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Prostate Cancer Symptoms In Males

How Common Is Prostate Cancer

Prostate Health and Urinary Symptoms In Men Chris Brede, MD

About one in nine men will receive a prostate cancer diagnosis during his lifetime. Prostate cancer is second only to skin cancer as the most common cancer affecting males. Close to 200,000 American men receive a diagnosis of prostate cancer every year. There are many successful treatments and some men dont need treatment at all. Still, approximately 33,000 men die from the disease every year.

What You Need To Know About Prostate Cancer

Unless it causes problems, most men dont give a lot of thought to their prostate. The small gland is responsible for producing seminal fluid , and its located beneath the bladder and around the urethra, the tube that transports fluid to the penis.

Most types of prostate cancer are known as adenocarcinomas, which are cancers that develop from gland cells, the Mayo Clinic says.

While some forms of prostate cancer grow and spread quickly, others grow quite slowly. The American Cancer Society notes that some people can have undetectable prostate cancer for decades without it causing any problems. But the risks of prostate cancer are quite serious, particularly as it begins to spread to other areas of the body.

What Should I Do If I Have Prostate Cancer Symptoms

If you are displaying one or more signs of prostate cancer, be sure to promptly consult with a physician. Even benign prostate conditions like prostate enlargement warrant timely medical attention, so dont delay seeking treatment. And, like most other malignancies, prostate cancer is usually more easily treated when it is detected at an early stage.

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You Have Difficulty Peeing

If you have trouble urinating or your stream is slow or weak, call your doctor. Even if this happens once or twice and doesnt persist, you should not ignore it because its not normal. Get it checked out right away, says Ash Tewari, MD, chairman of the department of urology at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York. Although your toilet troubles are more likely to be caused by a condition other than cancerthey can be a symptom of UTIs in men, for exampleyou cant be too careful, he says. The urge to go more often, especially at night, or loss of bladder control can be another sign that somethings not right.

The Top 7 Signs Of Advanced Prostate Cancer

Whats The Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer

In the early stages, you may not notice any symptoms related to prostate cancer. This is why screenings are important. Symptoms can sometimes be noticed for the first time when the cancer advances.

Advanced prostate cancer, also called metastatic cancer, means the cancer has spread to other areas of your body beyond your prostate gland. The most common areas for prostate cancer to spread are your bladder, rectum, and bones. It can also spread to your lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and other body tissues.

Whether youve just been diagnosed or youre in treatment, its also important to know the signs of advanced cancer. Cancer can behave differently depending on your genetics, so not every person will experience the same symptoms in the same way.

Read on to learn more about the seven top symptoms of advanced prostate cancer and how to spot them.

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What Are The Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer

If you have any symptoms that worry you, be sure to see your doctor right away. They may be caused by conditions other than prostate cancer.

Different people have different symptoms for prostate cancer. Some men do not have symptoms at all.

If you have any of the following symptoms, be sure to see your doctor right away

  • Difficulty starting urination.
  • Weak or interrupted flow of urine.
  • Frequent urination, especially at night.
  • Difficulty emptying the bladder completely.
  • Pain or burning during urination.
  • Blood in the urine or semen.
  • Pain in the back, hips, or pelvis that doesnt go away.
  • Painful ejaculation.

Keep in mind that these symptoms may be caused by conditions other than prostate cancer.

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What Are 5 Common Warning Signs Of Prostate Cancer

In many cases, prostate cancer does not produce clear symptoms in its initial stages of development. In fact, many men may have prostate cancer without even realizing it. However, there are some common warning signs that could indicate a person has prostate cancer. Five of the most common ones include:

  • Pain and/or a “burning sensation” when urinating or ejaculating
  • Frequent urination, especially during the nighttime
  • Trouble starting urination, or stopping urination once in progress
  • Sudden erectile dysfunction
  • Blood in either urine or semen
  • Of course, these five symptoms are not the only potential warning signs of prostate cancer. Other possible indicators could include weak urine flow, and unexplained pain deep in the groin area when sitting down. If cancer has spread beyond the prostate, a man may also suffer lower body swelling, abnormal urinary or bowel habits, or inexplicable weight loss.

    It’s important to note that most of these symptoms are not unique to prostate cancer, and may indicate a different condition that is not life-threatening.

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    Prostate Cancer Caregiver Podcast Series

    We are proud to announce a new podcast series geared toward helping give support, hope and guidance to prostate cancer caregivers. The goal of this Prostate Cancer Caregiver Podcast Series is to help others connect with a diverse group of people who have felt the impact of prostate cancer in their lives and empower them on their journey.

    Treatment Of Prostate Cancer

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    For men whose lives are unlikely to be affected by their prostate cancer, such as those in old age or with low-grade disease, receiving no treatment might be the best option for them. In these cases, a watchful waiting approach may be taken, which involves regularly monitoring the cancer and treating any symptoms, but avoids the possible side effects of cancer treatment.

