Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer
Though early warning signs of prostate cancer are rare, sometimes men experience symptoms before they are diagnosed. The severity of symptoms may depend on where the cancer is located in the prostate and how advanced it has become. However, having any of these symptoms does not necessarily mean that you have prostate cancer or that the disease has progressed beyond its early stages.
What Are The Causes
While it’s not known what causes prostate cancer, several factors may increase one’s risk of developing the condition.
These include being over the age of 50 whether one has a brother or father who developed prostate cancer before turning 60 being overweight and following an unhealthy diet, the NHS states.
Those of African or African-Caribbean descent may also be at greater risk of being diagnosed with the condition.
Prostate Cancer: Advancements In Screenings
You may know thatprostate canceris one of the most common cancer types in men. The good news is that thereare many treatment and management options, even if the cancer is caught ata later stage.
What you may not know: There are several options when it comes toprostate cancer screening. After considering multiple factors, your doctor may recommend theprostate-specific antigen test, and/or one of the newer screeningtests that are now available.
Johns Hopkins urologistChristian Pavlovich, M.D., explains what you should know.
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What Should I Do If I Have Prostate Cancer Symptoms
If you are displaying one or more signs of prostate cancer, be sure to promptly consult with a physician. Even benign prostate conditions like prostate enlargement warrant timely medical attention, so dont delay seeking treatment. And, like most other malignancies, prostate cancer is usually more easily treated when it is detected at an early stage.
Medically reviewed by Monica Chatwal, MD.
At Moffitt Cancer Center, we provide a full range of diagnostic testing for prostate cancer. If you have received a prostate cancer diagnosis, we understand that every day counts, and we want to support you every step of the way. Our Urologic Oncology Program includes a multispecialty team that focuses exclusively on evaluating and treating prostate cancer.
Contact Moffitt at or complete a new patient registration form online to speak with one of our specialized oncologists about your symptoms. As Floridas top cancer hospital, were committed to providing all new patients rapid access to a cancer expert within a day of their reaching out.
Different Symptoms Of Bph Vs Prostate Cancer
Other than skin cancer, prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers for American men. One in nine men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during his lifetime, according to data from the American Cancer Society.
Just because prostate cancer is so common, that doesnt mean the symptoms youve been experiencing are, in fact, cancer. Many symptoms of prostate cancer are the same for other conditions like infections or abnormal cell growth, also known as BPH. The symptoms of BPH vs prostate cancer can be similar. This is what you need to know and when to see a doctor.
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Epidemiology And Risk Factors
Approximately 1.1 million men were diagnosed with prostate cancer in 2012, with over 70% of these men being from high-income countries. Age-standardised incidence rates are highest in Australia and New Zealand , North America , and Western Europe , and lowest in South and Western Asian regions. Prostate cancer is the fifth leading cause for cancer death in men worldwide, with the highest mortality rates in countries with predominantly black ethnic populations such as the Caribbean and Africa . Mortality rates from prostate cancer have generally decreased globally in the last decade, with the exception of a few Northern European and Asian countries .
Prostate cancer incidence relates strongly to age, with age-specific incidence rates rising sharply from the age of 50 years and being highest in men aged 90 and above, according to Office for National Statistics data from the UK . A positive family history significantly affects a mans risk of prostate cancer. Pooled risk estimates suggest that a man with one first-degree relative with a diagnosis of prostate cancer has a relative risk of 2.48 , rising to 4.39 for men with two or more first-degree relatives affected by the disease . The evidence for an association between prostate cancer and heritable germline mutations such as BRCA1 and Lynch syndrome is more mixed.
What Questions Should I Ask My Healthcare Provider
If you have prostate cancer, you may want to ask your healthcare provider:
- Why did I get prostate cancer?
- What is my Gleason score? What is my Grade Group? What do these numbers mean for me?
- Has the cancer spread outside of the prostate gland?
- What is the best treatment for the stage of prostate cancer I have?
- If I choose active surveillance, what can I expect? What signs of cancer should I look out for?
- What are the treatment risks and side effects?
- Is my family at risk for developing prostate cancer? If so, should we get genetic tests?
- Am I at risk for other types of cancer?
- What type of follow-up care do I need after treatment?
- Should I look out for signs of complications?
A note from Cleveland Clinic
Prostate cancer is a common cancer that affects males. Most prostate cancers grow slowly and remain in the prostate gland. For a small number, the disease can be aggressive and spread quickly to other parts of the body. Men with slow-growing prostate cancers may choose active surveillance. With this approach, you can postpone, and sometimes completely forego, treatments. Your healthcare provider can discuss the best treatment option for you based on your Gleason score and Group Grade.
