Prostate Cancer Nutrition And Dietary Supplements Health Professional Version
On This Page
This cancer information summary provides an overview of the use of various foods and dietary supplements for reducing the risk of developing prostate cancer or for treating prostate cancer. This summary includes the history of research, reviews of laboratory and animal studies, and results of clinical trials on the following foods or dietary supplements:
Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous cancer affecting men in the United States. On the basis of data from 2014 to 2016, it is estimated that 11.6% of U.S. men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during their lifetimes.
Many studies suggest that complementary and alternative medicine use is common among prostate cancer patients, and the use of vitamins, supplements, and specific foods is frequently reported by these patients. For example, the Prostate CAncer Therapy Selection study was a prospective study that investigated mens decision-making processes about treatment following a diagnosis of local-stage prostate cancer. As part of this study, patients completed surveys regarding CAM use, and more than half of the respondents reported using one or more CAM therapies, with mind-body modalities and biologically based treatments being the most commonly used.
Cme Questions About Vitamin D Deficiency In Adults
Which one of the following patients is at greatest risk for vitamin D deficiency?
A formula-fed infant
A teenaged girl eating an unrestricted diet and taking a multivitamin
A 30-year-old male nursing home resident treated with phenytoin for epilepsy
A 70-year-old woman with osteopenia taking a calcium carbonate with vitamin D supplement
A 43-year-old male farmer
Which one of the following biochemical tests provides the best initial assessment of a person’s vitamin D status?
Serum parathyroid hormone
Maintaining Good Nutrition During And After Treatment
Maintaining a healthy diet can help you prepare for and recover after cancer treatment. It may also help to prevent the prostate cancer from coming back.Watching your weight may also reduce your risk of dying from prostate cancer. Recent studies have indicated that the risk of dying from prostate cancer is more than double in obese men diagnosed with the disease compared with men of normal weight at the time of diagnosis. Obese men with local or regional disease have been shown to have nearly four times the risk of their cancer spreading beyond the prostate or metastasizing.
Prostate cancer treatment may affect your appetite, eating habits, and weight, but it is important for you to maintain a healthy weight, get essential nutrients, and remain as physically active as possible.If you have difficulty eating due to side effects from treatment, there are ways to make eating more comfortable. Working with a registered dietitian/nutritionist can help make sure you are getting the nutrition you need.
Unfortunately it is possible for the side effects of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy to cause you to lose your appetite, eat less and lose weight. On the other hand, some treatments, such as androgen deprivation therapy may cause weight gain for some men.
, Prostate Cancer and Nutrition featuring Margaret Martin, RD, MS, LDN, a nutrition educator from PearlPoint Nutrition Services.
Read Also: Prostate Cancer Grade Group 5
Mayo Clinic Essential Guide To Prostate Health Second Edition
What to do about prostate enlargement, inflammation and cancer
Lance A. Mynderse, M.D., FACS
- Learn about the latest imaging technology for the prostate
- Understand the full range of treatment options for prostatitis, BPH and prostate cancer
- Manage treatment side effects, including incontinence and impotence
Proceeds are invested into furthering medical research and education at Mayo Clinic.
million men in the U.S are affected by erectile dysfunction .
The most common forms of prostate disease, including prostate cancer, are often easily treated. Mayo Clinic Essential Guide to Prostate Health, Second Edition, an essential resource for every man, explains how to maintain better prostate health, and how to evaluate treatment options. The outlook for management, cure and survival of these diseases is better now than ever before. Prostate concerns often start out with changes in patterns of urination, difficulty with sexual function, or concern over hormonal levels.
The experts at Mayo Clinic can help the reader evaluate treatment options, cope with cancer and discover ways to improve quality of life. The topics covered include: the debate over PSA testing latest imaging technology for the prostate full range of treatment options for prostatitis, BPH and prostate cancer managing treatment side effects, including incontinence and impotence.
2015 286 pages Mayo Clinic Press
Q: Will Taking Supplements Improve My Prostate Health
A: Because supplements do not have to go through clinical trials or get FDA approval, we have very little data on many of them.
Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services.Policy
Saw palmetto is probably the most common supplement used to promote prostate health. Most people take 320 milligrams per day. But while it may help with mild voiding difficulties, European studies have not shown a lot of benefits.
Many studies have also looked at zinc, but zinc has fallen out of favor it doesnt do a whole heck of a lot.
At one time, lycopene was thought to decrease prostate cancer risk and possibly help with voiding. But those findings were later refuted.
Vitamin E was also believed to hold benefits for prostate health. This has also been refuted. Also, we now know that vitamin E has negative cardiovascular effects, so we strongly advise against taking excess vitamin E.
The bottom line: While some prostate supplements may show mild benefit, many men will see no benefit whatsoever from them.
You May Like: Bayer New Prostate Cancer Drug
The Prevalence Of Low Zinc Status In Men Over 50 And Its Endogenous And Exogenous Causes: A Need For Zinc Supplementation
In the light that more than half of men in their 60’s suffer from BPH, which increases to 90% by 70â80 years of age, and the direct effects of zinc on normal or malignant prostate cells, the need of adequate zinc status in men for having a healthy prostate becomes evident. Prostate zinc levels are depending on circulating zinc concentrations that have to be considered , which puts a focus on maximizing cellular uptake of zinc in tissues and absorption of zinc in the intestines. It has been shown in several studies that older adults frequently have low zinc status . Although the daily requirement for zinc does not increase with age, lifestyle factors and a reduced capacity to absorb zinc, an increase in the likelihood of diseases that affect zinc utilization, and the use of drugs that may decrease the bioavailability of zinc may all contribute to putting older individuals at an increased risk for the development of a mild zinc deficiency .
Table 1. Summary of endogenous and exogenous factors that may contribute to low zinc status in older men.
The requirement for dietary zinc may be as much as 50% greater for individuals on a vegetarian diet whose major food staples are grains and legumes because high levels of phytate in these foods reduce zinc absorption .
Traditional Treatments For Bph
Until recently, treatments for BPH were limited to medications such as alpha blockers and 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors or surgical procedures such as transurethral resection of the prostate . In TURP, a surgical instrument is inserted into the tip of the penis and then used to trim and remove excess prostate tissue.
There are pros and cons to both treatment approaches.
Medications can help relieve symptoms and reduce the size of the prostate. However, the medications can have unpleasant side effects, including chronic stuffy nose, lightheadedness and loss of libido.
In comparison, TURP surgery is better at improving symptoms more quickly. But in some cases, a prostate is too large to be removed through a TURP procedure. TURP also carries a risk of causing new problems such as urinary incontinence, erectile dysfunction or retrograde ejaculation .
You May Like: How Do You Know If Prostate Cancer Has Spread
Relief From Prostate Enlargement Without Surgery
You wake up in the middle of the night with an urgent need to pee. Then, before you can fall back asleep, you have to go again. If youre a man with a condition called benign prostatic hyperplasia , this scene is all too familiar.
About half of men ages 50 and older have problems with urination because of BPH. That number increases to 80 to 90 percent in men older than 70.
In BPH, the prostate becomes enlarged to the point that men have problems such as difficulty starting urination, a weak flow, an urge to urinate again soon after urination or the need for frequent urination.
Supplements For Prostate Health
Diseases of the prostate gland normally produce urinary symptoms but may also cause pain, especially in the case of acute bacterial prostatitis and later stages of BPH. OTC analgesics such as acetaminophen and NSAIDs can be recommended to relieve pain in prostate disease. A working knowledge of the supplements utilized for prostate disorders will help the pharmacist field patients’ questions about their use. In general, the pharmacist should refer patients who develop obstructive urinary symptoms to a physician for management.
REFERENCES1. Berry SJ, Coffey DS, Walsh PC, Ewing LL. The development of human benign prostatic hyperplasia with age. J Urol. 1984 132:474-479.
2. Boon H, Westlake K, Stewart M, et al. Use of complementary/alternative mediÂ cine by men diagnosed with prostate cancer: prevalence and characteristics. Urology. 2003 62:849-853.