    Surgery or radiation therapy are effective treatments to cure prostate cancer in men with more aggressive but localised disease4.

    If prostate cancer spreads to other parts of the body, androgen deprivation therapy is the usual first line of treatment. However, the cancer can become resistant to this treatment over time. Combination therapy with both ADT and chemotherapy drugs is often used when metastases are widespread.

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    When To See A Doctor

    Consult with your doctor if you experience any of the symptoms discussed on this page particularly if they have been going on for a while. You will need a thorough work-up to determine the underlying cause, which may or may not be prostate cancer.

    Its important to understand that other diseases or disorders can share these same symptoms. Benign prostatic hyperplasia , also called enlargement of the prostate, and are quite common. Men with these benign conditions can experience symptoms more often and more severely than men with prostate cancer.

    Erectile dysfunction is relatively common, especially as one ages, and can also have causes unrelated to prostate cancer, such as smoking or cardiovascular disease. Experiencing a lower amount of fluid during ejaculation can be related to something as simple as diet or dehydration.

    Its important to keep track of your symptoms, determining whats normal or abnormal for your own body. If you are worried about a particular symptom, or if its interfering with a relationship, you should discuss your concerns with your primary care physician.

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    Is It Always Cancer

    HOWEVER, as we said, most prostate tumors dont happen in the central gland, but in the peripheral zone. And this zone is far from the urethra.

    So, many times, when we have these symptoms they are NOT because of cancer.

    They are because of something else like benign prostatic hyperplasia . This disorder is way more frequent and many men suffer it after a certain age .

    Whats more, pain and burn are also caused by prostatitis .

    So how can we tell between cancer and the others ?

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    Common Prostate Cancer Symptoms

    • Urinary frequency: Men with prostate cancer may feel the need to urinate more often, particularly at night.
    • Urinary retention: Prostate cancer may cause the sensation of not being able to empty your bladder completely.
    • Weak urinary stream: Some men with prostate cancer may feel that their urinary stream is diminished or that they dribble urine.
    • Difficulty initiating urination: It may be difficult to begin urinating in some men suffering from prostate cancer.
    • Painful urination: Urinating may cause pain or discomfort in some cases of prostate cancer.
    • Blood in the urine: Prostate cancer can result in blood in the urine in some men.
    • Painful ejaculation: Some men suffering from prostate cancer experience pain with ejaculation.

    Prognosis For Prostate Cancer

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    It is not possible for a doctor to predict the exact course of a disease, as it will depend on each person’s individual circumstances. However, your doctor may give you a prognosis, the likely outcome of the disease, based on the type of prostate cancer you have, the test results, the rate of tumour growth, as well as your age, fitness and medical history.

    Prostate cancer often grows slowly and even more aggressive types tend to grow more slowly than other types of cancer. If diagnosed early, prostate cancer has one of the highest five year survival rates.

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    Prostate Cancer Treatment Options: What Are They

    Prostate cancer is, most often, a slow-growing cancer.

    For some men, prostate cancer causes no symptoms or long-term issues, so treatment isn’t necessary.

    In these cases, doctors may recommend active surveillance. That is, they’ll keep an eye on the development of the tumor using various tools and tests, including:

    • Digital rectal exams
    • Transrectal ultrasounds
    • Prostate biopsies

    Men who require treatment for their condition are most often treated with surgery, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, or a combination of these modalities.

    Should Men At Elevated Risk Be Screened More Aggressively

    It might sound logical to screen high-risk men earlier or urge men to adopt a healthy lifestyle to lower their risk for prostate cancer, but these areas have not been studied sufficiently. Therefore, physician organizations recommend more research and individualizing decisions about whether to get screened. Meanwhile, some leading organizations have issued recommendations, including:

    • The American Urological Association The AUA recommends individualizing decision-making for men younger than age 55 who are high risk because they are African-American or have a positive family history. ” rel=”nofollow”> 7)
    • The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force The USPSTF largely agrees largely with AUAs position and its 2018 recommendations are based on AUAs evidence review.
    • The American Cancer Society The ACS takes this a step further, urging discussion about screening begin earlier for African-American men and men with first-degree relatives who have had prostate cancer.

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    What Is The Survival Rate For Prostate Cancer

    Most of the men diagnosed with prostate cancer will not die from it. Other medical conditions along with prostate cancer can cause death.

    Survival rates for men with prostate cancer have increased over the years due to increased screening and treatment options.

    • Ninety-nine percent of men with prostate cancer will survive for a minimum of five years after diagnosis.

    Talk With Your Doctor

    Important message for men on prostate cancer

    Prostate cancer is a risk for all men as they age, but if its caught and treated early, the outlook is generally very good. So as you get older, be sure to have open conversations with your doctor about your risk.

    If you have any symptoms you think might be prostate cancer, talk to your doctor right away. And even if you dont have symptoms, consider adopting a healthy lifestyle to decrease your risk.