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What Is Advanced Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer is cancer that starts in the prostate gland. Advanced prostate cancer occurs when it has spread, or metastasized, from the prostate to other areas of the body.
Cancer spreads when cells break off from the original tumor and invade nearby tissue. This is called localized metastasis. Cancer can spread directly into nearby tissues or through the lymphatic system to distant parts of the body. When this happens, its called metastatic disease or prostate cancer with metastasis to a certain body part or organ system.
New tumors can grow in any organ, but prostate cancer is most likely to spread to the:
Stage 4 prostate cancer occurs when the prostate cancer has already spread to distant organs or tissues at the time of diagnosis. Most of the time, doctors diagnose prostate cancer at an earlier stage. Its generally a slow-growing cancer, but it can spread or it can come back, or recur, after treatment.
When cancer is confined to the prostate, many men have no symptoms. Others have trouble urinating or notice blood in their urine.
Metastatic cancer can cause generalized symptoms such as:
Other symptoms of advanced prostate cancer depend on where it has spread and how big the tumors are:
What You Can Do
Its important that you learn all you can about advanced prostate cancer so you can make informed decisions. Be open with your doctors and others on your healthcare team. Express your concerns and feel free to advocate for yourself and your quality of life. Get another medical opinion if you feel its necessary.
Some complementary therapies may prove helpful in coping with advanced cancer. For example:
- tai chi, yoga, or other movement therapy
- meditation, breathing exercises, or other relaxation techniques
A variety of services can help you with everything from lodging while youre getting treatment to getting some help around the house. Communicating with online or in-person groups are a good way to share information and lend mutual support.
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Bph And Other Conditions
There are other conditions that affect the prostate that can have similar symptoms as prostate cancer. Those conditions include benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis. BPH is a noncancerous enlargement of the prostate gland caused by aging, testosterone and genetics.
BPH is not cancer but has similar symptoms.
Another condition is prostatitis, an inflammation of the prostate gland that occurs from bacterial infection. Roughly half of all men will be affected by prostatitis during their lives.
A Note About Sex And Gender
Sex and gender exist on spectrums. This article will use the terms, male, female, or both to refer to sex assigned at birth. .
will depend on the cancer stage, among other factors, such as the Gleason score and PSA levels. It is also worth noting that many treatment options may be applicable, regardless of the stage of cancer.
In the sections below, we list some for prostate cancer and explore what treatment may mean for fertility.
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Prostate Cancer What Is It
To get checked for prostate cancer please consult with your GP.
The human body is made up of billions of tiny building blocks called cells. Sometimes, cells reproduce in an uncontrolled way and grow into a lump, or tumour. There are two kinds of tumours: noncancerous and cancerous . Benign tumours do not spread to other parts of the body and are not life threatening .
Prostate cancer occurs when abnormal cells develop in the prostate. These cells have the potential to continue to multiply, and possibly spread beyond the prostate. Doctors do not know what causes prostate cancer. What they do know however, is that the growth of cancer cells in the prostate is stimulated by male hormones, especially testosterone. Most prostate cancer growth is influenced by testosterone but the speed at which prostate cancer grows varies from man to man. In some men the cancer grows very slowly , in others growth is more rapid .
Men are more likely to develop prostate cancer as they get older. It is also more common in men who have a father or brother with prostate cancer, and in families who carry certain genes such as the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes.
Anyone with a prostate can get prostate cancer including transgender women, male-assigned non-binary people or intersex people.
Medical History And Physical Exam
If your doctor suspects you might have prostate cancer, you will be asked about symptoms you are having, such as any urinary or sexual problems, and how long you have had them. You might also be asked about possible risk factors, including your family history.
Your doctor will also examine you. This might include a digital rectal exam , during which the doctor inserts a gloved, lubricated finger into your rectum to feel for any bumps or hard areas on the prostate that might be cancer. If you do have cancer, the DRE can sometimes help tell if its only on one side of the prostate, if its on both sides, or if its likely to have spread beyond the prostate to nearby tissues. Your doctor may also examine other areas of your body.
After the exam, your doctor might then order some tests.
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Should I Have A Psa Test
Because the results of the PSA test are not as reliable as doctors would like, other tests and investigations are needed to diagnose prostate cancer.
A PSA test cannot identify prostate cancer on its own, and changes in PSA levels alone are not a good reason to start treatment.
If you are thinking about asking for a PSA test, it is important that you first discuss whether it is right for you with your GP so you understand what the results might mean.
