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Diet And Prostate Cancer Progression

Mediterranean Diet May Decrease Risk Of Prostate Cancer Progression

Diet tips to slow the progression of prostate cancer
Date:
University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center
Summary:
In a study to examine a Mediterranean diet in relation to prostate cancer progression in men on active surveillance, researchers found that men with localized prostate cancer who reported a baseline dietary pattern that more closely follows the key principles of a Mediterranean-style diet fared better over the course of their disease.

In a study to examine a Mediterranean diet in relation to prostate cancer progression in men on active surveillance, researchers from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center found that men with localized prostate cancer who reported a baseline dietary pattern that more closely follows the key principles of a Mediterranean-style diet fared better over the course of their disease.

“Men with prostate cancer are motivated to find a way to impact the advancement of their disease and improve their quality of life,” said Justin Gregg, M.D., assistant professor of Urology and lead author of the study, published today in Cancer. “A Mediterranean diet is non-invasive, good for overall health and, as shown by this study, has the potential to effect the progression of their cancer.”

Trial participants were 82.9% Caucasian, 8.1% Black and 9% other or unknown. The median age was 64, 15% of the men were diabetic and 44% used statins.

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Active Surveillance For Prostate Cancer And Dietary Interventions

Nearly 50 percent of newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients in the U.S. present with localized, early stage, relatively indolent disease.13 A substantial proportion of these patients receive unnecessarily aggressive treatment with surgery, radiation, or hormone-based treatments.13,14 These therapies produce considerable urinary, bowel, and sexual morbidities, and their impact on prostate cancer-specific or overall mortality in patients with less aggressive cancers is not clear.15-17

MEAL flowchart

Active surveillance, which entails careful monitoring of selected patients with early stage prostate cancer, may provide a viable and safe alternative to more aggressive treatments.18,19 Approximately 35 percent of patients on active surveillance will progress within five years, while many others will opt for intervention even though they do not meet the objective criteria for progression.18Reducing the number of active surveillance patients who progress or choose treatment represents an important opportunity to minimize treatment-associated morbidity, improve quality of life, and contain health care costs among appropriate prostate cancer patients.

Foods To Eat And Avoid

If you would like to replicate the plant-based MEAL diet on your own, foods to eat include:

  • Two servings daily of tomatoes and tomato products. Tomatoes are high in lycopene, an antioxidant which may have a protective effect on prostate health.
  • Two servings daily of cruciferous vegetables. Vegetables in this group include broccoli, bok choy, Brussel sprouts, horseradish, cauliflower, kale, and turnips. These vegetables are high in isothiocyanates, which may help protect against cancer.
  • At least one serving daily of vegetables and fruits high in carotenoids. Carotenoids are a family of antioxidants found in orange and dark green vegetables such as carrots, sweet potatoes, cantaloupes, winter squash, and dark green, leafy vegetables.
  • One to two servings daily of whole grains. High-fiber, whole-grain foods include oatmeal, quinoa, barley, millet, buckwheat, and brown rice.
  • At least one serving daily of beans or legumes. High in protein and low in fat, beans and legumes include soybeans and soybean products, lentils, peanuts, chickpeas, and carob.

Its not only what you eat, but what you dont eat that counts. The study allows for only one serving a day of any of the following:

  • 2 to 3 ounces of red meat
  • 2 ounces of processed meat
  • other sources of saturated animal fat, such as 1 tablespoon butter, 1 cup whole milk, or 2 egg yolks

Its important to note that

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Hfd Reprograms Cancer Metabolome And Accelerates Progression

To examine the potential role of high-fat diet in promoting metabolic rewiring of prostatic tissues, we compared mice that overexpress a human c-MYC transgene in the prostate epithelium to wild-type littermates that were fed either a HFD or a control diet . Irrespective of their genotype, mice that were fed with HFD developed the hallmarks of a diet-induced obesity phenotype, including increased body weight, liver steatosis, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycaemia and a decrease in circulating 1,5-anhydroglucitol . At 12 weeks of age, MYC over expression, irrespectively of HFD, resulted in extensive cellular epithelium transformation to prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in the dorsolateral and ventral prostate lobes, the latter with almost complete penetrance. Conversely, the anterior prostate remained mostly unaffected . No presence of PIN was detected in the prostate lobes of WT animals fed a HFD . Increased tumour weight and cell proliferation were evident by 36 weeks of age in the HFD-fed mice compared to the CTD group, confirming previous reports that HFD significantly enhances the progression of MYC-driven prostate cancer,.