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    What Are The Stages Of Prostate Cancer

    Your healthcare provider uses the Gleason score and Grade Groups to stage prostate cancer based on its projected aggressiveness. To get this information, the pathologist:

    • Assigns a grade to each type of cell in your sample. Cells are graded on a scale of three to five . Samples that test in the one to two range are considered normal tissue.
    • Adds together the two most common grades to get your Gleason score .
    • Uses the Gleason score to place you into a Grade Group ranging from one to five. A Gleason score of six puts you in Grade Group 1 . A score of nine or higher puts you in Grade Group five . Samples with a higher portion of more aggressive cells receive a higher Grade Group.

    What Questions Should I Ask My Healthcare Provider

    If you have prostate cancer, you may want to ask your healthcare provider:

    • Why did I get prostate cancer?
    • What is my Gleason score? What is my Grade Group? What do these numbers mean for me?
    • Has the cancer spread outside of the prostate gland?
    • What is the best treatment for the stage of prostate cancer I have?
    • If I choose active surveillance, what can I expect? What signs of cancer should I look out for?
    • What are the treatment risks and side effects?
    • Is my family at risk for developing prostate cancer? If so, should we get genetic tests?
    • Am I at risk for other types of cancer?
    • What type of follow-up care do I need after treatment?
    • Should I look out for signs of complications?

    A note from Cleveland Clinic

    Prostate cancer is a common cancer that affects males. Most prostate cancers grow slowly and remain in the prostate gland. For a small number, the disease can be aggressive and spread quickly to other parts of the body. Men with slow-growing prostate cancers may choose active surveillance. With this approach, you can postpone, and sometimes completely forego, treatments. Your healthcare provider can discuss the best treatment option for you based on your Gleason score and Group Grade.

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    Prostate Cancer Symptoms Range From Problems Urinating To Bone Pain And Erectile Dysfunction Other Conditions Such As Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia And Prostatitis Can Mimic Signs Of Prostate Cancer

    A diagnosis of prostate cancer is both troubling and confusing, with lots of new terms to learn and concepts to understand.

    Despite the fact that there are roughly 221,000 new cases of prostate cancer diagnosed in American men each year, many of them have no prostate cancer symptoms.

    In these asymptomatic men, prostate cancer is often detected during routine screening with tests such as a digital rectal exam, urinalysis, and possibly a prostate specific antigen test by their healthcare professional. This is particularly true of men with early stage prostate cancer, but may also be true of men with more advanced cancer.

    Other men with prostate cancer may experience symptoms ranging from mild to severe that may mimic symptoms of other prostate conditions, including benign prostatic hyperplasia/BPH and prostatitis .

    Some of these prostate cancer symptoms are more common than others and tend to occur in more localized prostate cancer while others are more likely to occur in men whose prostate cancer has spread or metastasized to other parts of the body. If you experience any of these symptoms, you should consult your healthcare provider immediately.

    How To Know Whether It Is Cancer

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    If you have any of the mentioned signs, you should see a doctor. They will take the steps to rule out cancer.

    However, you can read here the different options :

    · RECTAL EXAMINATION

    The doctor checks your prostate through your rectum, with a finger. The prostate is in contact with the rectum so this is the way to palpate it.

    By doing so, the doctor can check if it is enlarged, if it has hard nodules

    · PSA

    It is detected through a blood test. The more prostatic tissue you have, the higher value of PSA you have.

    It is useful if you have a normal PSA value because that virtually rules out cancer. If your PSA is okay, your prostate is probably ok.

    However, if you have a high PSA then you have more prostatic tissue than normal. Maybe you have BPH .

    Prostatitis also causes a high PSA, because of the irritated tissue.

    So if PSA is normal then everything is good. If PSA is highyou probably need some extra tests to find out what is wrong.

    An increased PSA can be due to prostate cancer, but also to BPH and prostatitis.

    · PROSTATE MRI

    You go inside the MRI machine and stay still for around 30 minutes.

    Usually, it also requires intravenous contrast so you will need an IV line.

    • This test will tell the doctor if there are any suspiciousnodules inside the prostate. Also, it will show the prostate cancer stage.
    • It will also show if it is a large prostate, but with no malignant nodules .

    If there are no nodules, everythings fine. If there are you may need a biopsy.

    · PROSTATE BIOPSY

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    Staging Of Prostate Cancer

    Doctors will use the results of your prostate examination, biopsy and scans to identify the ‘stage’ of your prostate cancer . The stage of the cancer will determine which types of treatments will be necessary.

    A widely used method of staging is a number staging system. The stages are:

    • stage 1 the cancer is very small and completely within the prostate gland
    • stage 2 the cancer is within the prostate gland, but is larger
    • stage 3 the cancer has spread from the prostate and may have grown into the tubes that carry semen
    • stage 4 the cancer has spread into the lymph nodes or another part of the body, including the bladder, rectum or bones about 20 to 30% of cases are diagnosed at this stage

    If prostate cancer is diagnosed at an early stage, the chances of survival are generally good.

    Read further information:

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