The Prostate Cancer Risk Management Programme has information on the risks and benefits of the PSA test to help you decide whether or not to have it.
What Are The Treatments For Prostate Cancer
Your treatment options usually depend on your age, your general health, and how serious the cancer is. Your treatment may include one or more of options:
- Observation,which is mostly used if you are older, your prostate cancer isn’t likely to grow quickly, and you don’t have symptoms or you have other medical conditions. Your doctor will keep checking on your cancer over time so to see whether you will need to start treatment for the cancer. There are two types of observation:
- Watchful waiting means having little or no testing. If symptoms begin or change, you will get treatment to relieve them, but not to treat the cancer.
- Active surveillance means having regular tests to see if your prostate cancer has changed. If the tests show the cancer is starting to grow or if you develop symptoms, then you will have treatment to try to cure the cancer.
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When Should I See My Doctor
See your doctor if you notice any unusual or ongoing changes in your toilet habits . Most often, these wont mean you have cancer, but finding cancer early improves the odds of treating it successfully.
If you dont have any symptoms but are concerned about your risk, your doctor can also explain the risks and benefits of prostate cancer screening, such as having a PSA test.
What Are The 5 Warning Signs Of Prostate Cancer
Each year, almost 250,000 men in the United States are diagnosed with prostate cancer. As with other forms of cancer, this is a dangerous disease that is more easily treated if detected early. Let’s discuss what may cause prostate cancer, the 5 common warning signs associated with it, and what to do if you suspect that you have it.
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Should I Get Prostate Cancer Screening
You may have wondered why there is no nationwide prostate cancer screening program in Australia . Thats because experts do not recommend routine prostate cancer screening if youre aged between 50 and 69, healthy, and dont have a family history of prostate cancer.
There are several reasons for this:
- A high PSA level can be a result of something other than cancer.
- Experts dont fully agree on what is a normal or abnormal PSA level.
- Most men with a slightly raised PSA level have a biopsy that confirms no cancer.
- Many prostate cancers are low risk, slow growing, and are unlikely to cause harm if left untreated.
- Testing and treating low risk, slow growing cancers may cause more harm than good.
You should speak to your doctor if you have a family history or ongoing symptoms of prostate cancer, such as difficulty passing urine. Your doctor can help you make an informed decision about whether prostate cancer screening is suitable for you.
Stages Of Prostate Cancer
To classify the tumour based on the adversity of cancer, staging is done.
It helps the doctor to plan a treatment that will help the patient live a normal life.
Staging of prostate cancer can be done in this way:
Stage 1 The cancer is slow growing and has not spread to surrounding tissues.
Stage 2 The tumour grows out a little but not enough to cause blockage. The tumour is small and the risk of growing is there.
Stage 3 The tumour has grown but has not spread to other organs. The surrounding tissue may be affected.
Stage 4 The tumour is enlarged, and cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
These stages may be furthermore divided into several sub-stages.
The staging and grading system may vary in different countries.
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What Is The Treatment For Advanced Prostate Cancer
No matter where prostate cancer spreads, its still treated as prostate cancer. Its harder to treat when it reaches an advanced stage.
Treatment for advanced prostate cancer involves targeted and systemic therapies. Most men need a combination of treatments and they may have to be adjusted from time to time.
Genetic Testing For Prostate Cancer
You may hear a lot about genetics or genomics. Both terms are related to genes and cell DNA, but they are different. These tests are being used to learn more about the DNA of cancer cells, and link DNA mutations with treatments. In the future, genetic testing may be the first step doctors take when diagnosing prostate cancer.
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How Is Prostate Cancer Diagnosed
A biopsy is when a small piece of tissue is removed from the prostate and looked at under a microscope.
A biopsy is a procedure that can be used to diagnose prostate cancer. A biopsy is when a small piece of tissue is removed from the prostate and looked at under a microscope to see if there are cancer cells.
A Gleason score is determined when the biopsy tissue is looked at under the microscope. If there is a cancer, the score indicates how likely it is to spread. The score ranges from 2 to 10. The lower the score, the less likely it is that the cancer will spread.
A biopsy is the main tool for diagnosing prostate cancer, but a doctor can use other tools to help make sure the biopsy is made in the right place. For example, doctors may use transrectal ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging to help guide the biopsy. With transrectal ultrasound, a probe the size of a finger is inserted into the rectum and high-energy sound waves are bounced off the prostate to create a picture of the prostate called a sonogram. MRI uses magnets and radio waves to produce images on a computer. MRI does not use any radiation.
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