3. Wiygul JB, Evans BR, Peterson BL, et al. Supplement use among men with prostate cancer. Urology. 2005 66:161-166.
4. Diefenbach M, Hamrick N, Uzzo R, et al. Clinical, demographic, and psychosocial correlates of complementary and alternative medicine use by men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer. J Urol. 2003 170:166-169.
5. Clark LC, Combs GF, Turnbull BW, et al. Effects of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in patients with carcinoma of the skin. A randomized controlled trial. Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Study Group. JAMA. 1996 276:1957-1963.
Read Also: How Painful Is A Biopsy Of The Prostate
Lycopene Selenium And Green Tea
In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study of a supplement containing lycopene , selenium , and green tea catechins that was given for 6 months and targeted men with high-gradeprostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and/or atypical small acinar proliferation, a higher incidence of prostate cancer was seen on rebiopsy in men who received the supplement. Although the expected rate of progression to prostate cancer is less than 20% , more than 25.5% of this population of men had a diagnosis of prostate cancer at 6 months, which may be attributed to inadequate sampling and potentially missed cancers at baseline. A high percentage of positive biopsies raises the concern for cancers missed on baseline biopsy, and further study is warranted.
Multivitamins And Supplements: To Take Or Not To Take
People ask me this question quite often: “Should I be taking certain vitamins and supplements?” And the answer is, quite honestly, It depends. According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, you should meet your nutritional needs primarily through diet. For some, however, taking certain supplements may be the best way to get nutrients you may be lacking through diet. Before you get out your wallet, its important to understand the exact impact supplements will have on your body.
According to Mayo Clinic, whole food is not to be replaced by supplements, as supplements cannot replicate all the health benefits of whole foods. For example, fruits and vegetables carry many different nutrients that provide health benefits to the human body. So, depending on your diet and current physical state, spending money on supplements may not be necessary. Listed below are Mayo Clinic’s three main benefits to whole foods vs. supplements:
Greater nutrition. Whole foods are complex, containing a variety of the micronutrients your body needs not just one. An orange, for example, provides vitamin C plus some beta carotene, calcium and other nutrients. It’s likely these compounds work together to produce their beneficial effect.
Vitamin and mineral supplementation is recommended for some people with certain conditions. Mayo Clinic says supplements may be appropriate for people who:
Anne Harguth is a registered dietitian at Mayo Clinic Health System in Waseca.
Topics in this Post
Also Check: What Does The Prostate Feel Like
A New Treatment Option For Bph
A newer, nonsurgical treatment for BPH, called prostatic artery embolization , is available at UNC Medical Center in Chapel Hill, says Ari Isaacson, MD, a vascular interventional radiologist who performs the procedure.
PAE is performed through a small puncture in the groin or the arm. A catheter is inserted through the artery and directed toward the prostate.
Once the catheter is positioned in the artery supplying blood to the prostate, tiny particles called microspheres are injected that plug up the artery, blocking blood flow. This is called embolization.
This process is then repeated on the other side, usually through the same original puncture, Dr. Isaacson says.
Exercise To Reduce Bph
Exercise has numerous benefits for overall health. For example, in an ongoing study at Harvard, men who increased physical activity were less likely to suffer from BPH. Even activities such as walking regularly at a moderate pace yielded benefits for men.
In Italy, researchers conducted a randomized controlled trial on men with symptoms of an enlarged prostate. One group walked briskly three times a week. The second group did non-aerobic exercises of sit-ups, leg lifts and stretching. Overall, both groups reported improvement in symptoms, but the group who walked briskly had lower levels of pain, anxiety and depression.
