats can contribute to your overall health.
  • Exercise regularly. Exercise not only improves your physical health, but also your mood and mental health. Plus, there is some evidence that men who exercise are at a lower risk of developing prostate cancer.
  • Try to maintain a healthy weight. Obesity is a risk factor for prostate cancer.
  • Talk proactively with your doctor about your risk for prostate cancer. If youre over 40 and havent discussed your risk level with your doctor or urologist, I suggest you make an appointment. Depending on your risk factors, you and your doctor can work together to create an action plan that works best for you, which may include a prostate cancer screening.

Also, if youve been experiencing any unusual urinary or erectile symptoms, dont ignore them. Make a primary care appointment, for starters.

Your doctor will talk with you about your symptoms, answer your questions and recommend treatment next steps if needed. They may also recommend you see a urologist like me. Urologists are experts in urinary and male reproductive health, including prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment.

Prostate Cancer Risk Factors

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A risk factor is anything that raises your risk of getting a disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. Some risk factors, like smoking, can be changed. Others, like a persons age or family history, cant be changed.

But having a risk factor, or even several, does not mean that you will get the disease. Many people with one or more risk factors never get cancer, while others who get cancer may have had few or no known risk factors.

Researchers have found several factors that might affect a mans risk of getting prostate cancer.

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What About Trans People

People assigned male at birth can develop prostate cancer whether they remain male or not.

Trans women who use hormone therapy such as estrogenmay have a lower risk, but the risk is still present.

Anyone assigned male at birth should speak to their doctor about screening for prostate cancer.

Knowing the stage of prostate cancer can help a person understand what to expect, and it will inform decisions about treatment. We list the stages below:

Stage 0: Precancerous cells are present, but they only affect a small area and are slow growing.

Localized : Cancer is only present in the prostate gland. Effective treatment is possible at this stage.

Regional : Cancer has spread to nearby tissues.

Distant : Cancer has spread to other parts of the body, such as the lungs or bones.

If a male has symptoms that may indicate prostate cancer, the doctor will likely:

  • ask about symptoms
  • ask about personal and medical history
  • conduct a blood test to assess PSA levels
  • carry out a urine test to look for other biomarkers
  • carry out a physical examination, which may include a digital rectal exam

During a DRE, the doctor will check manually for any abnormalities of the prostate with their finger.

Can Masturbation Or Frequent Sex Cause Prostate Cancer

Masturbation or frequent sex dont cause prostate cancer. In fact, its possible that frequent ejaculation may lower the risk of prostate cancer, according to a 2016 study of nearly 32,000 men in European Urology. The reasons for this arent fully known, but frequent ejaculation may flush out potentially harmful chemicals in semen, or it could be that frequent ejaculation is a marker for a healthier person.

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In Teens And Young Men Prostate Canceron The Rise

Nick Mulcahy

Prostate cancer incidence in older adolescent and young adult men has increased in most countries, but the cause for the rise is uncertain, according to a new study September 25 in the journal Cancer.

âMen as young as 17 years are experiencing an increasing incidence of carcinoma of the prostate in much of the world,â write an international team of authors, led by Archie Bleyer, MD, Oregon Health and Science Universityâs Knight Cancer Institute in Portland.

They report that the incidence of prostate cancer has increased in all groups between ages 15 and 40 years and increased globally at a steady rate averaging 2% per year since 1990 .

However, prostate cancer is rare in young men, with incidence rates not rising above about 0.2 cases per 100,000 men until age 35 and being even lower at younger ages, per US data from the last two decades notably, the rate spikes dramatically between ages 35 and 39, approaching 1.8 cases.

However, at age 70, the rate is about 800 per 100,000 men.

Notably, in the United States, young men were > 6 times more likely than older men to have metastatic disease at diagnosis. They also had very poor 5-year survival rates, the study found.

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Current Psa Screening Recommendations

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PSA-based screening refers to testing healthy men without symptoms.

