Another Common Issue: Enlarged Prostate Or Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
It’s not well understood what causes prostate enlargement, also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia , but research suggests age-related hormonal changes may be to blame. Men younger than 40 rarely experience symptoms of BPH.
In men with BPH, the prostate presses into and pinches the urethra as it enlarges.
This pressure can negatively affect the urine-holding bladder, which is connected to the urethra, by weakening it and preventing it from emptying completely.
Prostate enlargement can cause a number of related urination symptoms, such as:
- Increased urinary frequency and urgency
- Weak or interrupted urine stream
- Urine with an unusual color or smell
- Nocturia, or frequent urination during periods of sleep
- Pain after urination
Over time, BPH may cause complications, including urinary tract infections, damage to the bladder or kidneys, and bladder stones, among other things.
Treatment of BPH includes lifestyle changes, medication, and surgery, which may be minimally invasive.
Diagnosis Of Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer is diagnosed using a number of tests, which may include:
- Prostate-specific antigen test the prostate makes a protein called PSA. Large quantities of PSA in the blood can indicate prostate cancer or other prostate problems.
- Digital rectal examination using a gloved finger in the rectum, the doctor feels for enlargement and irregularities of the prostate.
- Biopsy six to 12 tissue samples are taken from the prostate and examined in a laboratory for the presence of cancer cells.
If prostate cancer is diagnosed, more tests may be needed to see if the cancer has spread to other areas of the body. These may include computed tomography scans, magnetic resonance imaging scans and bone scans.
Test results can take a few days to come back. It is very natural to feel anxious while waiting to get your results. It can help to talk to a close friend or relative about how you are feeling. You can also contact the Cancer Council Helpline on 13 11 20 and speak with a cancer nurse.
What Will This Summary Tell Me
This summary will tell you about:
- What localized prostate cancer is
- Common treatment options for localized prostate cancer
- What researchers found about how the treatments compare
- Possible side effects of the treatments
- Things to talk about with your doctor
This summary does not cover:
- How to prevent prostate cancer
- Less common treatments for localized prostate cancer, such as high-intensity focused ultrasound , cryotherapy , proton-beam radiation therapy , and stereotactic body radiation therapy
- Herbal products or vitamins and minerals
- Treatments for cancer that has spread outside the prostate gland
*In this summary, the term doctor refers to your health care professional, including your primary care physician, urologist, oncologist, nurse practitioner, or physician assistant.
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How Your Diet Promotes A Healthy Prostate
The Mediterranean Diet has a strong association between lowering cancer risk and preventing heart disease. This is attributed to the fact that this diet is focused on whole foods including fruits, vegetables, whole grains and beans while also focusing on healthy unsaturated fats from plants. With this style of eating, theres also an emphasis on decreasing processed or refined foods along with lowering intake of red meat or processed red meats. It allows alcohol in moderation and its focus on whole foods supports adequate fiber intake. It also allows for a wide range of foods, which means its more of a lifestyle rather than just a fad diet.
Since this style of eating has a positive impact on cancer prevention, adopting healthy eating habits now could help prevent prostate problems down the road. Some nutrients and vitamins can have a very positive effect on the health of your prostate. Making sure youre getting the right nutrients as part of a balanced diet can play an important role in the health of your prostate.
Common Prostate Health Problems
Prostate cancer has become a major public health problem worldwide. This form of cancer is when malignant, cancer cells form in the tissues of the prostate. Typically there are no symptoms at all, and prostate cancer is detected on surveillance DRE and PSA tests. If a man has any symptoms, its typically a sign of a very advanced disease but this is very uncommon this day and age.
The risk of developing prostate cancer increases with age. Other risk factors include family history and race. The study of age-specific incidence curves reveals that prostate cancer risk begins to rise sharply after age 55 and peaks at age 7074, declining slightly thereafter. Autopsy studies even show that prostate cancer has a long induction period and many men begin to have lesions in their 20s and 30s. The risk of prostate cancer is approximately 60 percent higher in African-Americans than in Caucasians, with the mortality rate in African-Americans being double that of caucasians. And studies conducted as far back as the 1950s determined that having a brother or father with prostate cancer increases the risk for an individual by approximately two- to threefold, on average.
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
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Keeping Your Prostate Healthy As You Age
With legions of men around the world growing mustaches this month to support Movember, the topic of prostate cancer is on many peoples minds. While many of us know prostate cancer research is a cause worth supporting, few men know that current screening and treatment strategies may be helpful for some and harmful for others.
As weve heard from some of our providers specializing in mens health, male patients often breathe a sigh of relief when theyre told a prostate exam isnt required during an annual check-up. And while older men are at greater risk for prostate cancer, in some cases, the pros of prostate cancer screening most often dont outweigh the cons, particularly when it comes to older men.
