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Where Can Prostate Cancer Spread

What Treatments Are Available

Can You Spread Prostate Cancer to Others?

If you have advanced prostate cancer, treatment wont cure your cancer. But it can help keep it under control and manage any symptoms.

If youve just been diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer, you may be offered the following treatments:

Research has found that having radiotherapy together with one of the main treatments listed above can help some men with advanced prostate cancer to live longer. But radiotherapy isnt suitable for all men with advanced prostate cancer.

If you live in Scotland, you may also be offered a type of hormone therapy called abiraterone acetate together with standard hormone therapy. In the rest of the UK, abiraterone is currently only given to men with advanced prostate cancer that has stopped responding to other types of hormone therapy. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence is currently deciding whether to make it available for men who have just been diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer.

Before you start treatment

Before you start any treatment, make sure you have all the information you need. Its important to think about how you would cope with the possible side effects. Speak to your doctor or nurse about this.

It can help to write down any questions you want to ask at your next appointment. It may also help to take someone with you, such as your partner, a family member or friend.

If you have any questions, speak to our Specialist Nurses.

Should I Tell People About My Prostate Cancer

It could help. Once you are diagnosed, you should lean on your family for support for everything from the logistics of getting a doctors appointment to caring for you if you have surgery, Dr. Davis says. It is vitally important that you have the buy-in and support from family and friends. And while it might be difficult to ask for the things you need, be specific about how your loved ones can support you. This way theyre not guessing, and your needs dont go unmet.

Will A Prostate Biopsy Spread Your Cancer

J. Stephen Jones, MD

J. Stephen Jones, MD, is chairman of the department of regional urology at the Cleveland Clinic Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute, and is professor of surgery at Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine at Case Western Reserve University. He is author of The Complete Prostate Book and Overcoming Impotence.

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Outlook Once Cancer Has Spread To The Bones

The research on cancer metastasis is rapidly growing. As researchers better understand the mechanisms of bone metastasis, new drugs and other treatments are being developed. These target particular processes in cells involved in how the cancer cells invade and grow in bones.

The use of nanoparticles to deliver drugs is very encouraging. These tiny particles are able to deliver drugs to the bone with minimal toxicity to the person with cancer.

Rapidly treating bone metastasis can lead to a

What Screening Tests Are Used For Bladder Cancer

Migration, settlement, and more migration: how prostate ...

It is not standard to screen for bladder cancer. Bladder cancer screening may be used in people who are considered high risk. If you have a history of bladder cancer, a history of a birth defect of the bladder, or have been exposed to certain chemicals at work, you may be considered high-risk. You should ask your provider if screening tests are right for you.

Testing the urine for blood, abnormal cells, and tumor markers can help find some bladder cancers early but the results vary. Not all bladder cancers are found, and some people may have changes in their urine but do not have bladder cancer. These tests can be used in those who already have signs of bladder cancer or if the cancer has returned. However, more research is needed to determine how useful testing the urine is as a screening test.

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Is It Time To Let A Dog With Cancer Go

Our canine companions are a member of our family, making a cancer diagnosis extremely devastating. Not only is it difficult to hear the words, but many owners struggle with understanding the process of their disease and when its actually time to let them go. In this article we will help you understand the diagnosis of cancer in dogs.

What Are The Signs That Prostate Cancer Has Spread

Approximately one in nine men will get prostate cancer in their lifetime. This is why screening is so important, especially if youre over the age of 50.

Unfortunately, many times symptoms of prostate cancer dont appear during the early stages. Some men dont notice the warning signs until its metastasized. Late detection is one of the reasons why only a very few men consider getting treatment, and survive prostate cancer.

If youre asking yourself, What are the signs that prostate cancer has spread, keep reading. Aside from using reputable websites such as, this article will provide information over some late-stage symptoms.

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How Is Prostate Cancer Diagnosed

Screenings are the most effective way to catch prostate cancer early. If you are at average cancer risk, youll probably have your first prostate screening at age 55. Your healthcare provider may start testing earlier if you have a family history of the disease or are Black. Screening is generally stopped after age 70, but may be continued in certain circumstances.

Screening tests for prostate cancer include:

  • Digital rectal exam: Your provider inserts a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum and feels the prostate gland, which sits in front of the rectum. Bumps or hard areas could indicate cancer.
  • Prostate-specific antigen blood test: The prostate gland makes a protein called protein-specific antigen . Elevated PSA levels may indicate cancer. Levels also rise if you have BPH or prostatitis.
  • Biopsy: A needle biopsy to sample tissue for cancer cells is the only sure way to diagnose prostate cancer. During an MRI-guided prostate biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging technology provides detailed images of the prostate.

