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Everything To Know About Prostate Cancer

Will Changing My Diet Lower My Risk Of Prostate Cancer

Everything you need to know about prostate cancer

To lower the risk of cancer, including prostate cancer, men should focus on eating a diet that includes lots of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy, lean meats and non-meat protein sources such as nuts and beans. They should also avoid added sugars and refined grains, said Dr. Marian Neuhouser, a Fred Hutch nutritional epidemiologist.

âDonât think of foods as having a magical attribute,â she stressed, warning men away from assuming that having Brussels sprouts for dinner somehow cancels out the hot dog and chips they had for lunch, or that taking supplements or eating a so-called âsuperfoodâ can make up for poor overall eating habits.

âThatâs what the evidence is starting to tell us,â she said. âThe whole is greater than the sum of its parts.â

Neuhouserâs recommendations drew from the World Cancer Research Fund Internationalâs report on diet, nutrition, physical activity and prostate cancer, released in fall 2014, and the Scientific Report of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, released in February 2015.

What if a man already has prostate cancer â is there a diet that can improve his outcomes? Thereâs no good evidence yet to answer this question, Neuhouser said, but prostate cancer researchers at Fred Hutch and UW are engaged in research to help answer this question.

Drugs To Treat Cancer Spread To Bone

If prostate cancer spreads to other parts of the body, it almost always goes to the bones first. These areas of cancer spread can cause pain and weak bones that might break. Medicines that can help strengthen the bones and lower the chance of fracture are bisphosphonates and denosumab. Sometimes, radiation, radiopharmaceuticals, or pain medicines are given for pain control.

Side effects of bone medicines

A serious side effect of bisphosphonates and denosumab is damage to the jaw, also called osteonecrosis of the jaw . Most people will need to get approval from their dentist before starting one of these drugs.

Im In Active Surveillance For My Prostate Cancer Do I Really Need All These Biopsies

Right now, biopsies are still standard of care â but stay tuned.

In active surveillance, doctors use regular biopsies to check the progress of prostate tumors in men with a very low risk of dying from their cancer. If a doctor finds that the cancer is progressing into a more dangerous form, the patient can then begin treatment. If the tumor is stable , then he stays on surveillance.

Taking an active surveillance approach protects men from treatment side effects if thereâs no cause to treat the cancer â but not every biopsy reveals useful information, and each one carries risks, including bleeding and infection.

Researchers with the Canary Prostate Active Surveillance Study, led by Dr. Daniel Lin of Fred Hutch, recently published an online biopsy risk calculator for more-personalized medicine in patients undergoing active surveillance. The tool is designed to guide patient-doctor decisions about follow-up biopsies based on the likelihood that a given biopsy will yield signs of disease progression.

The researchers developed the calculator based on data from 859 men participating in the Prostate Active Surveillance Study, a long-term study involving hundreds of men with prostate cancer that seeks to develop better ways to distinguish between those who would benefit from aggressive treatment and those who would be better served by monitoring.

Also Check: Radiation Therapy For Prostate Cancer Success Rate

How Common Is Prostate Cancer In Australia


  • Estimated 18,223 new cases diagnosed in 2020
  • Most common diagnosed cancer in males
  • 1 in every 130 males aged to 75 years dies from prostate cancer
  • Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in males
  • 4% of all male deaths in 2019 were from prostate cancer
  • 3,376 deaths from prostate cancer are estimated in 2020

Burden of Disease

  • Prostate cancer is the third most common cancer in males that contributes to Australias cancer burden in 2011

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People

  • Indigenous Australians are 20% less likely to die from prostate cancer than non-indigenous Australians

Remoteness Area

  • Men living in inner regional areas were 1.5 times more likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer than those living in very remote areas
  • Men living in very remote areas are 1.2 times more likely to die from prostate cancer than those from major cities

Socioeconomic group

  • Men in the lowest socioeconomic group were 1.2 times more likely to die from prostate cancer than compared with the highest group

What Is The Treatment For Prostate Cancer

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Prostate cancer is a slow growing disease, and in most cases men will have time to make a decision about the best type of treatment that is suited to them. Talking about treatment options with your doctor based on your personal diagnosis will help you make an informed decision, particularly weighing up the advantages and disadvantages, possible side effects like incontinence and infertility, availability and cost. In general the treatment options are:

1. No Treatment

Active Surveillance

Active Surveillance is for close monitoring of low risk biopsy-diagnosed prostate cancer. This can involve regular PSA testing, biopsies , MRI scans and check-ups for maintenance of quality of life, or until intervention is necessary.

Watchful Waiting

This option is for observing prostate cancer, a less intensive form of active surveillance that requires fewer tests and no biopsies.

2. Radiotherapy

Radiotherapy is offered to men with localised prostate cancer with the intent to cure. The main two types are:


Low dose rate using permanent radioactive seeds or high dose rate using temporary seeds targeted directly to the prostate.

External Beam Radiation Therapy

EBRT involves radiotherapy applied outside the body. It uses high energy x-ray beams directed towards the prostate daily over a period of seven weeks.