Read Also: How Many Men Die Of Prostate Cancer
What About Vitamin D Toxicity
Vitamin D toxicity should not be diagnosed solely on the basis of an elevated 25D level instead, it should be recognized as a clinical syndrome of both hypervitaminosis D and hypercalcemia, in which hyperphosphatemia and hypercalciuria also commonly occur. Patients with vitamin D toxicity could present with clinical symptoms and signs of hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria . Hypervitaminosis D in the absence of hypercalcemia may prompt further investigation to evaluate the etiology of increased vitamin D levels however, unlike hypercalcemia, it is not a medical emergency. Although excess vitamin D supplementation can lead to hypercalcemia, vitamin D toxicity is extremely rare and generally occurs only after ingestion of large doses of vitamin D for prolonged periods in patients with normal gut absorption or in patients who may be concurrently ingesting generous if not excessive amounts of calcium. A 25D level of 80 ng/mL is the lowest reported level associated with toxicity in patients without primary HPT with normal renal function. Most patients with vitamin D toxicity have levels greater than 150 ng/mL. Binkley et al have recently reported that vitamin D supplementation with 1600 IU/d or 50,000 IU monthly was not associated with any laboratory parameters of toxicity and even failed to increase total 25D levels above 30 ng/mL in 19% of participants.
Side Effects And Nutrition
Cancer treatment often causes side effects, such as nausea, mouth sores, and taste changes that may make it difficult to eat or drink. Follow these tips to help you get the nutrition you need:
- If water tastes unpleasant to you, take in more liquid though items such as soup, tea, milk or milk substitutes such as almond milk, or a sports drink. Or, flavor your water by adding fresh cut fruit.
- If food tastes bland, try seasoning it with flavorful spices such as garlic, cayenne, dill, and rosemary.
- Eat several small meals throughout the day instead of trying to eat large amounts of food at one time.
- Enhance your protein intake with protein from foods such as fish, egg whites, cheese, beans, or high protein smoothies.
- Suck on mints, chew on gum, or try fresh citrus fruits if you have a metallic taste in your mouth. Brushing your teeth before eating, using plastic utensils, and cooking in glassware can also help.
- If you have mouth sores or a gum infection, use a blender to make vegetables and meats smooth. Try juicing or making smoothies.Some side effects are often treated with medication, so talk with your doctor or another member of your health care team for more information.
The Best Prostate Supplements
|COVID-19 Update: Many caregivers and seniors are searching for ways to support and connect with their loved ones while maintaining isolation and social distancing guidelines. Weve compiled a list of 10 essential products to help older adults stay happy, healthy and connected, whether they are aging in place at home or in an assisted living community.
Top 25 Prostate Supplements for Men
Prostate health is a significant consideration for men over 40. According to the University of Tennessee Medical Center, approximately 30 million men suffer from prostate conditions ranging from an enlarged prostate to prostate cancer. African-American men over 60, farmers, tire plant workers, painters, and men who have been exposed to cadmium have the highest risk of prostate cancer.
As you age, consult with your doctor about your prostate health. Also, alert your doctor if you have noticeable symptoms of a prostate condition, like frequent urination or decrease in libido. Detecting and treating prostate cancer early significantly increases your chances of survival.
Supplementing Zinc For Maintaining Adequate Zinc Levels In Older Men: Not All The Sources Of Zinc Are Alike
Taken together, more than 50% of men over 60 suffer from BPH, and also have low zinc status. Thus, there is a strong case for establishing a program of zinc supplementation in men over 50 due to the endogenous and exogenous factors presented above. Several studies showed that the treatment of malignant prostate cells with zinc that will increase cellular zinc levels leads to the inhibition of cell proliferation, promotion of apoptosis, and inhibition of cell migration and invasion . However, there are many options available for supplementation, and choosing the correct supplement may be critical to achieving effects in prostate tissues.
The way of cellular uptake and the protection from sequestering by metallothionines, as well as slower excretion profiles may give organic zinc supplements such as ZnAAs an advantage that could be especially beneficial for older individuals. In particular, because older individuals may have restricted dietary habits with nutrients low in zinc or with high concentrations of uptake antagonists. In addition, medications that are taken and that limit zinc availability may be less disruptive for ZnAAs. Besides, metallic amino acid complexes have been used as human supplements and have a long history of safety and efficacy. They are frequently used as a mineral supplement for animals, where extensive research data shows their effectiveness and advantages over inorganic supplements.
Recommended Reading: Prostate Cancer Gleason Score 9 Life Expectancy