How Common Is Prostate Cancer

Prostate Cancer and Bone Metastasis

About one in nine men will receive a prostate cancer diagnosis during his lifetime. Prostate cancer is second only to skin cancer as the most common cancer affecting males. Close to 200,000 American men receive a diagnosis of prostate cancer every year. There are many successful treatments and some men dont need treatment at all. Still, approximately 33,000 men die from the disease every year.

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If You Dont Have Treatment Straight Away

Your doctors monitor your cancer closely if it is unlikely to grow or develop for many years. If it starts to grow, you have treatment. This is called active surveillance. You have active surveillance if you have either:

  • low risk localised prostate cancer and surgery or radiotherapy are suitable treatments for you
  • intermediate risk localised prostate cancer if you dont want treatment straight away

Another way to monitor prostate cancer is called watchful waiting. You have fewer tests than with active surveillance. You have watchful waiting if the doctor aims to control your cancer and:

  • you dont have any prostate cancer symptoms and youre not suitable for treatments that aim to cure, such as radiotherapy or surgery
  • you dont want active surveillance

You might also have cryotherapy or high frequency ultrasound therapy as part of a clinical trial.

Radiotherapy and surgery work equally well at curing prostate cancer but they have different side effects. Your doctor can explain these to you.

What Tests Will I Have If My Doctor Suspects Bladder Cancer Or Another Urinary Problem

Your doctor will want to analyze your urine to determine if an infection could be a cause of your symptoms. A microscopic examination of the urine, called cytology, will look for cancer cells.

A cystoscopy is the main procedure to identify and diagnose bladder cancer. In this procedure, a lighted telescope is inserted into your bladder from the urethra to view the inside of the bladder and, when done under anesthesia, take tissue samples , which are later examined under a microscope for signs of cancer. When this procedure is done in the doctors office, local anesthesia gel is placed into the urethra prior to the procedure to minimize the discomfort.

If the diagnosis of bladder cancer is made, then the next step is to remove the tumor for detailed staging and diagnosis.

Transurethral resection is a procedure done under general or spinal anesthesia in the operating room. A telescope is inserted into the bladder and the tumor is removed by scraping it from the bladder wall , using a special cystoscope . This procedure is diagnostic as well as therapeutic.

This often can be done as an outpatient procedure, with patients discharged from hospital the same day. After removal, the tumor is analyzed by a pathologist, who will determine the type of tumor, the tumor grade and the depth of invasion. The purpose of the procedure is to remove the tumor and obtain important staging information .

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How Will My Cancer Be Monitored

Your doctor will talk to you about how often you should have check-ups. At some hospitals, you may not have many appointments at the hospital itself. Instead, you may talk to your doctor or nurse over the telephone. You might hear this called self-management.

You will have regular PSA tests. This is often a useful way to check how well your treatment is working. Youll also have regular blood tests to see whether your cancer is affecting other parts of your body, such as your liver, kidneys or bones.

You might have more scans to see how your cancer is responding to treatment and whether your cancer is spreading.

Your doctor or nurse will also ask you how youre feeling and if you have any symptoms, such as pain or tiredness. This will help them understand how youre responding to treatment and how to manage any symptoms. Let them know if you have any side effects from your treatment. There are usually ways to manage these.

What Is The Prostate

Prostate Conditions: What You Need to Be Aware Of

The prostate is a small gland that only men have. Normally, the prostate is about the size of a walnut. The prostate is located underneath the bladder and in front of the rectum. The prostate makes and stores fluid that is part of semen. This fluid is released from a mans penis during ejaculation.

The male hormone, testosterone, helps the prostate gland work as it should. Nerves to the penis, which are important in producing and maintaining an erection, run very close to the prostate. The prostate completely encircles the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the penis, called the urethra. If the prostate grows too big, it can block the flow of urine from the bladder, making it hard for a man to urinate.

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Why It’s Important To Catch Prostate Cancer Early

About one in nine men will develop prostate cancer in the course of their lives. However, many cases are progressing so slowly that doctors only recommend active monitoring rather than treatment. Some cases go completely unnoticed. Should you even consider screening? Read on.

Solitary Brain Metastasis From Prostate Cancer: A Case Report

Tasneem Barakat, Arnav Agarwal, Rachel McDonald, Vithusha Ganesh, Sherlyn Vuong, Michael Borean, Edward Chow, Hany Soliman

Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Correspondence to:

Abstract: Brain metastases arising from prostate cancer are exceedingly rare and typically occur late in the course of the disease. Most patients have widespread metastatic disease before developing brain metastases from prostate cancer. We report the case of a 67-year-old male with prostate cancer presenting with an isolated symptomatic brain metastasis. Aggressive treatment of the metastatic site included tumor resection and adjuvant stereotactic radiation treatment to the surgical bed, resulting in a favorable outcome.