3. Surgery

Radical Prostatectomy

4. Hormones

Androgen Deprivation Therapy

May be offered if other forms of treatment have not been effective.

Also Check: What Helps With Enlarged Prostate

How Is Prostate Cancer Detected And Diagnosed

The most common tests are:

Digital Rectal Examination If your doctor is testing for prostate cancer, they may want to do a physical examination to determine if the prostate feels hard or bumpy.

PSA Test The Prostate-Specific Antigen blood test is a screening tool for early detection of prostate cancer. It measures the level of prostate specific antigen in the blood, which is produced by the prostate gland. PSA levels in the blood naturally increase with increasing age. Higher levels than normal are a possible indicator for prostate cancer. PSA levels can also rise due to benign prostatic enlargement, inflammation or infection. As a cancer screening tool, the test is not perfect, with high numbers of false positive and some false negatives.

Prostate Biopsy Under ultrasound guidance a biopsy needle is inserted into the prostate by a Urologist and a core or sample is removed to determine if any cancer cells are present. This is the only way to provide a definitive diagnosis of prostate cancer. When examined under the microscope a pathologist will report the number of positive and/or negative cores, as well as the Gleason Grade if positive for cancer.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging An MRI may indicate evidence of cancer in the prostate gland, particularly if you have a high or rising prostate-specific antigen level.

Five Things Every Man Should Know About Prostate Cancer

Its only about the size of a walnut, but the prostate takes on an oversized place in mens health as they age. In support of National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, we talked to MultiCare Urologist Douglas Sutherland, MD, to learn the five things every man should know about prostate cancer and why an annual physical is so important for mens health.

  • Its common.
  • Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in American men, behind skin cancer, according to the American Cancer Society. In fact, one in eight men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in his lifetime. Its also the second-leading cause of cancer death in American men .

    But the statistics arent all grim. If caught and treated early, prostate cancer is very survivable. Localized prostate cancer is nearly 100 percent curable. But its also not likely to cause any symptoms. A simple blood test to measure prostate-specific antigens has been shown to reduce the death rate of prostate cancer.

  • Your risk factors.
  • Older men and non-Hispanic Black men are at higher risk for prostate cancer. Family history also plays a part. If your father or brother had prostate cancer, your risk of developing the disease is double what it would be otherwise.

    In a twist, obesity seems to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer overall. But thats not a license to ignore the scale because when an obese man does develop prostate cancer, its usually more aggressive.

  • Prevention and detection.
  • Signs and symptoms.
  • Don’t Miss: Prostate Cancer Prognosis By Age

    What Is Prostate Cancer

    Cancer can start any place in the body. Prostate cancer starts in the prostate gland. It starts when cells in the prostate grow out of control.

    Cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body. Cancer cells in the prostate can sometimes travel to the bones or other organs and grow there. When cancer cells do this, its called metastasis. To doctors, the cancer cells in the new place look just like the ones from the prostate.

    Cancer is always named for the place where it starts. So when prostate cancer spreads to the bones , its still called prostate cancer. Its not called bone cancer unless it starts from cells in the bone.

    Ask your doctor to use this picture to show you where your cancer is.

    The prostate

    The prostate is a gland found only in men, so only men can get prostate cancer.

    The prostate is just below the bladder and in front of the rectum . The tube that carries pee goes through the prostate. The prostate makes some of the fluid that helps keep the sperm alive and healthy.

    There are a few types of prostate cancer. Some are very rare. Most prostate cancers are a type called adenocarcinoma. This cancer starts from gland cells. Your doctor can tell you more about the type you have.

    Living With Prostate Cancer

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    As prostate cancer usually progresses very slowly, you can live for decades without symptoms or needing treatment.

    Nevertheless, it can affect your life. As well as the possible side effects of treatment, a diagnosis of prostate cancer can understandably make you feel anxious or depressed.

    You may find it beneficial to talk about the condition with your family, friends, a GP and other people with prostate cancer.

    Financial support is also available if prostate cancer reduces your ability to work.

    Also Check: What Age To Screen For Prostate Cancer

    What Causes Prostate Cancer

    The prostate is a walnut-sized gland located below the bladder and in front of the rectum. It surrounds the urethra and produces a substance that contributes to semen, the fluid that carries sperm from the testicles.

    Prostate cancer occurs when gene changes, or mutations, cause cells in the prostate to behave abnormally, and they start growing uncontrollably.Mutations may be passed down from parent to child or occur for other reasons over a lifetime . About 10 percent of prostate cancers are thought to be related to inherited mutations, according to the ACS.

    What Are The Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer

    Many of the symptoms of prostate cancer are similar to other conditions, so its important to get a proper exam to rule out prostate cancer. Men who experience the following symptoms should talk to their doctor.

    • Trouble urinating, including starting and stopping urination, or a weak urine stream.

    • Blood in the urine or semen

    • Painful urination, or ejaculation

    • Frequent urination, or needing to use the bathroom multiple times at night

    • Pelvic pain

    • Pain when sitting

    Most people do not experience symptoms of prostate cancer in the early stages of the disease. Thats why its important to talk to your doctor about options for getting screened for prostate cancer. There has been some debate about PSA screenings and when to receive them. Talk to your doctor about the pros and cons in order to make your decision.