Fig. 1

The Altered Epigenome Of Pca

Foods that prevent prostate cancer

Epigenetic marks, including DNA methylation and histone modifications, are critical for maintaining a carefully regulated state for the cell. These marks affect local as well as global chromatin packaging, which in turn dictates the sets of active and inactive genes at any given time. It is now clear that cancer development is at least supported, if not initiated, by alterations of the epigenome, which then leads to transcriptional rewiring. Epigenetic modifications observed in PCa evolve throughout disease progression.

Global patterns of histone acetylation and methylation are also affected throughout PCa progression and can predict the risk of PCa recurrence., , Bert et al. compared the long-range epigenetic remodeling that occurs in different PCa cell lines with that in normal primary cell lines. They used coordinate assessment of histone modifications, DNA methylation profiles and RNA expression they identified 35 long-range epigenetic activation domains, each about 1Mb long, and found that a total of 251 genes were activated within these domainsthese include oncogenes and genes for microRNAs and PCa biomarkers . In particular, alterations of histone marks in PCa cells were characterized either by an enrichment of active histone marks or by the replacement of repressive marks by active marks .

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Animal Products And Increased Risk

Populations consuming diets high in animal products have higher risk of prostate cancer, compared with those following largely plant-based diets. In some studies, risk has been associated with specific foods, including meat, eggs, and dairy products.,,,,, Others have revealed associations with other dietary sources of animal fat and saturated fat intake., The Health Professionals Follow-Up Study found that men who consumed 2.5 or more eggs per week had an 81% greater risk for fatal prostate cancer, when compared with those who consumed less than a half egg per week. In a pooled analysis of 15 other studies, men whose intake averaged a half egg per day or more had a 14% higher risk than those who consumed the lowest amount . This same study found a roughly 18% greater risk for advanced prostate cancer in men with the highest red and processed meat intake when compared with those consuming the least. Previously, high intakes of red meat and dairy products were shown to be associated with twice the risk for metastatic prostate cancer compared with the lowest intakes.

Some have suggested that risk relates to processed meat only and that risk may be identified only in certain groups ., However, several studies have indicated that both red meat and chicken, when cooked at high temperatures, are associated with a significantly greater risk for prostate cancer, as is chicken with skin.

Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain these associations:

Mediterranean Diet May Slow Prostate Cancer Progression

The Mediterranean diet can help reduce your risk for many diseases. It helps prevent heart disease and strokes, and has been linked to a lower risk for many cancers.

Now researchers at MD Anderson have found that this largely plant-based diet may also slow prostate cancer progression.

Thats important news for prostate cancer patients who often put off treatment to avoid its impact on their quality of life.

Men who get treated can have changes to their quality of life, including erectile, urinary or bowel function, says Justin Gregg, M.D., assistant professor of Urology and lead author of the study. Anything that would slow the progression, and possibly lower the risk of needing radical treatment, has the potential to be very beneficial.

The study, published in Cancer, used a nine-point score to rate how closely each man followed the diet. Every one point increase in diet score was associated with a more than 10% drop in risk for prostate tumor progression.

Heres what to know about the Mediterranean diet.

The Mediterranean diet includes all food groups

The Mediterranean diet is based on the traditional eating patterns of people living in Greece, Italy, South of France and some Middle Eastern countries. It does not restrict fat or carbohydrates instead, it focuses on whole foods in their most natural form. For example, processed meats and added sugars are discouraged.

These foods work together to reduce your risk for disease.