Keywords: Brain brain metastases metastatic cancer prostate cancer stereotactic radiosurgery radiotherapy

Submitted Mar 06, 2016. Accepted for publication Apr 16, 2016.

doi: 10.21037/apm.2016.04.02

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The Right Kind Of Biopsy Is Safe The Wrong Kind Can Put You At Risk

For American men, prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer, with 200,000 new cases diagnosed last year. The only way to definitively confirm the presence of cancer is by biopsy of the prostate. While it is widely recommended for men who are suspected of having the disease, stories have turned up in the media suggesting that prostate biopsies carry the risk of spreading cancer cells, increasing the likelihood of recurrence. Could the very test that diagnoses prostate cancer cause its spread? I posed this question to J. Stephen Jones, MD, who is the chairman of the department of regional urology at the Cleveland Clinic Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute and author of The Complete Prostate Book.


The possibility that a man might have prostate cancer is first identified through early detection tests such as the prostate-specific antigen blood test and a digital rectal exam . If either suggests the possibility of prostate cancer, a prostate biopsy is the next step, says Dr. Jones. In the US, this is most commonly done with an ultrasound probe placed in the rectum and a core needle biopsy. Guided by the probe, the doctor inserts a narrow needle through the rectal wall into the prostate gland. When the needle is pulled out, it removes a sample of tissue. Usually performed under general anesthesia, this process is typically repeated 10 to 12 times or more in order to obtain tissue from different parts of the prostate.

How Prostate Cancer Spreads

How to Know If Cancer Has Spread | Prostate Cancer

Cancer cells sometimes break away from the original tumor and go to a blood or lymph vessel. Once there, they move through your body. The cells stop in capillaries — tiny blood vessels — at some distant location.

The cells then break through the wall of the blood vessel and attach to whatever tissue they find. They multiply and grow new blood vessels to bring nutrients to the new tumor. Prostate cancer prefers to grow in specific areas, such as lymph nodes or in the ribs, pelvic bones, and spine.

Most break-away cancer cells form new tumors. Many others don’t survive in the bloodstream. Some die at the site of the new tissue. Others may lie inactive for years or never become active.

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My Prostate Cancer Hasnt Spread What Are My Options

There are a few options for prostate cancer that hasnt metastasized. One is active surveillance, which is appropriate if you have low-risk disease, and means that youll have regular screenings. If you choose this option, it is important that you follow up and have the screening tests, says Steven Baughman, M.D., a urologist at Northwestern Medicine Delnor Hospital in Geneva, IL. Any time you have a lab test, you need to have a conversation about what it means with your doctor.

Treatments For Prostate Cancer Spread To Bones

If prostate cancer spreads to other parts of the body, it nearly always goes to the bones first. Bone metastasis can be painful and can cause other problems, such as fractures , spinal cord compression , or high blood calcium levels, which can be dangerous or even life threatening.

If the cancer has grown outside the prostate, preventing or slowing the spread of the cancer to the bones is a major goal of treatment. If the cancer has already reached the bones, controlling or relieving pain and other complications is also a very important part of treatment.

Treatments such as hormone therapy, chemotherapy, and vaccines may help with this, but other treatments specifically target bone metastasis and the problems it may cause.

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Why Does Prostate Cancer Happen

The causes of prostate cancer are largely unknown. But certain things can increase your risk of developing the condition.

The chances of developing prostate cancer increase as you get older. Most cases develop in men aged 50 or older.

For reasons not yet understood, prostate cancer is more common in men of African-Caribbean or African descent, and less common in Asian men.

Men whose father or brother were affected by prostate cancer are at slightly increased risk themselves.

Recent research also suggests that obesity increases the risk of prostate cancer.

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Surgery For Prostate Cancer

Prostate Cancer Spread Metastatic To Bones Life Expectancy ...

There are many types of surgery for prostate cancer. Some are done to try to cure the cancer others are done to control the cancer or make symptoms better. Talk to the doctor about the kind of surgery planned and what you can expect.

Side effects of surgery

Any type of surgery can have risks and side effects. Be sure to ask the doctor what you can expect. If you have problems, let your doctors know so they can help you.

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Questions To Ask Your Doctor Or Nurse

  • What type of hormone therapy are you offering me and why?
  • Are there other treatments I can have?
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of my treatment?
  • What treatments and support are available to help manage side effects?
  • Are there any lifestyle changes that might help me manage my cancer, symptoms, or side effects?
  • How often will I have check-ups and what will this involve?
  • How will we know if my cancer starts to grow again?
  • What other treatments are available if that happens?
  • Can I join any clinical trials?
  • If I have any questions or get any new symptoms, who should I contact?


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