Until recently, physician societies disagreed on screening recommendations, but with the publication of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Guideline in May 2018, all the major physician groups are broadly in agreement, including the American College of Physicians , the American Cancer Society , American Urological Association , and American Society of Clinical Oncology :

  • They advise supporting men so that they make informed decisions about screening that reflect their personal preferences and values.
  • Routine screening is not recommended in men between ages 40 and 54 of average risk.
  • For men ages 55 to 69 years, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force concluded with moderate certainty that the net benefit of PSA-based screening is small for some men, making the decision up to the judgment of the physician and the values of the patient.”
  • For men 70 years and older, they recommend against routine screening because the expected harms are thought to outweigh the benefits.
  • Your doctor should not screen you unless you express a preference for it.
  • A discussion of the benefits and harms of screening should include a family history of prostate cancer, race or ethnicity, any medical conditions that affect your overall health and lifespan, and your values about risk and benefit.
  • If you have less than a 10-year life expectancy, screening is not recommended.

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Learning Points/take Home Messages

  • With changing environmental factors and PSA screening, a larger number and proportion of young males with prostate cancer are coming into attention.
  • Most young patients with prostate cancer have moderately differentiated, organ confined disease.
  • Given the otherwise longer life expectancy in younger patients, treatment should be initiated promptly rather than using the wait and watch method generally used in older age group males.
  • There is more risk of treatment related adverse effects in the younger population for the same reason.
  • Is Early Onset Prostate Cancer Common

    The average age for a first prostate cancer diagnosis is 68. In the U.S., about 10% of men newly diagnosed with prostate cancer are under 55. You may also develop prostate cancer when youâre much younger, in your teens or as a young adult, though this is extremely rare.

    Around the world, thereâs been an increase in early onset prostate cancer in men between 15 and 40 years old.

    Experts arenât sure why thereâs an increase. It may be related to certain risk factors. It may also be because of changes in how itâs diagnosed. Screenings are more frequent, and thereâs more awareness that prostate cancer can happen in younger men.

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    Masturbation And Prostate Cancer Risk

    Masturbation Frequency Linked to Prostate Risk in 20s, Protection in 50s

    Jan. 27, 2009 Frequent masturbation in young men is linked to higher risk of early prostate cancer, but it lowers prostate cancer risk for men in their 50s, a study shows.

    High levels of male sex hormones, or androgens, may increase a mans risk of prostate cancer. But different studies of this question, done in different ways, have reached different conclusions.

    To look at the question in a new way, a team of researchers at Englands University of Nottingham looked at whether men with more intense sex drives were at higher risk of prostate cancer.

    Polyxeni Dimitropoulou, PhD Rosalind Eeles, PhD, FRCP and Kenneth R. Muir, PhD, obtained detailed sexual histories from 840 men. About half the men got prostate cancer by age 60, and about half did not have cancer.

    The findings were surprising. Sexual intercourse did not affect prostate cancer risk. But frequent masturbation did in different ways, at different times of life.

    Frequent masturbation during mens 20s and 30s increased their risk of prostate cancer, Dimitropoulou tells WebMD. But men in their 50s who masturbated frequently had decreased risk.

    Of course, masturbation frequency is relative.

    For men in their 50s, frequent masturbation was one or more times per week. Compared to same-age men who reported never masturbating, 50-something frequent masturbators had a 70% lower risk of prostate cancer.

    Why Choose New York Urology Specialists For Treatment Of Enlarged Prostate And Prostate Swelling

    Young Men Also Vulnerable To Prostate Cancer
    • All treatment is performed by a Board certified urologist experienced in treating men with symptoms of BPH using medical therapy, Urolift, lasers and open surgery.
    • Experience Treating Young Men with Symptoms of Enlarged and Swollen Prostate.
    • We offer BPH treatment options under local anesthesia which avoids the risks, costs and recovery from general anesthesia. Most men are able to return to office work and other normal activities the next day.

    When it comes to experience and innovation New York Urology Specialists are a step ahead. Better Science Means Better Care.

    If you have any questions, to schedule a consultation or if you need a second opinion, pleasecontact us or call:

    Medicare and major insurances accepted. Urologist.We offer .

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    What Is A Young Adult Cancer

    There is no strict definition of what separates childhood cancers from cancers in young adults, or when exactly a person is no longer a young adult. But for statistics purposes, cancers in young adults are often thought of as those that start between the ages of 20 and 39.