The Mediterranean diet is safe

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So What Is A Prostate Healthy Diet

Luckily the diet that is best for prostate health is also best for heart, lung, liver and kidney health and also for preventing other common cancers such as breast and colorectal cancer. This is one that is predominantly based on whole plant foods. That is a diet consisting of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, beans, legumes, nuts and seeds. The closer you get to a plant-based diet the easier it will be to control your weight, the more energy you will have and you will significantly lower your risk of chronic illness.

Lifestyle And Diet May Stop Or Reverse Prostate Cancer Progression

Food, diet and prostate cancer
Date:
University of California – San Francisco
Summary:
Men with early stage prostate cancer who make intensive changes in diet and lifestyle may stop or perhaps even reverse the progression of their illness, according to a new study. The research is the first randomized, controlled trial showing that lifestyle changes may affect the progression of any type of cancer. Study findings are published in the September issue of the Journal of Urology.

Men with early stage prostate cancer who make intensive changes in dietand lifestyle may stop or perhaps even reverse the progression of theirillness, according to a new study.

The research is the first randomized, controlled trial showing thatlifestyle changes may affect the progression of any type of cancer.Study findings are published in the September issue of the Journal of Urology.

The study was directed by Dean Ornish, MD, clinical professor,and Peter Carroll, MD, chair of the Department of Urology, both of theUniversity of California, San Francisco, and the late William Fair, MD,chief of urologic surgery and chair of urologic oncology, MemorialSloan-Kettering Cancer Center.

The research team studied 93 men with biopsy-proven prostatecancer who had elected not to undergo conventional treatment forreasons unrelated to this study. The participants were randomly dividedinto either a group who were asked to make comprehensive changes indiet and lifestyle or a comparison group who were not asked to do so.

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Pca: The Impact Of Diet On The Epigenome

Several studies report a role for dietary components in the remodeling of the cancer epigenome . In the context of PCa, the phytoestrogen genistein has the capability to partially demethylate CpG islands in the promoter region of specific genes such as GSTP1, leading to increased protein expression. In PCa cell lines, genistein treatment also increases/restores expression of various tumor suppressors including PTEN, p53, CYLD, p21WAF1/CIP1 and p16INK4a., This feature is attributed to the coordinated demethylation and acetylation of H3K9 residues or to increased expression of histone acetyltransferases that result in the enrichment of acetylated histones H3 and H4. Similarly, the flavone apigenin also increases the acetylation of histones H3 and H4 in vitro and, when fed orally, significantly impedes PCa tumor growth in vivo. In this case, the phenotype is attributed to a marked reduction in histone deacetylase activity as well as in HDAC1 and HDAC3 protein expression. Together, these results suggest that specific dietary molecules can alter PCa progression, in part by remodeling the epigenome. In addition, manipulating the content of dietary methyl donors or dietary fat alters the prostate epigenome and the course of the disease.

Hfd And Exogenous Ffas Enhance The Expression And Secretion Of Mic1 In Vivo And In Vitro

MIC1 is a divergent member of the transforming growth factor family and has been shown to be expressed in both PCa cells and prostate stromal fibroblasts . Therefore, we investigated the expression of MIC1 and GFRAL, the cognate receptor of MIC1, semiquantitatively by immunohistochemistry using the mouse xenograft tumor samples. Although the expression level of MIC1 was significantly higher in the HFD group than in the CD group , there was no significant difference in the expression of GFRAL between the two groups .2A). In addition, the mean serum level of MIC1 in mice was significantly higher in the HFD group than in the CD group .

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Adherence To The Mediterranean Diet And Grade Group Progression In Localized Prostate Cancer: An Active Surveillance Cohort

Department of Urology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas

Corresponding Authors: Justin R. Gregg, MD, Department of Urology, Division of Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1155 Pressler St, Unit 1373, Houston, TX 77030 Carrie R. Daniel, PhD, Department of Epidemiology, Division of Cancer Prevention and Population Sciences, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1155 Pressler St, Unit 1340, Rm CPB4.3241, Houston, TX 77030 .

    Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas

    Corresponding Authors: Justin R. Gregg, MD, Department of Urology, Division of Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1155 Pressler St, Unit 1373, Houston, TX 77030 Carrie R. Daniel, PhD, Department of Epidemiology, Division of Cancer Prevention and Population Sciences, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1155 Pressler St, Unit 1340, Rm CPB4.3241, Houston, TX 77030 .

    Department of Urology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas

      Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas

      Does Following A Mediterranean Diet Reduce The Risk Of Disease Progression In Men On Active Surveillance For Prostate Cancer

      Prostate cancer: this diet would slow its progression

      1/29/2021 4:08:31 PM

      In a study examining the effect of a Mediterranean diet in relation to prostate cancer progression in men on active surveillance, researchers found that men with localized prostate cancer who reported a baseline dietary pattern that more closely follows the key principles of a Mediterranean-style diet fared better over the course of their disease. These findings were published by Gregg et al in the journal Cancer.

      Men with prostate cancer are motivated to find a way to impact the advancement of their disease and improve their quality of life, said Justin Gregg, MD, Assistant Professor of Urology at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and lead author of the study. A Mediterranean diet is noninvasive, good for overall health and, as shown by this study, has the potential to effect the progression of their cancer.

      Study Methods

      The study followed 410 men on an active surveillance protocol with Gleason grade group 1 or 2 localized prostate cancer. All study participants underwent a confirmatory biopsy at the beginning of the study, and were evaluated every 6 months through clinical exam and laboratory studies of prostate-specific antigen and testosterone levels.

      Trial participants were 82.9% White, 8.1% Black, and 9% other or unknown race. The median age was 64 years 15% of the men were diabetic and 44% used statins.

      Effect of the Diet

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      Assessment Of Diet Quality And Patient Characteristics

      Baseline serum PSA, pathologic Gleason score, and summary tumour length were assessed at study enrolment. Measured height and weight, smoking status, and health history were drawn from the medical record. Body mass index was calculated as weight /height 2 and categorised based on the World Health Organisation criteria.

      Does Altering Diet Affect Progression Of Prostate Cancer The Meal Study

      Can modifications in dietary intake affect survival in men with prostate cancer? Despite robust data indicating that dietary constituents may be substantially associated with the natural history of prostate cancer, there remains a paucity of Level I evidence on which to base clinical recommendations.1

      Randomized clinical trials of dietary supplements have failed to yield demonstrable benefits. For example, the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial a randomized, placebo-controlled study of more than 34,000 men randomized to once daily vitamin E , selenium , both, or placeboshowed that neither vitamin E nor selenium had any observable benefit in preventing incident prostate cancer. In fact, the study showed a nonsignificant increased risk of prostate cancer and diabetes for patients taking those amounts of vitamin E and selenium , respectively.2 Other studies have yielded similar results for selenium, vitamin E, and vitamin C.2,3

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      Hints Of Slower Tumor Growth

      This study followed 410 men newly diagnosed with prostate cancer who were on active surveillance at MD Anderson Cancer Center. All study participants were evaluated every six months for cancer progression. The men answered questions about their dietary habits when they joined the study and the researchers divided the men into three groups, depending upon how much each adhered to the Mediterranean diet style of eating.

      The men answered questions about their dietary habits when they joined the study and the researchers assigned points to how well each adhered to the Mediterranean style of eating. The Mediterranean diet highlights plant foods, whole grains, fish and healthy fats while minimizing red meat and sweets. This way of eating, inspired by the people and cultures who lived around the Mediterranean Sea, shares many characteristics of AICRs New American Plate.

      After a median of three years follow-up, close to 20 percent 76 men had their cancer progress. Cancer progression was measured using the Gleason score, a grading system drawn from a lab test.

      The study found that men who most closely followed the Mediterranean diet had a lower risk of progression among all men. For every one-point increase in the Mediterranean diet score, researchers observed greater than a 10 percent lower risk of progression. Again, these findings could be due to chance.

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