This is such a complicated question for which we still dont have definitive answers, says One Medicals Malcolm Thaler, MD. Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men, but only a tiny fraction of these cancers will be aggressive and clinically significant. The vast majority of prostate cancers will never impact clinical well-being or life expectancy. According to Thaler, this is why its crucial for men of all ages to understand their individual risk and their options.
How To Maintain Proper Prostate Health
Reviewed by Tracy Gapin, MD
Prostate canceris the second leading cause of cancer death in men living in the United States, with an estimated 180,890 new cases and 26,120 deaths from prostate cancer in 2016. Those are scary numbers, and besides cancer, there are a number of other prostate health problems that can become an issue as men age. Benign prostatic hyperplasia is said to affect 90 percent of men at the age of 70, and prostatitis is the most common reason for men under the age of 50 to see a urologist. Clearly, prostate health is an important issue, and education is one of the best ways to stay healthy.
With diet and lifestyle changes, you can reduce the risk of developing prostate health issues. And if youre already dealing with some of these problems, there are herbs and supplements that can help you to reduce inflammation, fight prostate enlargement and inhibit the growth of cancer cells.
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What Can You Get Following The Proposed Way Of Prostate Treatment
What Is The Prognosis For People Who Have Prostate Cancer
Because prostate cancer tends to grow slowly, most men die from something other than the disease. Early detection is key to better outcomes. Almost all men 97% to 98% diagnosed with localized cancer that hasnt spread outside of the prostate live at least five years after diagnosis. When metastatic cancer has spread outside of the gland, one-third of men continue to survive after five years.
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What Questions Should I Ask My Healthcare Provider
If you have prostate cancer, you may want to ask your healthcare provider:
- Why did I get prostate cancer?
- What is my Gleason score? What is my Grade Group? What do these numbers mean for me?
- Has the cancer spread outside of the prostate gland?
- What is the best treatment for the stage of prostate cancer I have?
- If I choose active surveillance, what can I expect? What signs of cancer should I look out for?
- What are the treatment risks and side effects?
- Is my family at risk for developing prostate cancer? If so, should we get genetic tests?
- Am I at risk for other types of cancer?
- What type of follow-up care do I need after treatment?
- Should I look out for signs of complications?
A note from Cleveland Clinic
Prostate cancer is a common cancer that affects males. Most prostate cancers grow slowly and remain in the prostate gland. For a small number, the disease can be aggressive and spread quickly to other parts of the body. Men with slow-growing prostate cancers may choose active surveillance. With this approach, you can postpone, and sometimes completely forego, treatments. Your healthcare provider can discuss the best treatment option for you based on your Gleason score and Group Grade.
Know Your Risk Factors
The prostate is a walnut-sized, gland located just in front of the bladder and above the rectum. Northwestern Medicine Urologic Oncologist Ashley Evan Ross, MD, PhD, explains, The urethra runs through the prostate like a tunnel through a mountain. The prostates main function is to secrete fluids that make up a portion of the semen and protect the sperm.
Although there are a number of conditions that can impact your prostate, such as an enlarged prostate or inflammation of the prostate , prostate cancer remains the most common non-skin cancer in men. Knowing your risk factors is one of the first lines of defense.
The risk for prostate cancer increases with age, with about 6 in 10 cases diagnosed in men who are 65 or older. Prostate cancer also develops more often in African American men and in men with a family history of cancer. Genetic abnormalities can increase your risk for prostate cancer and, in some cases, increase your risk of developing aggressive disease, says Dr. Ross. If there is a strong family history of prostate, breast or ovarian cancer all possibly related to the BRCA2 gene men should consider beginning screening at a younger age.
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Understanding The Importance Of Your Prostate
Many men do not understand what their prostate does and how it can impact their lives. The prostate is a small gland that is about the size and shape of a walnut that is located below the neck of the bladder. The urethra runs through the center of your prostate, from the bladder through the penis, letting urine flow out of the body.
Your prostate can become larger as you age, and usually begins to grow around the age of 40-50 this is a normal part of aging. Eventually, this growth can lead to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, better known as BPH.
As the prostate enlarges, it presses on and blocks the urethra, causing bothersome urinary symptoms such as:
- Frequent need to urinate both day and night
- Weak or slow urinary stream
- A sense that you cannot completely empty your bladder
- Difficulty or delay in starting urination
- Urgent feeling of needing to urinate
- A urinary stream that stops and starts
If you suffer from the above symptoms, you are not alone. BPH is the leading reason men visit a urologist.3
When A Cure For Your Prostate Cancer Isnt Possible
If the cancer has spread and it is not possible to cure it with surgery, your doctor may still recommend treatment that focuses on improving quality of life by relieving the symptoms . Medications can be used to relieve pain, nausea and vomiting. The Cancer Council Victoria booklet called Living with advanced cancer may be helpful to read.