    Cancer is not common in young adults, but a wide variety of cancer types can occur in this age group, and treating these cancers can be challenging.

    Most cancers occur in older adults. The most common cancers in older people are cancers of the skin, lung, colon and rectum, breast , and prostate . Many cancers in older adults are linked to lifestyle-related risk factors or to other environmental factors. A small portion are strongly influenced by changes in a persons genes that they inherit from their parents.

    Cancers that start in children or in teens are much less common. The types of cancers that develop in children and teens are often different from the types that develop in adults. Childhood cancers are often the result of gene changes that take place very early in life, sometimes even before birth. Unlike many cancers in adults, cancers in children and teens are not strongly linked to lifestyle or environmental risk factors.

    The types of cancers that occur in young adults are a mix of many of the types that can develop in children, teens, and older adults.

    Us Preventive Services Task Force Issues New Prostate Cancer Screening Guidelines

    Prostate cancer is usually though not always a very slow-growing cancer that takes a long time to start affecting the body.

    Most often, it only causes symptoms when it grows to pinch the urethra or invade the sphincter or other body parts.

    In fact, some men with prostate cancer don’t show any signs or symptoms of their illness, the CDC notes.

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    A Note About Sex And Gender

    Sex and gender exist on spectrums. This article will use the terms, male, female, or both to refer to sex assigned at birth. .

    will depend on the cancer stage, among other factors, such as the Gleason score and PSA levels. It is also worth noting that many treatment options may be applicable, regardless of the stage of cancer.

    In the sections below, we list some for prostate cancer and explore what treatment may mean for fertility.

    What Are The Causes Of Enlarged Prostate In Young Men

    What Causes Prostate Cancer?

    What exactly causes Enlarged Prostate is clearly not known but studies suggest that a change in male sex hormones may be a cause of this condition. This usually occurs in older people. For Enlarged Prostate in Young Men, the primary causes according to studies can be genetic causes, any prior history of testicular abnormalities or some abnormal hormonal changes.

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    For Starters Lets Talk About What The Prostate Is And What It Does

    What is the prostate? The prostate is an important organ in the male reproductive system. The prostate is positioned just below the bladder.

    What does the prostate do? The prostate plays a role in the production and emission of semen. In young men, the prostate is about the size of a walnut. As men age, the prostate usually grows larger.

    Can Men In Their 20s And 30s Develop Enlarged Prostate And Bph

    Studies show that men can develop microscopic signs of BPH as early as in their 20s and 30s. However, it is very uncommon for men in their 20s to experience significant symptoms of BPH or an enlarged prostate. Typically, urinary symptoms in men aged 20-30 are caused by other problems. Symptoms may be caused by enlarged prostate but often its swollen from infection rather than large from growth.

    Symptomatic BPH is not very common in men who are aged 30-39 but a significant enough number of men start to show symptoms of enlarged prostate at this age. Typically, symptoms are mild but occasionally symptoms are moderate or severe enough that they require treatment.

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    Favorite Online Support Networks And Advocacy

    PHEN is an organization geared toward African-American men a group that has the nations highest prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates. It offers support groups, survivor networks, and a monthly newsletter that features new treatments and clinical trials. Their annual Fathers Day Rally event takes place at churches nationwide.

    Signs And Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer

    What Are The Symptoms Of Prostrate Cancer

    Most prostate cancers are found early, through screening. Early prostate cancer usually causes no symptoms. More advanced prostate cancers can sometimes cause symptoms, such as:

    • Problems urinating, including a slow or weak urinary stream or the need to urinate more often, especially at night
    • Blood in the urine or semen
    • Pain in the hips, back , chest , or other areas from cancer that has spread to bones
    • Weakness or numbness in the legs or feet, or even loss of bladder or bowel control from cancer pressing on the spinal cord

    Most of these problems are more likely to be caused by something other than prostate cancer. For example, trouble urinating is much more often caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia , a non-cancerous growth of the prostate. Still, its important to tell your health care provider if you have any of these symptoms so that the cause can be found and treated, if needed. Some men might need more tests to check for prostate cancer.

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