    Read Also: My Husband Has Prostate Cancer

    There Are Things You Can Do To Help Reduce Your Risk Of Developing Prostate Cancer

    While theres no way to completely cancer-proof your body, adopting these lifestyle habits may help lessen your chance of developing it:

    Eat a Mediterranean-style diet. Think plant-based foods like fruits, veggies, whole grains, legumes and nuts, and heart-healthy fats like olive oil and fatty fish. According to a study published earlier this year in The Journal of Urology, men who adhere to such a diet have less risk of developing aggressive prostate cancer than those who eat a more Western diet.

    Maintain a healthy weight. Research shows that being overweight or obese raises the risk of advanced prostate cancer, according to a recent report released by the World Cancer Research Fund. A study presented this January at the American Association for Cancer Researchs Special Conference also found that men whove had prostate cancer in the past have a higher chance of recurrence if they are obese.

    Exercise. Men who regularly break a sweat have a slightly lower risk of developing aggressive prostate cancer.

    Dont fall for unsubstantiated hype. You may have heard that taking supplements, such as vitamin E or selenium, may lower your risk of developing prostate cancer, but theres no research to support this. In fact, a study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association found that popping vitamin E supplements could actually increase your prostate cancer risk.

    What Advice Do You Provide To Your Patients And Their Loved Ones To Help Navigate The Treatment Process After Diagnosis

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    Dr. Hall: This is a big issue, because we have treatment options that vary. Sometimes we recommend no immediate treatment called active surveillance. Other times we have a discussion around surgery and radiation, and we discuss the pros and cons of each one, but there are potential side effects that can really affect the quality of life, like sexual dysfunction and incontinence. So that means there should be multiple conversations with your physician about how you get back into the game after youve had prostate cancer treatment and support groups that can help you to become a survivor to a thriver and end up getting back into your full throes of life. That requires more than one discussion, so you shouldnt have a one and done with this disease. You should have multiple discussions and support groups to get you through.

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    A Pussycat Or A Tiger

    Treatment options vary depending on prostate cancer stage and grade. Before making a treatment decision:

    • Consider a second opinion
    • Make sure to include a visit to an oncologist to know all of your options
    • Find out if genomic testing was done to learn how aggressive your cancer is and how likely it is to recur
    • Ask your doctor: Is my prostate cancer a pussycat or a tiger?

    If your prostate cancer is a pussycat that means that there is a very low risk of the disease spreading beyond your prostate anytime soon. If your prostate cancer is a tiger that means there is a very high risk of the disease being aggressive and spreading beyond your prostate.

    In addition, researchers have developed the Circulating Tumor CellTest to help distinguish advanced disease. Circulating Tumors Cells or CTCs circulate in the blood stream after breaking off from the primary tumor. CTCs can take root in other parts of the body and form additional tumors . The test helps detect any measurable CTC circulation and help determine advanced disease.

    Remember, the more information you and your doctor have about your actual cancer, the better armed you are to fight the disease with the right tools.

    What Every Man Should Know About Prostate Cancer

    Prostate cancer is one of the leading types of cancer in men. In fact, according to The Prostate Cancer Foundation, more than 3 million US men are living with prostate cancer, and in the US, 1 in 9 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in his life-time. And for those of African descent, that number is 1 in 7. It is more likely for a man to develop prostate cancer than it is for him to develop colon, kidney, melanoma or stomach cancers combined.

    The good news is that this is a cancer that can be treated especially if its detected in the early stages of the disease. Heres what to know about prostate cancer, and the steps you need to take to ensure that youre doing all you can to prevent it .

    Read Also: Prostate Cancer And Lymph Nodes

    Does Prostate Cancer Have Any Symptoms

    Most men with early prostate cancer dont have any signs or symptoms.

    One reason for this is the way the cancer grows. Youll usually only get early symptoms if the cancer grows near the tube you urinate through and presses against it, changing the way you urinate . But because prostate cancer usually starts to grow in a different part of the prostate, early prostate cancer doesnt often press on the urethra and cause symptoms.

    If you do notice changes in the way you urinate, this is more likely to be a sign of a very common non-cancerous problem called an enlarged prostate, or another health problem. But its still a good idea to get it checked out. Possible changes include:

    • difficulty starting to urinate or emptying your bladder
    • a weak flow when you urinate
    • a feeling that your bladder hasnt emptied properly
    • dribbling urine after you finish urinating
    • needing to urinate more often than usual, especially at night
    • a sudden need to urinate you may sometimes leak urine before you get to the toilet.

    If prostate cancer breaks out of the prostate or spreads to other parts of the body , it can cause other symptoms, including:

    • back pain, hip pain or pelvis pain
    • problems getting or keeping an erection
    • blood in the urine or semen
    • unexplained weight loss.

    These symptoms can all be caused by other health problems. But its still a good idea to tell your GP about any symptoms so they can find out whats causing them and make sure you get the right treatment, if you need it.


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