Treat Your Prostate As Though It Were Any Other Part Of Your Body You Were Trying To Keep Healthy
While the prostate has specific needs such as certain vitamins and nutrients that are designed to boost its health, the truth is that the health of your prostate can be improved through many of the activities you already engage in to stay healthy overall. Take, for example, exercise. Research has shown that regular exercise can reduce the chances of dealing with BPH as well as reducing the symptoms of BPH and increasing the chances of living after receiving a prostate cancer diagnosis. As long as you drink plenty of water, work out, eat well, and reduce stress in your day-to-day life, youre well on your way to greater prostate health.
The prostate isnt a part of the body that most men think of when theyre looking to boost their health. However, the prostate is something that will quickly make itself known should the size of your prostate increase. To keep this gland healthy and happy or help you cope with an increase in prostate size, use the guide above to learn more about what can be done to enhance your prostate health.
Five Tips To Keep The Male Reproductive System Healthy
The male reproductive system is one of the most important parts of the body and maintaining good reproductive health is essential to sexual development and procreation. However, many men often tend to overlook their reproductive health and as a result can lead to numerous complications and diseases. Good reproductive health depends on diet, lifestyle, medical conditions, occupational exposures and many other factors. Below are some easy and practical tips on how you can keep your most intimate parts healthy.
How to take care of the male reproductive system?
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Surgery To Remove The Prostate Gland
In this type of surgery, the surgeon removes the prostate gland and seminal vesicles . The prostate gland surrounds the upper part of the urethra . So, that part of the urethra must be removed as well. The remaining urethra is reattached to the bladder. The surgeon may also remove lymph nodes or other tissues around the prostate gland to check if the cancer has spread.
Before surgery to remove the prostate gland
After surgery to remove the prostate gland
What A High Psa Level Means If Its Not Prostate Cancer
Other important components of prostatic fluid include an enzyme called prostatic acid phosphatase, citric acid, zinc, spermine and prostatic inhibin .
During an orgasm, prostate muscles squeeze the gland’s stored fluid into the urethra, where it mixes with the sperm cells and other semen components.
This expulsive process also helps propel the semen out of the body during ejaculation.
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Diet & Exercise Tips For Prostate Health
“What can I eat to reduce my risk of developing prostate cancer?” This is one of the most common questions physicians hear from men concerned about prostate health. Undoubtedly, many hope that their doctor will rattle off a list of foods guaranteed to shield them from disease. Although some foods have been linked with reduced risk of prostate cancer, proof that they really work is lacking, at least for now.
Where Is The Prostate And What Does It Look Like
The prostate is situated between the bladder and penis, just in front of the rectum . It is above the muscles of the pelvic floor.
The urethra, a narrow tube that carries urine and semen out of the body through the penis, runs through the center of the prostate, which weighs less than 1 ounce .
The word “prostate” comes from the Greek word “prostates,” which means “one who stands before,” aptly describing the position of the gland. That is, when viewed from below, the prostate “stands before” the bladder.
Because the rectum is behind the prostate, it is possible to feel the prostate with a finger when inserted through the rectum. The prostate feels elastic because it’s surrounded by a supportive tissue called the stroma, which is made of flexible smooth muscle fibers and connective tissue .
The muscle cells contract during ejaculation, forcing fluid stored in the prostate into the urethra.
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When Do Prostate Problems Begin
Be proactive with your health for their sake
There are some men out there wholl exhibit prostate problems by the time theyre in their 30s and 40s. When this happens, they need to seek immediate medical attention. However, other symptoms might not manifest until men are in the later stages of their lives.
One analysis looked at the transition zone of the prostate of men at different stages in their lives 1.
The volunteers fell into the following age ranges:
- 4049 Years
- Matrix Metalloproteinases
Not only is kombucha part of a healthy gut diet plan, but can also aid in mens wellness as they age. Thats why this brew is a must on our list of drinks for prostate health.
The Grade Group And Psa Level Are Used To Stage Prostate Cancer
The stage of the cancer is based on the results of the staging and diagnostic tests, including the prostate-specific antigen test and the Grade Group. The tissue samples removed during the biopsy are used to find out the Gleason score. The Gleason score ranges from 2 to 10 and describes how different the cancer cells look from normal cells under a microscope and how likely it is that the tumor will spread. The lower the number, the more cancer cells look like normal cells and are likely to grow and spread slowly.
The Grade Group depends on the Gleason score. See the General Information section for more information about the Gleason score.
- Grade Group 1 is a Gleason score of 6 or less.
- Grade Group 2 or 3 is a Gleason score of 7.
- Grade Group 4 is a Gleason score 8.
- Grade Group 5 is a Gleason score of 9 or 10.
The PSA test measures the level of PSA in the blood. PSA is a substance made by the prostate that may be found in an increased amount in the blood of men who have prostate cancer.